Jörg Holenz

Esteve, Santiago Seré, Galicia, Spain

Are you Jörg Holenz?

Claim your profile

Publications (21)73.51 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The synthesis and pharmacological activity of a new series of 1-arylpyrazoles as potent σ(1) receptor (σ(1)R) antagonists are reported. The new compounds were evaluated in vitro in human σ(1)R and guinea pig σ(2) receptor (σ(2)R) binding assays. The nature of the pyrazole substituents was crucial for activity, and a basic amine was shown to be necessary, in accordance with known receptor pharmacophores. A wide variety of amines and spacer lengths between the amino and pyrazole groups were tolerated, but only the ethylenoxy spacer and small cyclic amines provided compounds with sufficient selectivity for σ(1)R vs σ(2)R. The most selective compounds were further profiled, and compound 28, 4-{2-[5-methyl-1-(naphthalen-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yloxy]ethyl}morpholine (S1RA, E-52862), which showed high activity in the mouse capsaicin model of neurogenic pain, emerged as the most interesting candidate. In addition, compound 28 exerted dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in several neuropathic pain models. This, together with its good physicochemical, safety, and ADME properties, led compound 28 to be selected as clinical candidate.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 07/2012; 55(19):8211-24. DOI:10.1021/jm3007323 · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two series of σ(1) ligands with a spiro[[2]benzopyran-1,3'-pyrrolidine] (3) and a spiro[[2]benzofuran-1,3'-pyrrolidine] (4) framework were synthesized and pharmacologically evaluated. Several reaction steps were considerably improved by microwave irradiation. The σ(1) affinity of the spirocyclic ligands correlates nicely with the benzene-N-distance, i.e. 2 < 3 < 4 < 1. The σ(1) affinity of both compound classes could be increased with large N-substituents (e.g. 2-phenylethyl, octyl). Nevertheless the benzyl derivative 4a represents the most promising σ(1) ligand (K(i) = 25 nM) due to its high selectivity against the σ(2) subtype (>40-fold), the NMDA receptor and 5-HT(6) and 5-HT(7) receptors. Moreover, 4a did not inhibit the hERG channel in the heart.
    European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 04/2012; 53(43):327-36. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmech.2012.04.018 · 3.43 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: On the basis of the 6',7'-dihydrospiro[piperidine-4,4'-thieno[3,2-c]pyran] framework, a series of more than 30 σ ligands with versatile substituents in 1-, 2'-, and 6'-position has been synthesized and pharmacologically evaluated in order to find novel structure-affinity relationships. It was found that a cyclohexylmethyl residue at the piperidine N-atom instead of a benzyl moiety led to increased σ(2) affinity and therefore to decreased σ(1)/σ(2) selectivity. Small substituents (e.g., OH, OCH(3), CN, CH(2)OH) in 6'-position adjacent to the O-atom were well tolerated by the σ(1) receptor. Removal of the substituent in 6'-position resulted in very potent but unselective σ ligands (13). A broad range of substituents with various lipophilic and H-bond forming properties was introduced in 2'-position adjacent to the S-atom without loss of σ(1) affinity. However, very polar and basic substituents in both 2'- and 6'-position decreased the σ(1) affinity considerably. It is postulated that the electron density of the thiophene moiety has a big impact on the σ(1) affinity.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 04/2012; 55(11):5350-60. DOI:10.1021/jm300302p · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The novel class of spirocyclic σ(1) ligands 3 (6',7'-dihydro-1'H-spiro[piperidine-4,4'-pyrano[4,3-c]pyrazoles]) was designed by the combination of the potent σ(1) ligands 1 and 2 in one molecule. Thorough structure affinity relationships were derived by the variation of the substituents in position 1', 1, and 6'. Whereas the small electron rich methylpyrazole heterocycle was less tolerated by the σ(1) receptor protein, the introduction of a phenyl substituent instead of the methyl group led to ligands with a high σ(1) affinity. It is postulated that the additional phenyl substituent occupies a previously unrecognized hydrophobic region of the σ(1) receptor resulting in additional lipophilic interactions. The spirocyclic pyranopyrazoles are very selective against the σ(2) subtype, the PCP binding site of the NMDA receptor, and further targets. Despite high σ(1) affinity, the cyclohexylmethyl derivative 17i (K(i) (σ(1)) = 0.55 nM) and the isopentenyl derivative 17p (K(i) (σ(1)) = 1.6 nM) showed only low antiallodynic activity in the capsaicin assay.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 08/2011; 54(19):6704-13. DOI:10.1021/jm200585k · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Based on the pharmacophore model of Glennon the conformationally restricted σ(1) receptor ligand 2 with a 1,3-dioxane moiety has been designed and synthesized. The three step synthesis (transacetalization with pentane-1,3,5-triol, tosylation, and nucleophilic substitution with benzylamine) provided diastereoselectively the cis-configured 1,3-dioxane 2 in good yields. The 1,3-dioxane 2 represents a potent σ(1) receptor ligand (K(i) = 19 nM) with moderate selectivity over the σ(2) subtype (K(i) = 92 nM) and excellent selectivity against more than 60 other targets. Additionally the hERG K(+) channel is not affected by 2. In the capsaicin assay 2 showed extraordinarily high analgesic activity with more than 70% analgesia at the very low dose of 0.25 mg/kg body weight, which indicates σ(1) antagonistic activity. Since 2 does only interact with σ(1) receptors, the in-vivo antiallodynic activity of 2 must be attributed to the σ(1) antagonistic activity.
    Archiv der Pharmazie 07/2011; 344(7):415-21. DOI:10.1002/ardp.201000365 · 1.40 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives The pharmacology and metabolism of the potent σ1 receptor ligand 1′-benzyl-3-methoxy-3H-spiro[[2]benzofuran-1,4′-piperidine] were evaluated.Methods The compound was tested against a wide range of receptors, ion channels and neurotransmitter transporters in radioligand binding assays. Analgesic activity was evaluated using the capsaicin pain model. Metabolism by rat and human liver microsomes was investigated, and the metabolites were identified by a variety of analytical techniques.Key findings 1′-Benzyl-3-methoxy-3H-spiro[[2]benzofuran-1,4′-piperidine] (compound 1) is a potent σ1 receptor ligand (Ki 1.14 nM) with extraordinarily high σ1/σ2 selectivity (>1100). It was selective for the σ1 receptor over more than 60 other receptors, ion channels and neurotransmitter transporters, and did not interact with the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) cardiac potassium channel. Compound 1 displayed analgesic activity against neuropathic pain in the capsaicin pain model (53% analgesia at 16 mg/kg), indicating that it is a σ1 receptor antagonist. It was rapidly metabolised by rat liver microsomes. Seven metabolites were unequivocally identified; an N-debenzylated metabolite and a hydroxylated metabolite were the major products. Pooled human liver microsomes formed the same metabolites. Studies with seven recombinant cytochrome P450 isoenzymes revealed that CYP3A4 produced all the metabolites identified. The isoenzyme CYP2D6 was inhibited by 1 (IC50 88 nM) but did not produce any metabolites.Conclusions 1′-Benzyl-3-methoxy-3H-spiro[[2]benzofuran-1,4′-piperidine] is a potent and selective σ1 receptor antagonist, which is rapidly metabolised. Metabolically more stable σ1 ligands could be achieved by stabilising the N-benzyl substructure.
    01/2010; 61(5):631 - 640. DOI:10.1211/jpp.61.05.0012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Changing the N,N-(dimethylamino)ethyl side chain in the N-[3-(aminoethyl)inden-5-yl]sulfonamide 5-HT(6) serotonin receptor agonists 1 by a conformationally rigid guanylhydrazone moiety at the indene 3-position led to the identification of the title indanylguanylhydrazones 6, which exhibited excellent binding affinities and an antagonistic response at the 5-HT(6) receptor, with K(i) and IC(50) values in the nanomolar range (K(i) >or= 1.2 nM, IC(50) >or= 47 nM, and I(max) <or= 173%).
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 09/2009; 52(19):6153-7. DOI:10.1021/jm900796p · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The symmetrically connected spiro[[2]benzopyran-1,4'-piperidines] 1 are highly potent and selective sigma(1) receptor ligands. Changing the position of the spirocyclic nitrogen atom led to the unsymmetrically connected spiro[[2]benzopyran-1,3'-piperidines] 2 with a reduced distance between the aromatic system and the basic nitrogen atom. The synthesis of 2 was performed by halogen-metal exchange at the aryl bromide 3 followed by addition to the piperidone 5 and intramolecular transacetalization. The yield of 2a was considerably improved by transmetallation of the aryllithium intermediate 4a with CeCl(3) (4c). The cis and trans diastereomers cis-2 and trans-2 were separated and characterized by nuclear Overhauser effect. After removal of the benzyl group, the secondary amine 2b was alkylated with various alkyl and arylalkyl halides. The sigma(1) and sigma(2) receptor affinity of the spirocyclic piperidines 2 were determined with receptor binding studies. Compared with the spirocyclic piperidines 1, the unsymmetrically connected piperidines 2 show remarkably reduced sigma(1) receptor affinities, whereas the selectivity over sigma(2) and NMDA receptors was retained. A stereoselective interaction of the sigma(1) receptor protein with the cis- or trans-configured spirocyclic compounds 2 was not observed. It was shown that alkyl residues at the N-atom can replace the lipophilic N-arylalkyl groups and interact with the primary hydrophobic binding site of the sigma(1) receptor protein.
    European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 08/2009; 44(11):4306-14. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmech.2009.07.017 · 3.43 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Further studies in quest of 5-HT(6) serotonin receptor ligands led to the design and synthesis of a few selected examples of N-(inden-5-yl)sulfonamides with a ring-constrained aminoethyl side chain at the indene 3-position, some of which exhibited a high binding affinity, such as the pyrrolidine analogue 28 (K(i)=3nM). Moreover, the structurally abbreviated N-(inden-5-yl)sulfonamides showed K(i) values > or = 43 nM, which indicates that neither the N,N-aminoethyl nor the conformationally restricted aminoethyl side arm at the indene 3-position are required for binding. Selected compounds were then tested in a functional cAMP stimulation assay and found to act as 5-HT(6) antagonists, although with moderate potency at the micromolar level.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 08/2009; 17(20):7387-97. DOI:10.1016/j.bmc.2009.08.006 · 2.95 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The pharmacology and metabolism of the potent sigma1 receptor ligand 1'-benzyl-3-methoxy-3H-spiro[[2]benzofuran-1,4'-piperidine] were evaluated. The compound was tested against a wide range of receptors, ion channels and neurotransmitter transporters in radioligand binding assays. Analgesic activity was evaluated using the capsaicin pain model. Metabolism by rat and human liver microsomes was investigated, and the metabolites were identified by a variety of analytical techniques. 1'-benzyl-3-methoxy-3H-spiro[[2]benzofuran-1,4'-piperidine] (compound 1) is a potent sigma1 receptor ligand (Ki 1.14 nM) with extraordinarily high sigma1/sigma2 selectivity (>1100). It was selective for the sigma1 receptor over more than 60 other receptors, ion channels and neurotransmitter transporters, and did not interact with the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) cardiac potassium channel. Compound 1 displayed analgesic activity against neuropathic pain in the capsaicin pain model (53% analgesia at 16 mg/kg), indicating that it is a sigma1 receptor antagonist. It was rapidly metabolised by rat liver microsomes. Seven metabolites were unequivocally identified; an N-debenzylated metabolite and a hydroxylated metabolite were the major products. Pooled human liver microsomes formed the same metabolites. Studies with seven recombinant cytochrome P450 isoenzymes revealed that CYP3A4 produced all the metabolites identified. The isoenzyme CYP2D6 was inhibited by 1 (IC50 88 nM) but did not produce any metabolites. 1'-benzyl-3-methoxy-3H-spiro[[2]benzofuran-1,4'-piperidine] is a potent and selective sigma1 receptor antagonist, which is rapidly metabolised. Metabolically more stable sigma1 ligands could be achieved by stabilising the N-benzyl substructure.
    Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 05/2009; 61(5):631-40. DOI:10.1211/jpp/61.05.0012 · 2.16 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    ChemInform 12/2008; 39(51). DOI:10.1002/chin.200851131
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Herein, the synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of thiophene bioisosteres of the highly potent spirocyclic benzopyran 1 are detailed. The synthesis of 1-benzyl-6'-methoxy-6',7'-dihydrospiro[piperidine-4,4'-thieno[3.2- c]pyran] (2a) was performed starting with 3-bromothiophene (3). After introduction of the acetaldehyde substructure (7), halogen metal exchange, addition of 1-benzylpiperidin-4-one, and cyclization led to the spirocyclic thienopyran 2a. The removal of the benzyl group afforded the secondary amine 2f, which was substituted with various residues. With respect to sigma 1 affinity the N-benzyl derivative 2a, the N-cyclohexylmethyl derivative 2d, and the N-p-fluorobenzyl derivative 2i represent the most potent compounds of this series binding with K i values of 0.32, 0.29, and 0.62 nM, respectively. Electronic properties of the substituents have only little impact on sigma 1 affinity. The most potent sigma 1 ligands display high selectivity against sigma 2, 5-HT 1A, 5-HT 6, 5-HT 7, alpha 1A, alpha 2, and NMDA receptors. The activity of 2a in the mouse capsaicin assay seems to indicate sigma 1 antagonistic activity.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 10/2008; 51(20):6531-7. DOI:10.1021/jm8007739 · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    ChemInform 09/2008; 39(37). DOI:10.1002/chin.200837116
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In a previous study, we have identified 3-alkyl-1,5-diaryl-1H-1,2,4-triazoles to be a novel class of cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor antagonists. However, the synthesis yields for the ligands were low. Here we present an alternative synthesis pathway with improved yields. In addition, we have synthezised new structural derivatives and studied their results in competitive radioligand binding assays for cannabinoid receptors.
    Monatshefte fuer Chemie/Chemical Monthly 08/2008; 139(9):1073-1082. DOI:10.1007/s00706-008-0890-8 · 1.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The synthesis of new pharmaceutically interesting 3-(2-N,N-diethylaminoethoxy)indole derivatives is described. Starting from 3-silyloxy-2-methylindoles, deprotection and in situ aminoalkylation provided 3-(2-N,N-diethylaminoethoxy)indoles in good yield. Further sulfonylation of these novel indoles gave access to potential 5-HT(6) receptor ligands.
    Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 06/2008; 6(10):1802-7. DOI:10.1039/b802054j · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 1. Two novel selective 5-HT6 receptor ligands E-6801 (6-chloro-N-(3-(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)-1H-indol-5-yl)imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole-5-sulfonamide) and E-6837 (5-chloro-N-(3-(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)-1H-indol-5-yl)naphthalene-2-sulfonamide) were investigated and compared to the putative 5-HT6 receptor antagonists SB-271046 (5-chloro-N-(4-methoxy-3-(piperazin-1-yl)phenyl)-3-methylbenzo[b]thiophene-2-sulfonamide) and Ro 04-06790 (N-(2,6-bis(methylamino)pyrimidin-4-yl)-4-aminobenzenesulfonamide) using a cAMP-mediated pathway. 2. Forskolin stimulation, to increase the magnitude of agonist cAMP responses, and site-directed mutagenesis of the 5-HT6 receptor, in order to yield constitutively active receptor, were applied. 3. 5-HT (E(max), % over basal: 200), E-6801 (120) and E-6837 (23) induced cAMP formation at the rat 5-HT6 receptor. In the copresence of forskolin, cAMP responses were more potent and enhanced to 294 (5-HT, % over forskolin), 250 (E-6801) and 207 (E-6837), respectively. 5-HT-mediated cAMP formation was dose-dependently blocked by SB-271046 (pA(2): 8.76+/-0.22) and Ro 04-6790 (pA(2): 7.89+/-0.10) and not affected by the copresence of forskolin. Both E-6801 and E-6837 yielded partial antagonism of the 5-HT response in the absence of forskolin, whereas antagonism was either completely absent (E-6801) or attenuated (E-6837) in the copresence of forskolin. Intrinsic activity of these 5-HT6 receptor ligands at a constitutively active human S267K 5-HT6 receptor in Cos-7 cells indicated similar efficacy (E(max), % over basal) for 5-HT (97), E-6801 (91) and E-6837 (100), while Ro 04-6790 (-33) and SB-271046 (-39) were equi-efficacious inverse agonists. 4. The use of either forskolin or a constitutively active S267K 5-HT6 receptor enhances the resolution for monitoring the efficacy of 5-HT6 receptor ligands. E-6801 and E-6837 are potent partial agonists at the 5-HT6 receptor. Ro 04-6790 and SB-271046 appear to act as inverse agonists/antagonists.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 09/2006; 148(8):1133-43. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjp.0706827 · 4.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: E-6837 is a novel, selective and high-affinity 5-HT(6) receptor ligand (pK(i): 9.13) which in vitro demonstrates partial agonism at a presumably silent rat 5-HT(6) receptor and full agonism at a constitutively active human 5-HT(6) receptor by monitoring the cAMP signaling pathway.The effects of chronic treatment with E-6837 were determined in diet-induced obese (DIO)-rats on changes in body weight, food and water intake, plasma indices of comorbid risk factors, and weight regain on compound withdrawal. The centrally acting antiobesity drug, sibutramine, was used as the reference comparator. Sustained body weight loss and decreased cumulative food intake of DIO-rats was observed with E-6837 (30 mg kg(-1), p.o., twice a day) during the 4-week treatment period. The onset of the E-6837 effect on body weight was slower than that of sibutramine (5 mg kg(-1), p.o.), while its maximal effect was greater, that is -15.7 versus -11.0%.E-6837-induced weight loss was exclusively mediated by a decrease (31.7%) in fat mass, with a concomitant reduction (49.6%) in plasma leptin. Reduced obesity was also reflected in improved glycemic control. Although weight regain occurred after withdrawal from either compound, the body weights after E-6837 (-6.6%) remained lower than after sibutramine (-3.8%) indicating that the greater efficacy of the former did not result in profound rebound hyperphagia/weight gain. These results show that the 5-HT(6) receptor partial agonist, E-6837, is a promising new approach to the management of obesity with the potential to produce greater sustained weight loss than sibutramine.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 09/2006; 148(7):973-83. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjp.0706807 · 4.99 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although the 5-hydroxytryptamine(6) (5-HT(6)) receptor was discovered only recently, its almost exclusive distribution in the brain makes it a promising, novel, target for central nervous system (CNS)-mediated diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (cognitive function), schizophrenia, anxiety and obesity. In the past few years a significant research interest has advanced the understanding of the functional roles and the pharmacophore requirements of this receptor. Two 5-HT(6) receptor antagonists have already entered Phase II clinical trials for the enhancement of cognitive function. Since the first discovery of selective ligands for the 5-HT(6) receptor by HTS in 1998, several medicinal-chemistry-driven approaches have delivered highly selective lead structures with well-defined functionalities, starting from either the endogenous ligand 5-HT or the chemical structures identified by HTS. The concept of 'scaffold hopping' has been employed to expand the variability of the available chemical scaffolds and to generate patentable ligands. Supported by pharmacophore models, which have been established recently, the binding and functionality (structure-activity relationships) of the lead structures have been optimized further.
    Drug Discovery Today 05/2006; 11(7-8):283-99. DOI:10.1016/j.drudis.2006.02.004 · 5.96 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Based on a medicinal-chemistry-guided approach, three novel series of druglike cycloalkyl-annelated pyrazoles were synthesized and display high affinity (pKi>8) for the sigma1 receptor. Structure-affinity relationships were established, and the different scaffolds were optimized with respect to sigma1 binding and selectivity versus the sigma2 receptor and the hERG channel, resulting in selective compounds that have Ki values (for sigma1) in the subnanomolar range. Selected compounds were screened for cytochrome P450 inhibition (CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4), metabolic stability (rat and human liver microsomes), and cell-membrane permeability (Caco-2). They showed favorable in vitro ADME properties as well as favorable calculated druglike and experimental physicochemical properties. Furthermore, compounds 7 f and 17 a, for example, displayed high selectivity (affinity) for the sigma1 receptor against a wide range of other receptors (>60). With these valuable tool compounds in hand, we are further exploring the role of the sigma1 receptor in relevant animal models corresponding to such medicinal indications as drug abuse, pain, depression, anxiety, and psychosis.
    ChemMedChem 02/2006; 1(1):140-54. DOI:10.1002/cmdc.200500034 · 3.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A series of 1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamides has been prepared from alkyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxylates under mild conditions. The ability of these triazoles to displace [3H]-CP55940 from CB1 cannabinoid receptor was measured. However, they showed only poor to moderate binding affinities, indicating that substitution of the C-4 pyrazole atom of the CB1 reference compound SR141716 by a nitrogen atom results in loss of affinity. Further investigations for functionality indicated that the compound 6a exhibited significant cannabinoid antagonistic properties in the mouse vas deferens functional assay. This leads us to the conclusion that 6a binds at a different CB1 binding site or at a new cannabinoid receptor subtype.
    European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 02/2006; 41(1):114-20. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmech.2005.06.012 · 3.43 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

402 Citations
73.51 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2010
    • Esteve
      Santiago Seré, Galicia, Spain
  • 2008
    • University of Rostock
      • Leibniz-Institut für Organische Katalyse
      Rostock, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany