[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is a dominantly inherited human disorder characterized by gastrointestinal hamartomatous polyposis and mucocutaneous melanin pigmentation. LKB1 (STK11) serine/threonine kinase is the product of the causative gene of PJS, which has been mapped to chromosome 19p13.3. However, several studies have produced results that are not consistent with a link between LKB1 gene mutation and PJS. We constructed a knockout gene mutation of Lkb1 to determine whether it is the causative gene of PJS and to examine the biological role of the Lkb1 gene. Lkb1(-/-) mice died in utero between 8.5 and 9.5 days postcoitum. At 9.0 days postcoitum, Lkb1(-/-) embryos were generally smaller than their age-matched littermates, showed developmental retardation, and did not undergo embryonic turning. Multiple gastric adenomatous polyps were observed in 10- to 14-month-old Lkb1(+/-) mice. Our results indicate that functional Lkb1 is required for normal embryogenesis and that it is related to tumor development. The Lkb1(+/-) mouse is suitable for studying molecular mechanism underlying the development of inherited gastric tumors in PJS.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2002; 99(13):8903-8. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OCTN2 is an Na(+)-dependent transporter for carnitine, which is essential for fatty acid metabolism, and its functional defect leads to fatal systemic carnitine deficiency (SCD). It also transports the organic cation tetraethylammonium (TEA) in an Na(+)-independent manner. Here, we studied the multifunctionality of OCTN2, by examining the transport characteristics in cells transfected with mouse OCTN2 and in juvenile visceral steatosis (jvs) mice that exhibit a SCD phenotype owing to mutation of the OCTN2 gene. The physiological significance of OCTN2 as an organic cation transporter was confirmed by using jvs mice. The embryonic fibroblasts from jvs mice exhibited significantly decreased transport of [(14)C]TEA. Pharmacokinetic analysis of [(14)C]TEA disposition demonstrated that jvs mice showed decreased tissue distribution and renal secretory clearance. In transport experiments using OCTN2-expressing cells, TEA and carnitine showed mutual trans-stimulation effects in their transport, implying a carnitine/TEA exchange mechanism. In addition, Na(+) affected the affinity of carnitine for OCTN2, whereas Na(+) is unlikely to be involved in TEA transport. This is the first molecular and physiological demonstration of the operation of an organic cation transporter in renal apical membrane. The results are consistent with the physiological coupling of carnitine reabsorption with the secretion of organic cations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carnitine is essential for beta-oxidation of fatty acids, and a defect of cell membrane transport of carnitine leads to fatal systemic carnitine deficiency. We have already shown that a defect of the organic cation/carnitine transporter OCTN2 is a primary cause of systemic carnitine deficiency. In the present study, we further isolated and characterized new members of the OCTN family, OCTN1 and -3, in mice. All three members were expressed commonly in kidney, and OCTN1 and -2 were also expressed in various tissues, whereas OCTN3 was characterized by predominant expression in testis. When their cDNAs were transfected into HEK293 cells, the cells exhibited transport activity for carnitine and/or the organic cation tetraethylammonium (TEA). Carnitine transport by OCTN1 and OCTN2 was Na(+)-dependent, whereas that by OCTN3 was Na(+)-independent. TEA was transported by OCTN1 and OCTN2 but not by OCTN3. The relative uptake activity ratios of carnitine to TEA were 1.78, 11.3, and 746 for OCTN1, -2, and -3, respectively, suggesting high specificity of OCTN3 for carnitine and significantly lower carnitine transport activity of OCTN1. Thus, OCTN3 is unique in its limited tissue distribution and Na(+)-independent carnitine transport, whereas OCTN1 efficiently transported TEA with minimal expression of carnitine transport activity and may have a different role from other members of the OCTN family.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2001; 275(51):40064-72. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We identified three novel transporters structurally belonging to the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) family in humans. Since previously known rat oatp1 to 3 do not necessarily correspond to the human OATPs in terms of either tissue distribution or function, here we designate the newly identified human OATPs as OATP-B, -D and -E, and we rename the previously known human OATP as OATP-A. OATP-C proved to be identical with the recently reported LST1/OATP-2. Expression profiles of the five OATPs and the prostaglandin transporter PGT (a member of OATP family) in human tissues showed that OATP-C is exclusively localized in liver, OATP-A and PGT are expressed in restricted ranges of tissues, and OATP-B, -D and -E show broad expression profiles. OATP-B, -C, -D and -E exhibited transport activity for [(3)H]estrone-3-sulfate as a common substrate. OATP-C has a high transport activity with broad substrate specificity.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 07/2000; 273(1):251-60. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: LKB1 serine/threonine kinase is a gene for Peutz-Jeghers cancer pre- disposition syndrome. Most studies have detected a low frequency of LKB1 defects in sporadic cancer. A notable exception is a recent report describ- ing frequent, mostly missense type, LKB1 mutations in Korean distal colorectal tumors. To clarify the role of LKB1 in colon cancer, we scru- tinized 50 left-sided Korean and Finnish specimens. No somatic mutations were found. The seven Korean somatic missense mutations reported previously were functionally analyzed, and five were found not to alter LKB1 kinase activity. One of these changes was found to be a germ-line polymorphism. LKB1 involvement in distal colorectal cancer is not com- mon.
Cancer Research 03/2000; 60(3). · 8.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bromodomain is a structural motif characteristic of proteins involved in chromatin-dependent regulation of transcription. Bromodomain proteins have been identified as integral components of chromatin remodeling complexes and frequently possess histone acetyltransferase activity. Their encoding genes have been identified at translocation breakpoints, and at least one, CBP, is a tumor suppressor gene. We have identified a series of novel bromodomain genes by EST database and cDNA library screening. Comparison of sequences for four clones indicated that they represent genes belonging to a novel bromodomain family. Full-length sequences for these genes, which are widely expressed, predict encoded proteins of between 1527 and 1972 amino acids. In addition to a carboxy-terminal bromodomain, an adjacent PHD finger, and a WACZ motif, at least four other conserved novel motifs are present in each protein. The genes contain regions conserved with Drosophila Acf1 and Caenorhabditis elegans ZK783.4. The novel genes, termed BAZ1A, BAZ1B, BAZ2A, and BAZ2B, localize to chromosomes 14q12-q13, 7q11-q21, 12q24.3-qter, and 2q23-q24, respectively. Conservation of multiple domains throughout these genes with Acf1 indicates that they are likely to be components of chromatin remodeling complexes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bromodomain is a 110-amino-acid conserved structural region associated with proteins that regulate signal-dependent, nonbasal transcription. The bromodomain can regulate histone acetyl transferase activity and interacts specifically with acetylated lysine residues. A key role for bromodomain proteins in maintaining normal proliferation is indicated by the implication of several bromodomain proteins in cancer, with four of these identified at translocation breakpoints. We searched EST databases for novel bromodomain genes. The sequence from one EST was used to initiate generation of a full-length clone from a testis cDNA library. The completed sequence encodes a predicted protein of 2781 amino acids, which, in addition to the bromodomain, harbors further motifs characteristic of a transcriptional coactivator: two PHD fingers and an extensive glutamine-rich acidic domain. There are several other regions that are conserved with the Caenorhabditis elegans putative protein F26H11, which may be functionally homologous. The novel gene, called BPTF, is expressed in all tissues examined as a 10.5-kb transcript. The protein has extensive identity with the smaller FAC1 protein, suggesting that the two either are derived from the same locus or are synonymous. BPTF has been mapped to 17q23. Functional domains found within BPTF are consistent with a role for this protein in hormonally regulated, chromatin-mediated regulation of transcription.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary systemic carnitine deficiency (SCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation caused by defective cellular carnitine transport. The disease is characterized by metabolic derangement simulating Reye's syndrome, hypoglcaemia, progressive cardiomyopathy and skeletal myopathy. Recently, it was shown that SCD is caused by mutations in the organic cation/carnitine transporter OCTN2 (SLC22A5). We report two novel mutations, W283R and V446F, which are both missense mutations in an affected infant. In vitro expression studies demonstrated that both are actually function-loss mutations with virtually no uptake activity. This is the first report of compound heterozygosity for two missense mutations in a patient with SCD. Hum Mutat 15:118, 2000.
Human Mutation 01/2000; 15(1):118. · 5.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carnitine deficiency, either primary or drug-induced, causes critical symptoms and is thought to involve alteration of active transport of carnitine across the plasma membrane of tissues as the underlying mechanism. Recently, we showed that human organic cation transporter, hOCTN2, cloned as a member of the organic cation transporter family, is a physiologically important Na(+)-dependent high-affinity carnitine transporter in humans. In this study, we further characterized the functional properties of hOCTN2 and examined the interaction between hOCTN2-mediated carnitine transport and clinically used drugs to assess possible toxicological effects. When expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells, hOCTN2 showed low but significant stereospecific transport activity: D-carnitine was transported with lower affinity (K(m) = 10.9 microM) than the L-isomer (K(m) = 4.3 microM). One Na(+) appeared to be associated with the transport of one carnitine molecule. hOCTN2-mediated transport of acetyl-L-carnitine was also Na(+)-dependent and of high affinity, with a K(m) value of 8.5 microM. To examine the transport activity for organic cations other than carnitine and the possible relationship of drug-induced carnitine deficiency with hOCTN2, the inhibitory effect of several drugs on hOCTN2-mediated L-carnitine transport was examined. Many zwitterionic drugs, such as cephaloridine, and many cationic drugs, such as quinidine and verapamil, exhibited significant inhibitory effects. Among these inhibitors, tetraethylammonium, pyrilamine, quinidine, verapamil, and valproate were found to be transported by hOCTN2. The results suggest that the carnitine deficiency-related toxicological effects by long-term treatment with such drugs might be ascribed to a functional alteration of hOCTN2-mediated carnitine transport.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 12/1999; 291(2):778-84. · 3.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mice, which show systemic L-carnitine deficiency, may be an animal model of Reye's syndrome because of its phenotype of fat deposition and mitochondrial abnormalities in the liver. In this study, we compared the characteristics of the L-carnitine transport in isolated hepatocytes from wild-type and JVS mice. The uptake of L-carnitine by wild-type hepatocytes was saturable and the Eadie-Hofstee plot showed 2 distinct components. The apparent Michaelis constant (K(m)) and the maximum transport rate (V(max)) were 4.6 micromol/L and 59.5 pmol/15 min/10(6) cells, respectively, for the high-affinity component, and 404 micromol/L and 713 pmol/15 min/10(6) cells, respectively, for the low-affinity component. The high-affinity L-carnitine uptake occurred via an active carrier-mediated transport mechanism, which is characterized by Na(+)-, energy-, and pH-dependency. On the other hand, the high-affinity uptake was absent in JVS hepatocytes, and the values of K(m) and V(max) for the low-affinity uptake were 475 micromol/L and 557 pmol/15 min/10(6) cells, respectively. The hepatic carnitine transport properties in wild-type hepatocytes were similar to those of high-affinity mouse Octn2-transfected HEK293 cells. This study suggests that Octn2-type carnitine transporter is dysfunctional in hepatocytes of JVS mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: LKB1 Serine/Threonine (ST) kinase (also called STK11) originally identified in our novel protein kinase search project has recently been recognized as a susceptibility gene of Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS; MIM 175200). PJS is a dominantly inherited human disorder which is characterized by gastrointestinal hamartomatous polyposis and mucocutaneous melanin pigmentation. Since PJS patients also show a predisposition to a wide spectrum of cancers, it is speculated that LKB1 has a tumor suppressor function. In the present study we have characterized the basic biochemical property of LKB1. In the analysis of mutant LKB1 identified in PJS patients, it was found that one of the mutants, SL26, does not lose its kinase function, but alters its subcellular distribution to accumulate in the nucleus only, whereas wild type LKB1 shows both nuclear and cytoplasmic localization. Domain mapping of the nuclear targeting signal of LKB1 assigned it to its amino terminal side. Furthermore, it was shown that LKB1 also has a cytoplasmic retention ability which is considered defective and pathogenic in the SL26 mutant. It is speculated that subcellular distribution of LKB1 is regulated in the balance of these two forces, importation into the nucleus and retention within the cytoplasm; and the cytoplasmic retention ability is necessary for LKB1 to fulfil its normal function.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/1999; 261(3):750-5. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, functional characteristics of organic cation transporter (OCTN)1, which was cloned as the pH-dependent tetraethylammonium (TEA) transporter when expressed in mammalian human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells, were further investigated using Xenopus oocytes as well as HEK293 cells as gene expression systems. When OCTN1-derived complementary RNA was injected into Xenopus oocytes, pH-dependent transport of [14C]TEA was observed as the same in HEK293 cells. In contrast, a replacement of sodium ions with potassium ions in the surrounding medium did not cause any change in [14C]TEA uptake in Xenopus oocytes expressed with OCTN1. In addition, when OCTN1 was expressed in HEK293 cells, efflux of TEA from the cells was pH dependent, with an accelerated rate at acidic external medium pH. Accordingly, membrane potential or sodium ions are suggested to have no influence on [14C]TEA transport and the transport activity of OCTN1 is directly affected by pH itself. Furthermore, addition of the unlabeled TEA in external medium enhanced the efflux of preloaded [14C]TEA. These observations suggest that OCTN1 is a pH-dependent and bidirectional TEA transporter. OCTN1-mediated [14C]TEA uptake was inhibited by various organic cations such as cimetidine, procainamide, pyrilamine, quinidine, quinine, and verapamil. In addition, uptakes of cationic compounds such as [3H]pyrilamine, [3H]quinidine, and [3H]verapamil and zwitterionic L-[3H]carnitine were increased by expression of OCTN1 in Xenopus oocytes. Accordingly, OCTN1 was functionally demonstrated to be a multispecific and pH-dependent organic cation transporter, which presumably functions as a proton/organic cation antiporter at the renal apical membrane and other tissues.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 06/1999; 289(2):768-73. · 3.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary systemic carnitine deficiency (SCD; OMIM 212140) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, hypoglycaemia and hyperammonaemia. SCD has also been linked to sudden infant death syndrome. Membrane-physiological studies have suggested a defect of the carnitine transport system in the plasma membrane in SCD patients and in the mouse model, juvenile visceral steatosis. Although the responsible loci have been mapped in both human and mouse, the underlying gene has not yet been identified. Recently, we cloned and analysed the function of a novel transporter protein termed OCTN2. Our observation that OCTN2 has the ability to transport carnitine in a sodium-dependent manner prompted us to search for mutations in the gene encoding OCTN2, SLC22A5. Initially, we analysed the mouse gene and found a missense mutation in Slc22a5 in jvs mice. Biochemical analysis revealed that this mutation abrogates carnitine transport. Subsequent analysis of the human gene identified four mutations in three SCD pedigrees. Affected individuals in one family were homozygous for the deletion of a 113-bp region containing the start codon. In the second pedigree, the affected individual was shown to be a compound heterozygote for two mutations that cause a frameshift and a premature stop codon, respectively. In an affected individual belonging to a third family, we found a homozygous splice-site mutation also resulting in a premature stop codon. These mutations provide the first evidence that loss of OCTN2 function causes SCD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by mucocutaneous pigmentation and hamartomatous polyps. There is an increased risk of benign and malignant tumors in the gastrointestinal tract and in extraintestinal tissues. One PJS locus has been mapped to chromosome 19p13.3; a second locus is suspected on chromosome 19q13.4 in a minority of families. The PJS gene on 19p13.3 has recently been cloned, and it encodes the serine/threonine kinase LKB1. The gene, which is ubiquitously expressed, is composed of 10 exons spanning 23 kb. Several LKB1 mutations have been reported in heterozygosity in PJS patients. In this study, we screened for LKB1 mutations in nine PJS families of American, Spanish, Portuguese, French, Turkish, and Indian origin and detected seven novel mutations. These included two frameshift mutations, one four-amino-acid deletion, two amino-acid substitutions, and two splicing errors. Expression of mutant LKB1 proteins (K78I, D176N, W308C, and L67P) and assessment of their autophosphorylation activity revealed a loss of the kinase activity in all of these mutants. These results provide direct evidence that the elimination of the kinase activity of LKB1 is probably responsible for the development of the PJS phenotypes. In two Indian families, we failed to detect any LKB1 mutation; in one of these families, we previously had detected linkage to markers on 19q13.3-4, which suggests locus heterogeneity of PJS. The elucidation of the molecular etiology of PJS and the positional cloning of the second potential PJS gene will further elucidate the involvement of kinases/phosphatases in the development of cancer-predisposing syndromes.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 01/1999; 63(6):1641-50. · 11.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary carnitine deficiency, because of a defect of the tissue plasma membrane carnitine transporters, causes critical symptoms. However, the transporter has not been molecularly identified. In this study, we screened a human kidney cDNA library and assembled a cDNA-encoding OCTN2 as a homologue of the organic cation transporter OCTN1, and then we examined the function of OCTN2 as a carnitine transporter. OCTN2-cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 557 amino acids with 75.8% similarity to OCTN1. Northern blot analysis showed that OCTN2 is strongly expressed in kidney, skeletal muscle, heart, and placenta in adult humans. When OCTN2 was expressed in HEK293 cells, uptake of L-[3H]carnitine was strongly enhanced in a sodium-dependent manner with Km value of 4.34 microM, whereas typical substrates for previously known organic cation transporters, tetraethylammonium and guanidine, were not good substitutes. OCTN2-mediated L-[3H]carnitine transport was inhibited by the D-isomer, acetyl-D,L-carnitine, and gamma-butyrobetaine with high affinity and by glycinebetaine with lower affinity, whereas choline, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid, lysine, and taurine were not inhibitory. Because the observed tissue distribution of OCTN2 is consistent with the reported distribution of carnitine transport activity and the functional characteristics of OCTN2 coincide with those reported for plasma membrane carnitine transport, we conclude that OCTN2 is a physiologically important, high affinity sodium-carnitine cotransporter in humans.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/1998; 273(32):20378-82. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: cDNA for a novel proton/organic cation transporter, OCTN1, was cloned from human fetal liver and its transport activity was investigated. OCTN1 encodes a 551-amino acid protein with 11 transmembrane domains and one nucleotide binding site motif. It is strongly expressed in kidney, trachea, bone marrow and fetal liver and in several human cancer cell lines, but not in adult liver. When expressed in HEK293 cells, OCTN1 exhibited saturable and pH-dependent [3H]tetraethyl ammonium uptake with higher activity at neutral and alkaline pH than at acidic pH. Furthermore, treatment with metabolic inhibitors reduced the uptake, which is consistent with the presence of the nucleotide binding site sequence motif. Although its subcellular localization and detailed functional characteristics are not clear at present, OCTN1 appears to be a novel proton antiporter that functions for active secretion of cationic compounds across the renal epithelial brush-border membrane. It may play a role in the renal excretion of xenobiotics and their metabolites.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The RING3 gene encodes a 90-kDa mitogen-activated nuclear protein. In proliferating cells, including in leukemia, RING3 has serine-threonine kinase and autophosphorylation activities. The cloning of D26362, a gene closely related to RING3, suggests a gene family. RING3 and D26362 are also related to the Drosophila developmental gene fsh. A database search for further members of the RING3 family identified an EST derived from a testis-specific library. cDNA clones representing the full coding sequence of the gene were isolated. The gene encodes a protein of 947 amino acids with extensive homology to RING3, D26362, and fsh. Similar to these proteins, it possesses two bromodomain motifs and a PEST sequence. Northern analysis of 16 normal tissues and eight cancer cell lines shows transcripts of 3.5 and 4.0 kb expressed specifically in testis. The gene has been named BRDT (for bromodomain, testis specific). PCR analysis of a panel of monochromosomal human/rodent hybrid cell lines and the GeneBridge 4 panel of radiation hybrids localizes the gene to chromosome 1p between markers WI-7719 and WI-3099 (D1S2154).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cDNA library enriched for human fetal-specific liver genes was constructed by suppressive subtractive hybridization. EST fls223 generated from this library was found to represent a novel putative serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) kinase. A full-length clone isolated for this gene encodes a protein of 396 amino acids. The amino acid sequence has 40% identity over 305 amino acids with the B1R Ser/Thr protein kinase of vaccinia virus. This gene has therefore been named VRK1 (vaccinia virus B1R kinase related kinase). VRK1 was also found to have sequence identity (62.0% over 481 nucleotides) to a database EST. A full-length clone for this EST was isolated and sequenced. Conceptual translation predicts a protein of 508 amino acids that, like VRK1, has similarity to B1R kinase (38.7% identity over 300 amino acids). This gene has been named VRK2. Comparison of VRK1 with VRK2 indicates that they encode structurally related putative Ser/Thr protein kinases. Northern analysis shows that expression of both genes is widespread and elevated in highly proliferative cells, such as testis, thymus, and fetal liver. B1R kinase is reported to be essential for DNA replication of vaccinia virus. The similarity of VRK1 and VRK2 to B1R indicates that these genes may have similar functions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have identified and characterized a novel vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF-D, which is structurally related to vascular endothelial growth factor C. A full-length cDNA for human VEGF-D was cloned following the identification of an EST obtained through a TFASTA search of public EST databases. The murine VEGF-D was subsequently isolated from a mouse lung cDNA library. The human VEGF-D gene was mapped to human chromosome Xp22.31. Both human and mouse VEGF-D are strongly expressed in lung and encode the eight cysteine residues that are highly conserved among the members of this family. The high level of conservation between mouse and human VEGF-D may emphasize the biological importance of this gene. Recently the murine gene, FIGF, which is identical to mouse VEGF-D, was reported.