Raymond M Kraus

Elmhurst College, Elmhurst, Illinois, United States

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Publications (12)23.66 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Whether aging lowers skeletal muscle basal capillarization and angiogenesis remains controversial. To investigate the effects of aging on skeletal muscle capillarization, eight young (YW) and eight aged (AW) women completed 8 weeks of exercise training. The response and relationships of muscle capillarization, interstitial vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and microvascular blood flow to aerobic exercise training were investigated. Vastus lateralis biopsies were obtained before and after exercise training for the measurement of capillarization. Muscle interstitial VEGF protein and microvascular blood flow were measured at rest and during submaximal exercise at PRE, 1-WK, and 8-WKS by microdialysis. Exercise training increased (20%-25%) capillary contacts of type I, IIA, and IIB fibers in YW and AW. Interstitial VEGF protein was higher in AW than YW at rest and was higher in YW than AW during exercise independent of training status. Differences in muscle capillarization were not explained by secreted VEGF nor were differences in VEGF explained by microvascular blood flow. These results confirm that aging (57-76 years age range) does not impair the muscle angiogenic response to exercise training, although sex differences may exist in similarly trained women and men.
    The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 09/2014; · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of cardiovascular disease increases progressively with age, while aging may affect men and women differently. Age associated changes in vascular structure and function may manifest in impaired nutritive blood flow, although the regulation of nutritive blood flow in healthy aging is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine if nitric oxide (NO)-mediated or α-adrenergic-mediated regulation of nutritive skeletal muscle blood flow is impaired with advanced age, and if exercise training improves age-related deficiencies. Nutritive blood flow was monitored in the vastus lateralis of healthy young and aged men and women via the microdialysis-ethanol technique prior to and following seven consecutive days of exercise training. NO-mediated and α-adrenergic-mediated regulation of nutritive blood flow was assessed by microdialysis perfusion of acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, N(G)-monomethyl L-arginine, norepinephrine, or phentolamine. Pre-training nutritive blood flow was attenuated in aged compared to young women (7.39±1.5 vs. 15.5±1.9 mL/(100g*min), P=0.018), but not aged men (aged: 13.5±3.7 vs. young: 9.4±1.3 mL/(100g*min, P=0.747). There were no age-associated differences in NO-mediated or α-adrenergic mediated nutritive blood flow. Exercise training increased resting nutritive blood flow only in young men (9.4±1.3 vs. 19.7 mL/(100g*min), P=0.005).. The vasodilatory effect of phentolamine was significantly reduced following exercise training only in young men (12.3±6.14 vs. -3.68±3.26 mL/(100g*min), P=0.048). In conclusion, the age-associated attenuation of resting nutritive skeletal muscle blood flow was specific to women, while the exercise-induced alleviation of α-adrenergic mediated vasoconstriction that was specific to young men suggests an age-associated modulation of the sympathetic response to exercise training.
    American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The molecular mechanisms responsible for impaired insulin action have yet to be fully identified. Rodent models demonstrate a strong relationship between insulin resistance and an elevation in skeletal muscle inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression; the purpose of this investigation was to explore this potential relationship in humans. Sedentary men and women were recruited to participate (means ± SE: nonobese, body mass index = 25.5 ± 0.3 kg/m(2), n = 13; obese, body mass index = 36.6 ± 0.4 kg/m(2), n = 14). Insulin sensitivity was measured using an intravenous glucose tolerance test with the subsequent modeling of an insulin sensitivity index (S(I)). Skeletal muscle was obtained from the vastus lateralis, and iNOS, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) content were determined by Western blot. S(I) was significantly lower in the obese compared with the nonobese group (∼43%; P < 0.05), yet skeletal muscle iNOS protein expression was not different between nonobese and obese groups. Skeletal muscle eNOS protein was significantly higher in the nonobese than the obese group, and skeletal muscle nNOS protein tended to be higher (P = 0.054) in the obese compared with the nonobese group. Alternative analysis based on S(I) (high and low tertile) indicated that the most insulin-resistant group did not have significantly more skeletal muscle iNOS protein than the most insulin-sensitive group. In conclusion, human insulin resistance does not appear to be associated with an elevation in skeletal muscle iNOS protein in middle-aged individuals under fasting conditions.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 07/2012; 113(5):758-65. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ischaemia-induced skeletal muscle angiogenesis is impaired in aged compared with young mice. In humans, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and protein following an acute exercise bout are lower in aged compared with young untrained men. We hypothesized that exercise-induced skeletal muscle angiogenesis would be attenuated in aged compared with young men. In eight aged (mean age: 64 years) and six young (mean age: 25 years) sedentary men, muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis prior to (Pre), after 1 week and after 8 weeks of an aerobic exercise training program for the measurement of capillarization and VEGF mRNA. Dialysate VEGF protein collected from the muscle interstitial space was measured at rest and during submaximal exercise at Pre, 1 week and 8 weeks. Exercise training increased capillary contacts (CC) and capillary-to-fibre perimeter exchange index (CFPE) of type I and IIA fibres similarly in young and aged. The CC of type IIA and IIB fibres was lower in aged compared with young independent of training status. Exercise-induced interstitial VEGF protein was lower in aged compared with young independent of training status. In untrained, greater exercise-induced interstitial VEGF protein during exercise was associated with greater type I, IIA and IIB CC. Exercise training increased VEGF mRNA similarly in young and aged. These results demonstrate that the angiogenic response to aerobic exercise training is not altered during the ageing process in humans. In addition, muscular activity-associated increases in interstitial VEGF protein may play an important role in the maintenance of skeletal muscle capillarization across the life span.
    The Journal of Physiology 12/2007; 585(Pt 1):231-9. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute resistance exercise (RE) on lipolysis within adipose tissue and subsequent substrate oxidation to better understand how RE may contribute to improvements in body composition. Lipolysis and blood flow were measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue via microdialysis before, during, and for 5 h following whole body RE as well as on a nonexercise control day (C) in eight young (24 +/- 0.7 yr), active (>3 RE session/wk for at least 2 yr) male participants. Fat oxidation was measured immediately before and after RE via indirect calorimetry for 45 min. Dialysate glycerol concentration (an index of lipolysis) was higher during (RE: 200.4 +/- 38.6 vs. C: 112.4 +/- 13.1 micromol/l, 78% difference; P = 0.02) and immediately following RE (RE: 184 +/- 41 vs. C: 105 + 14.6 micromol/l, 75% difference; P = 0.03) compared with the same time period on the C day. Energy expenditure was elevated in the 45 min after RE compared with the same time period on the C day (RE: 104.4 +/- 6.0 vs. C: 94.5 +/- 4.0 kcal/h, 10.5% difference; P = 0.03). Respiratory exchange ratio was lower (RE: 0.71 +/- 0.004 vs. C: 0.85 +/- .03, 16.5% difference; P = 0.004) and fat oxidation was higher (RE: 10.2 +/- 0.8 vs. C: 5.0 +/- 1.0 g/h, 105% difference; P = 0.004) following RE compared with the same time period on the C day. Therefore, the mechanism behind RE contributing to improved body composition is in part due to enhanced abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue lipolysis and improved whole body fat oxidation and energy expenditure in response to RE.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 06/2007; 102(5):1767-72. · 3.48 Impact Factor
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/2006; 38.
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/2006; 38.
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/2005; 37.
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/2005; 37.
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/2005; 37.
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    ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle from extremely obese individuals exhibits decreased lipid oxidation compared with muscle from lean controls. It is unknown whether this effect is observed in vivo or whether the phenotype is preserved after massive weight loss. The objective of this study was to compare free fatty acid (FFA) oxidation during rest and exercise in female subjects who were either lean [n = 7; body mass index (BMI) = 22.6 +/- 2.2 kg/m(2)] or extremely obese (n = 10; BMI = 40.8 +/- 5.4 kg/m(2)) or postgastric bypass patients who had lost >45 kg (weight reduced) (n = 6; BMI = 33.7 +/- 9.9 kg/m(2)) with the use of tracer ([(13)C]palmitate and [(14)C]acetate) methodology and indirect calorimetry. The lean group oxidized significantly more plasma FFA, as measured by percent fatty acid uptake oxidized, than the extremely obese or weight-reduced group during rest (66.6 +/- 14.9 vs. 41.5 +/- 16.4 vs. 39.9 +/- 15.3%) and exercise (86.3 +/- 11.9 vs. 56.3 +/- 22.1 vs. 57.3 +/- 20.3%, respectively). BMI significantly correlated with percent uptake oxidized during both rest (r = -0.455) and exercise (r = -0.459). In conclusion, extremely obese women and weight-reduced women both possess inherent defects in plasma FFA oxidation, which may play a role in massive weight gain and associated comorbidities.
    AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 12/2004; 287(6):E1076-81. · 4.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The skeletal muscle capillary supply is an important determinant of maximum exercise capacity, and it is well known that endurance exercise training increases the muscle capillary supply. The muscle capillary supply and exercise-induced angiogenesis are regulated in part by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF is produced by skeletal muscle cells and can be secreted into the circulation. We investigated whether there are differences in circulating plasma VEGF between sedentary individuals (Sed) and well-trained endurance athletes (ET) at rest or in response to acute exercise. Eight ET men (maximal oxygen consumption: 63.8 +/- 2.3 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1); maximum power output: 409.4 +/- 13.3 W) and eight Sed men (maximal oxygen consumption: 36.3 +/- 2.1 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1); maximum power output: 234.4 +/- 13.3 W) exercised for 1 h at 50% of maximum power output. Antecubital vein plasma was collected at rest and at 0, 2, and 4 h postexercise. Plasma VEGF was measured by ELISA analysis. Acute exercise significantly increased VEGF at 0 and 2 h postexercise in ET subjects but did not increase VEGF at any time point in Sed individuals. There was no difference in VEGF between ET and Sed subjects at any time point. When individual peak postexercise VEGF was analyzed, exercise did increase VEGF independent of training status. In conclusion, exercise can increase plasma VEGF in both ET athletes and Sed men; however, there is considerable variation in the individual time of the peak VEGF response.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 05/2004; 96(4):1445-50. · 3.48 Impact Factor