Jon Patterson

Infinity Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (3)18.22 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Inhibitors of heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 induce apoptosis in multiple myeloma (MM) cells, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this cytotoxic outcome are not clear. Here, we investigate the effect of IPI-504, a novel and highly soluble inhibitor of the Hsp90 ATPase activity, on the unfolded protein response (UPR) in MM cells. The UPR is a stress response pathway triggered by sensors located at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane whose function is to reduce an excessive accumulation of misfolded protein in the ER. During normal development of B-lymphocytes to antibody-producing plasma cells, a partial UPR has been described, where IREalpha and ATF-6 are stimulated, whereas the third sensor, PERK, is not induced. Levels of the activated forms of the three main UPR sensors ATF-6, XBP-1 and PERK/eIF-2 were monitored in two different MM cells lines and one non-MM cell lines under various experimental conditions including incubation with increasing concentration of IPI-504. Also, MM cells were incubated with IPI-504 and several apoptosis markers were monitored. We show here that a partial UPR is constitutively activated in plasma cell-derived MM cells and that IPI-504 can potently inhibit this pathway. IPI-504 achieves this by inactivating the transcription factors XBP1 and ATF6. In addition, IPI-504 also blocks the tunicamycin-induced phosphorylation of eIF2 by PERK. Dose-response and time course experiments reveal that IPI-504's inhibitory effect on the UPR parallels its cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects on MM cells. The results presented here suggest that the IPI-504-induced apoptosis might be, in part, mediated by the inhibition of the partial UPR. Other malignancies that rely on intact and efficient UPR to survive could be considered as new indications for Hsp90 inhibitors.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 06/2008; 61(6):923-32. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an emerging therapeutic target of interest for the treatment of cancer. Its role in protein homeostasis and the selective chaperoning of key signaling proteins in cancer survival and proliferation pathways has made it an attractive target of small molecule therapeutic intervention. 17-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), the most studied agent directed against Hsp90, suffers from poor physical-chemical properties that limit its clinical potential. Therefore, there exists a need for novel, patient-friendly Hsp90-directed agents for clinical investigation. IPI-504, the highly soluble hydroquinone hydrochloride derivative of 17-AAG, was synthesized as an Hsp90 inhibitor with favorable pharmaceutical properties. Its biochemical and biological activity was profiled in an Hsp90-binding assay, as well as in cancer-cell assays. Furthermore, the metabolic profile of IPI-504 was compared with that of 17-AAG, a geldanamycin analog currently in clinical trials. The anti-tumor activity of IPI-504 was tested as both a single agent as well as in combination with bortezomib in myeloma cell lines and in vivo xenograft models, and the retention of IPI-504 in tumor tissue was determined. In conclusion, IPI-504, a potent inhibitor of Hsp90, is efficacious in cellular and animal models of myeloma. It is synergistically efficacious with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and is preferentially retained in tumor tissues relative to plasma. Importantly, it was observed that IPI-504 interconverts with the known agent 17-AAG in vitro and in vivo via an oxidation-reduction equilibrium, and we demonstrate that IPI-504 is the slightly more potent inhibitor of Hsp90.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2006; 103(46):17408-13. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 17-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG)1 is a semisynthetic inhibitor of the 90 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) currently in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. However, 17-AAG faces challenging formulation issues due to its poor solubility. Here we report the synthesis and evaluation of a highly soluble hydroquinone hydrochloride derivative of 17-AAG, 1a (IPI-504), and several of the physiological metabolites. These compounds show comparable binding affinity to human Hsp90 and its endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homologue, the 94 kDa glucose regulated protein (Grp94). Furthermore, the compounds inhibit the growth of the human cancer cell lines SKBR3 and SKOV3, which overexpress Hsp90 client protein Her2, and cause down-regulation of Her2 as well as induction of Hsp70 consistent with Hsp90 inhibition. There is a clear correlation between the measured binding affinity of the compounds and their cellular activities. Upon the basis of its potent activity against Hsp90 and a significant improvement in solubility, 1a is currently under evaluation in Phase I clinical trials for cancer.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 08/2006; 49(15):4606-15. · 5.61 Impact Factor