Robert A Willinsky

University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (166)602.22 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: ESCAPE is a prospective, multicenter, randomized clinical trial that will enroll subjects with the following main inclusion criteria: less than 12 h from symptom onset, age > 18, baseline NIHSS >5, ASPECTS score of >5 and CTA evidence of carotid T/L or M1 segment MCA occlusion, and at least moderate collaterals by CTA. The trial will determine if endovascular treatment will result in higher rates of favorable outcome compared with standard medical therapy alone. Patient populations that are eligible include those receiving IV tPA, tPA ineligible and unwitnessed onset or wake up strokes with 12 h of last seen normal. The primary end-point, based on intention-to-treat criteria is the distribution of modified Rankin Scale scores at 90 days assessed using a proportional odds model. The projected maximum sample size is 500 subjects. Randomization is stratified under a minimization process using age, gender, baseline NIHSS, baseline ASPECTS (8–10 vs. 6–7), IV tPA treatment and occlusion location (ICA vs. MCA) as covariates. The study will have one formal interim analysis after 300 subjects have been accrued. Secondary end-points at 90 days include the following: mRS 0–1; mRS 0–2; Barthel 95–100, EuroQOL and a cognitive battery. Safety outcomes are symptomatic ICH, major bleeding, contrast nephropathy, total radiation dose, malignant MCA infarction, hemicraniectomy and mortality at 90 days.
    International Journal of Stroke 04/2015; 10(3). DOI:10.1111/ijs.12424 · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Basilar trunk aneurysms (BTAs), defined as aneurysms distal to the basilar origin and proximal to the origin of the superior cerebellar artery, are rare and challenging to manage. We describe the natural history and management in a consecutive series of BTAs. Between 2000 and 2013, 2522 patients with 3238 aneurysms were referred to our institution for aneurysm management. A retrospective review of this database was conducted to identify all patients with BTAs. In total, 52 patients had a BTA. Mean age was 56 (SD±18) years. Median clinical follow-up was 33 (interquartile range, 8-86) months, and imaging follow-up was 26 (interquartile range, 2-80.5) months. BTAs were classified into 4 causal subtypes: acute dissecting aneurysms, segmental fusiform ectasia, mural bleeding ectasia, and saccular aneurysms. Multiple aneurysms were more frequently noticed among the 13 saccular aneurysms when compared with overall population (P=0.021). There was preponderance of segmental ectasia or mural bleeding ectasia (P=0.045) in patients presenting with transit ischemic attack/stroke or mass effect. Six patients with segmental and 4 with mural bleeding ectasia demonstrated increasing size of their aneurysm, with 2 having subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by aneurysm rupture. None of the fusiform aneurysms that remained stable bled. BTAs natural histories may differ depending on subtype of aneurysm. Saccular aneurysms likely represent an underlying predisposition to aneurysm development because more than half of these cases were associated with multiple intracranial aneurysms. Intervention should be considered in segmental ectasia and chronic dissecting aneurysms, which demonstrate increase in size over time as there is an increased risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    Stroke 02/2015; 46(4). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.006909 · 5.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Among patients with a proximal vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation, 60 to 80% of patients die within 90 days after stroke onset or do not regain functional independence despite alteplase treatment. We evaluated rapid endovascular treatment in addition to standard care in patients with acute ischemic stroke with a small infarct core, a proximal intracranial arterial occlusion, and moderate-to-good collateral circulation. Methods: We randomly assigned participants to receive standard care (control group) or standard care plus endovascular treatment with the use of available thrombectomy devices (intervention group). Patients with a proximal intracranial occlusion in the anterior circulation were included up to 12 hours after symptom onset. Patients with a large infarct core or poor collateral circulation on computed tomography (CT) and CT angiography were excluded. Workflow times were measured against predetermined targets. The primary outcome was the score on the modified Rankin scale (range, 0 [no symptoms] to 6 [death]) at 90 days. A proportional odds model was used to calculate the common odds ratio as a measure of the likelihood that the intervention would lead to lower scores on the modified Rankin scale than would control care (shift analysis). Results: The trial was stopped early because of efficacy. At 22 centers worldwide, 316 participants were enrolled, of whom 238 received intravenous alteplase (120 in the intervention group and 118 in the control group). In the intervention group, the median time from study CT of the head to first reperfusion was 84 minutes. The rate of functional independence (90-day modified Rankin score of 0 to 2) was increased with the intervention (53.0%, vs. 29.3% in the control group; P<0.001). The primary outcome favored the intervention (common odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.7 to 3.8; P<0.001), and the intervention was associated with reduced mortality (10.4%, vs. 19.0% in the control group; P=0.04). Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in 3.6% of participants in intervention group and 2.7% of participants in control group (P=0.75). Conclusions: Among patients with acute ischemic stroke with a proximal vessel occlusion, a small infarct core, and moderate-to-good collateral circulation, rapid endovascular treatment improved functional outcomes and reduced mortality. (Funded by Covidien and others; ESCAPE number, NCT01778335.).
    New England Journal of Medicine 02/2015; 372(11). DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1414905 · 55.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction The purpose of our study was to compare the clinical characteristics and preferential localization of aneurysms in three patient groups: single aneurysm, non-mirror multiple aneurysms, and mirror aneurysms. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and radiological data of 2223 consecutive patients harboring 3068 aneurysms registered at the Toronto Western Hospital between May 1994 and November 2010. The patients were divided into single, non-mirror multiple, or mirror aneurysm groups. Expected incidences of mirror aneurysms at each location were calculated on the basis of the single aneurysm incidences at each location. Results Patients with mirror aneurysms (n = 197) did not differ from patients with non-mirror multiple aneurysms (n = 392) in having female predominance (81.7 vs. 76.3 %) or a family history of intracranial aneurysm (20.5 vs. 17.6 %). When compared with expected incidences at each location, mirror aneurysms were more frequently found at the cavernous internal carotid artery (30 vs. 11.5 %) (p
    Neuroradiology 10/2014; 57(1). DOI:10.1007/s00234-014-1437-9 · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: Management of unruptured fusiform intracranial aneurysms is controversial because of the paucity of natural history data. We studied their natural history and outcome after treatment. Methods: We reviewed our neurovascular database from January 2000 to October 2013. Inclusion criteria were unruptured, intradural fusiform aneurysms with a diameter of <2.5 cm. Criteria were developed to define atherosclerotic aneurysms. For outcome assessment, we used the modified Ranking Scale and aneurysm measurements on serial imaging. Mann-Whittney (continuous) and Fisher exact (categorical) tests were used for risk factor analysis. Results: For nonatherosclerotic aneurysms (96 patients; 193 person-years follow-up), 1 patient died (rupture) during follow-up (mortality, 0.51% per year) and 8 patients (10%) showed aneurysm progression (risk, 1.6% per year). Risk factors for progression were maximum diameter (>7 mm; odds ratio, 12; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-104) and symptomatic clinical presentation (odds ratio, 16; 95% confidence interval, 3.1-81.4). Of the 23 treated patients, 3 had died (mortality, 12.5%) and 3 had serious disability (modified Ranking Scale, ≥3; 12.5%). For the atherosclerotic aneurysms (25 patients; 97 person-years follow-up), 5 had died (mortality, 5.2% per year) and 13 of 20 (65%) had aneurysm progression (risk, 12% per year). When compared with patients with nonatherosclerotic aneurysms, case fatality (odds ratio, 19.2; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-172) and aneurysm progression (odds ratio, 17.8; 95% confidence interval, 5.3-56) were higher. Conclusions: Nonatherosclerotic fusiform intradural aneurysms have a low risk of adverse outcome within the first few years after diagnosis and remain stable unless symptomatic on presentation or >7 mm in maximum diameter. High risks of treatment should be balanced against this benign natural history. Atherosclerotic aneurysms have a worse natural history and may represent a different disease entity.
    Stroke 09/2014; 45(11). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.006292 · 5.72 Impact Factor
  • Tiago Rodrigues · Robert Willinsky · Ronit Agid · Karel TerBrugge · Timo Krings ·
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To report the epidemiological features, clinical presentation, angiographic characteristics and therapeutic options, success and complication rates in patients with dural carotid cavernous fistulas (dural CCFs). Methods: Retrospective evaluation of patients followed in our institution between January of 2005 and September of 2013. Results: There were 38 patients, 76 % females, with an average age of 63 years. Ocular symptoms and signs were the most frequent clinical findings. Dural CCFs were Barrow type B in 8%, type C in 10% and type D in 82%. Cortical venous reflux was present in 50% of cases. Medical treatment was performed in 16% of patients, external ocular compression in 8%, transarterial embolisation in 13%, transvenous embolisation in 60% and radiosurgery in 3%. Clinical and angiographic follow-up data were available in 89% and 82% of patients with a mean follow-up time of 9 and 7 months, respectively. Clinical cure was achieved in 58% of patients and improvement in 24%. Anatomical cure was demonstrated in 68%. Transient worsening or new onset of ocular symptoms was observed in 29%. There was no permanent morbidity or mortality. Conclusions: In properly selected patients, endovascular embolisation, particularly by transvenous approach, represents a safe and effective treatment for dural CCFs. Key points: Dural carotid cavernous fistulas are more common in elderly women. Dural CCFs most commonly present with ocular symptoms and signs. Endovascular treatment is effective and safe in properly selected patients.
    European Radiology 07/2014; 24(12). DOI:10.1007/s00330-014-3339-y · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    J P Cruz · T Marotta · C O'Kelly · M Holtmannspötter · G Saliou · R Willinsky · T Krings · R Agid ·
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    ABSTRACT: Complications of endovascular therapy of aneurysms mainly include aneurysm rupture and thromboembolic events. The widespread use of MR imaging for follow-up of these patients revealed various nonvascular complications such as aseptic meningitis, hydrocephalus, and perianeurysmal brain edema. We present 7 patients from 5 different institutions that developed MR imaging-enhancing brain lesions after endovascular therapy of aneurysms, detected after a median time of 63 days. The number of lesions ranged from 4-46 (median of 10.5), sized 2-20 mm, and were mostly in the same vascular territory used for access. Three patients presented with symptoms attributable to these lesions. After a median follow-up of 21.5 months, the number of lesions increased in 2, was stable in 1, decreased in 3, and disappeared in 1. The imaging and clinical characteristics suggested a foreign body reaction. We could find no correlation to a specific device, but a possible source may be the generic hydrophilic coating.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 05/2014; 35(10). DOI:10.3174/ajnr.A3976 · 3.59 Impact Factor
  • I-Chang Su · Robert A Willinsky · Noel F Fanning · Ronit Agid ·
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    ABSTRACT: Perianeurysmal edema and aneurysm wall enhancement are previously described phenomenon after coil embolization attributed to inflammatory reaction. We aimed to demonstrate the prevalence and natural course of these phenomena in unruptured aneurysms after endovascular treatment and to identify factors that contributed to their development. We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutively treated unruptured aneurysms between January 2000 and December 2011. The presence and evolution of wall enhancement and perianeurysmal edema on MRI after endovascular treatment were analyzed. Variable factors were compared among aneurysms with and without edema. One hundred thirty-two unruptured aneurysms in 124 patients underwent endovascular treatment. Eighty-five (64.4 %) aneurysms had wall enhancement, and 9 (6.8 %) aneurysms had perianeurysmal brain edema. Wall enhancement tends to persist for years with two patterns identified. Larger aneurysms and brain-embedded aneurysms were significantly associated with wall enhancement. In all edema cases, the aneurysms were embedded within the brain and had wall enhancement. Progressive thickening of wall enhancement was significantly associated with edema. Edema can be symptomatic when in eloquent brain and stabilizes or resolves over the years. Our study demonstrates the prevalence and some appreciation of the natural history of aneurysmal wall enhancement and perianeurysmal brain edema following endovascular treatment of unruptured aneurysms. Aneurysmal wall enhancement is a common phenomenon while perianeurysmal edema is rare. These phenomena are likely related to the presence of inflammatory reaction near the aneurysmal wall. Both phenomena are usually asymptomatic and self-limited, and prophylactic treatment is not recommended.
    Neuroradiology 03/2014; 56(6). DOI:10.1007/s00234-014-1355-x · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    Trials 11/2013; 14(Suppl 1):P118. DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-14-S1-P118 · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • I-Chang Su · Karel G Terbrugge · Robert A Willinsky · Timo Krings ·
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    ABSTRACT: Despite improvements of embolization agents and techniques, endovascular treatment of spinal dural arterovenous fistula (SDAVF) is still limited by inconsistent success. The aim of embolization is to occlude initial portion of the draining vein by liquid embolic materials. This study investigates factors that contribute to the success of embolization treatments among SDAVF patients. We performed a retrospective analysis on consecutive SDAVF patients who received N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) glue embolization between January 1992 and June 2012. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate the probability of successful draining vein occlusion for variable procedure-related factors. We attempted endovascular approach as the first intention treatment in 66 out of 90 consecutive patients. Among them, a total of 43 NBCA glue injections were performed in 40 patients. Successful embolization was achieved in 24 patients (60 %). In multivariable analyses, antegrade flow during microcatheter test injection (OR 13.2, 95 % CI 1.7 to 105.4) and use of glue concentration ≥30 % (OR 0.1, 95 % CI 0.01 to 0.8) were detected as significant positive and negative predictors of successful venous penetration, respectively. With persistent antegrade flow, the success rates using a glue mixture of more than 30 % dropped significantly from 85.0 to 42.9 % (p = 0.049). If contrast stagnated during microcatheter injections, success rates were low regardless of glue concentrations. Presence of antegrade flow toward the draining vein and injection of NBCA glue less than 30 % are associated with higher chance of draining vein penetration and, therefore, successful endovascular SDAVF obliteration.
    Neuroradiology 10/2013; 55(11). DOI:10.1007/s00234-013-1285-z · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    S Rawal · S E Croul · R A Willinsky · M Tymianski · T Krings ·
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    ABSTRACT: Cystic parenchymal lesions may pose an important diagnostic challenge, particularly when encountered in unexpected locations. Dilated perivascular spaces, which may mimic cystic neoplasms, are known to occur in the inferior basal ganglia and mesencephalothalamic regions; a focal preference within the subcortical white matter has not been reported. This series describes 15 cases of patients with cystic lesions within the subcortical white matter of the anterior superior temporal lobe, which followed a CSF signal; were located adjacent to a subarachnoid space; demonstrated variable surrounding signal change; and, in those that were followed up, showed stability. Pathology study results obtained in 1 patient demonstrated chronic gliosis surrounding innumerable dilated perivascular spaces. These findings suggest that dilated perivascular spaces may exhibit a regional preference for the subcortical white matter of the anterior superior temporal lobe. Other features-lack of clinical symptoms, proximity to the subarachnoid space, identification of an adjacent vessel, and stability with time-may help in confidently making the prospective diagnosis of a dilated perivascular space, thereby preventing unnecessary invasive management.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 08/2013; 35(2). DOI:10.3174/ajnr.A3669 · 3.59 Impact Factor
  • C J O'Kelly · J Spears · M Chow · J Wong · M Boulton · A Weill · R A Willinsky · M Kelly · T R Marotta ·
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: Flow-diverting stents, such as the PED, have emerged as a novel means of treating complex intracranial aneurysms. This retrospective analysis of the initial Canadian experience provides insight into technical challenges, clinical and radiographic outcomes, and complication rates after the use of flow-diverting stents for unruptured aneurysms. Materials and methods: Cases were compiled from 7 Canadian centers between July 2008 and December 2010. Each center prospectively tracked their initial experience; these data were retrospectively updated and pooled for analysis. Results: During the defined study period, 97 cases of unruptured aneurysm were treated with the PED, with successful stent deployment in 94 cases. The overall complete or near-complete occlusion rate was 83%, with a median follow-up at 1.25 years (range 0.25-2.5 years). Progressive occlusion was witnessed over time, with complete or near-complete occlusion in 65% of aneurysms followed through 6 months, and 90% of aneurysms followed through 1 year. Multivariate analysis found previous aneurysm treatment and female sex predictive of persistent aneurysm filling. Most patients were stable or improved (88%), with the most favorable outcomes observed in patients with cavernous carotid aneurysms. The overall mortality rate was 6%. Postprocedural aneurysm hemorrhage occurred in 3 patients (3%), while ipsilateral distal territory hemorrhage was observed in 4 patients (3.4%). Conclusions: Flow-diverting stents represent an important tool in the treatment of complex intracranial aneurysms. The relative efficacy and morbidity of this treatment must be considered in the context of available alternate interventions.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 08/2012; 34(2). DOI:10.3174/ajnr.A3224 · 3.59 Impact Factor
  • C C Matouk · Z Kaderali · K G Terbrugge · R A Willinsky ·
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Flow-diverting stents are increasingly being used for the treatment of complex intracranial aneurysms, but the indications for their use in lieu of traditional endovascular PVO have yet to be precisely defined. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical and imaging outcomes of patients with intracranial aneurysms treated by PVO.MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 28 patients with intracranial aneurysms, treated by PVO between July 1992 and December 2009, were reviewed. Aneurysms arising from peripheral arteries were excluded. Clinical and imaging data were retrospectively analyzed from a prospectively maintained data base.RESULTS:There were 28 patients with 28 aneurysms treated by PVO. Aneurysms of the anterior circulation presenting with mass effect (n = 11) or discovered incidentally (n = 1), and dissecting-type VB aneurysms presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 6) faired the best with high obliteration rates (83.3% and 83.6%, respectively) and no permanent major ischemic complications. In contrast, VB aneurysms presenting with mass effect (n = 7) demonstrated the lowest obliteration rate (57.1%), the highest rate of permanent major ischemic complications (28.6%), and a high mortality rate (28.6%).CONCLUSIONS:PVO is a safe and effective treatment for complex intracranial aneurysms of the carotid artery and dissecting-type VB aneurysms presenting with SAH. In contrast, PVO for aneurysms of the VB circulation presenting with mass effect is less efficacious and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It is hoped that flow diverters may represent a better treatment technique for these most difficult-to-treat lesions.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 05/2012; 33(10). DOI:10.3174/ajnr.A3079 · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prospective differentiation between reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome and central nervous system vasculitis can be challenging. We hypothesized that high-resolution vessel wall MRI would demonstrate arterial wall enhancement in central nervous system vasculitis but not in reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. We identified all patients with multifocal segmental narrowing of large intracranial arteries who had high-resolution vessel wall MRI and follow-up angiography at our institute over a 4-year period and performed a detailed chart review. Three patients lacked arterial wall enhancement, and these all had reversal of arterial narrowing within 3 months. Four patients demonstrated arterial wall enhancement, and these had persistent or progressive arterial narrowing at a median follow-up of 17 months (range, 6-36 months) with final diagnoses of central nervous system vasculitis (3) and cocaine vasculopathy (1). Preliminary results suggest that high-resolution contrast-enhanced vessel wall MRI may enable differentiation between reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome and central nervous system vasculitis.
    Stroke 12/2011; 43(3):860-2. DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.626184 · 5.72 Impact Factor

  • The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques 09/2011; 38(5):760-1. · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DAVFs with cortical venous reflux carry a high risk of morbidity and mortality. Endovascular treatment options include transarterial embolization with a liquid embolic agent or transvenous access with occlusion of the involved venous segment, which may prove difficult if the venous access route is thrombosed. The aim of this article is to describe the technique and results of the transvenous approach via thrombosed venous segments for occlusion of DAVFs. Our study was a retrospective analysis of 51 patients treated with a transvenous approach through an occluded sinus that was reopened by gentle rotational advancement of a 0.035-inch guidewire, which opened a path for a subsequently inserted microcatheter. Of 607 patients with DAVFs, the transvenous reopening technique was attempted in 62 patients in 65 sessions and was successful in 51 patients and 53 sessions. Immediate occlusion was seen in 42 patients; on follow-up, occlusion was seen in 49 patients, whereas 2 patients had reduced flow without cortical venous reflux. No permanent procedure-related morbidity was noted. The reopening technique to gain access to isolated venous pouches or the cavernous sinus for the treatment of DAVFs is a safe and effective treatment, which should be considered if transarterial approaches fail or are anticipated to result only in an incomplete anatomic cure.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 07/2011; 32(9):1738-44. DOI:10.3174/ajnr.A2566 · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Brainstem arteriovenous malformations are challenging lesions, and benefits of treatment are uncertain. To study the clinical course of Brainstem arteriovenous malformations and the influence of treatments on outcome. We reviewed a prospective series of 31 brainstem arteriovenous malformations. Demographic, morphological, and clinical characteristics were recorded. Factors determining initial and final outcomes (modified Rankin Scale), results of treatments (cure rates, complications), and disease course were analyzed. Brainstem arteriovenous malformations were symptomatic and bled in 93% and 61% of cases, respectively. Examination was abnormal and initial modified Rankin Scale score was < 3 in 71% and 86% of patients, respectively. The average follow-up time was 6.2 years, and 26% of patients rebled (5.9 %/y). Treatment modalities included conservative, radiosurgical, endovascular, surgical, and multimodality treatment in 13%, 58%, 35%, 16%, and 26% of cases, respectively. The obliteration rate was 60% overall and 39% after radiosurgery, 40% after embolization, and 75% after microsurgery, with respective complication-free cure rates of 71%, 50%, and 0%. Overall procedural mortality and morbidity were 2.3% and 18.6%, respectively. Final modified Rankin Scale score was < 3 in 77% of cases. Neurological deterioration (35%) was related to treatment complications in 74% of cases with a negative impact of surgery (P = .04), palliative embolization (odds ratio = 16), and multimodality treatments (odds ratio = 24). Radiosurgery was inversely associated with worsening (odds ratio = 0.06). Brainstem arteriovenous malformations require individualized treatment decisions. Single-modality treatments with a reasonable chance of complete cure and low complication rate (such as radiosurgery) should be favored.
    Neurosurgery 05/2011; 70(1):155-61; discussion 161. DOI:10.1227/NEU.0b013e31822670ac · 3.62 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
602.22 Total Impact Points


  • 1992-2015
    • University of Toronto
      • • Department of Medical Imaging
      • • Division of Neuroradiology
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1989-2015
    • Toronto Western Hospital
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2014
    • University Medical Center Utrecht
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2009
    • Gyeongsang National University
      • Department of Radiology
      Chinju, South Gyeongsang, South Korea