[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The coronary vascular endothelium could mediate some of the coronary effects of halogenated anaesthetic agents. The role of the endothelial vasodilator substances nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PGs) in the coronary effects of halothane and isoflurane remains to be determined and has not been investigated for desflurane. In this study, the roles of NO and cyclooxygenase pathways in the coronary effects of halothane, isoflurane and desflurane were studied in isolated red blood cell-perfused rabbit hearts.
Rabbit hearts were perfused by a Langendorf technique with red blood cells mixed with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer. Coronary blood flow (CBF), oxygen consumption and myocardial performance were evaluated during exposure to 0.5, 1 and 2 rabbit minimum alveolar concentrations of halothane, desflurane and isoflurane. Thereafter, the same protocol was applied with the addition of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), indomethacin or a combination of both inhibitors.
Similar and significant increases in CBF were observed with increasing concentrations of isoflurane and desflurane. In contrast, CBF did not change with halothane. The combination of the two antagonists abolished desflurane-induced vasodilation, whereas it did not change the isoflurane-mediated increase in CBF. Halothane-induced vasoconstriction was observed in the presence of a combination of indomethacin with L-NNA.
Halothane and desflurane induce the release of vasodilating prostaglandins and NO in rabbit coronary arteries. In contrast, these mediators are not involved in the coronary vasodilating properties of isoflurane.
BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 04/2002; 88(3):399-407. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pericardial fluid can reflect the composition of cardiac interstitium in myocardial ischemia. This study investigated the hypothesis that pericardial cardiac troponin I (CTnI) measurements could be a more accurate marker of perioperative myocardial infarction (MI) than serum CTnI after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Postoperative arterial and pericardial blood samples were taken in 102 subjects undergoing elective CABG allocated to one of three groups according to the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities observed during the first postoperative 24 h: Group 1 = normal ECG; Group 2 = nonspecific ECG abnormalities; and Group 3 = perioperative Q-wave MI. Peak pericardial CTnI concentrations were much higher than peak serum concentrations in all subjects and significantly greater in Group 3 than in Groups 1 and 2 (1,318 +/- 1,810 ng/mL vs 367 +/- 339 ng/mL and 558 +/- 608 ng/mL, respectively; P < 0.01). However, no significant difference between groups occurred at any time for pericardial/serum CTnI ratios, indicating that time courses of CTnI were not different in pericardial fluid and serum. A significant correlation was found between serum and pericardial CTnI concentrations (R = 0.70, P < 0.001). Pericardial CTnI was not more accurate than serum CTnI in predicting Q-wave MI as shown by the low value of the area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (= 0.71). Peak and early pericardial CTnI were also not accurate in predicting an increase of serum CTnI greater than a cutoff value of 19 ng/mL. Thus, pericardial CTnI measurements were less useful than serum CTnI measurements in the diagnosis of perioperative MI after CABG. IMPLICATIONS: Although cardiac troponin I concentrations were much higher in pericardial fluid than in serum and significantly increased in subjects who experienced perioperative Q-wave myocardial infarction, pericardial cardiac troponin I measurements were of less value than serum cardiac troponin I measurements for the diagnosis of perioperative myocardial infarction after coronary artery bypass grafting and cannot be recommended in routine clinical practice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myocardial contusion may induce life-threatening complications, but its diagnosis is difficult. Circulating cardiac troponin T is considered a highly sensitive and specific marker of myocardial cell injury. We investigate the value of cardiac troponin T measurement in the diagnosis of myocardial contusion.
Level 1 trauma center.
We prospectively measured circulating cardiac troponin T and performed echocardiography and continuous Holter monitoring in patients who had suffered blunt trauma. Myocardial contusion was diagnosed in patients who fulfilled one of the following criteria: (1) an abnormal echocardiography compatible with myocardial contusion; (2) severe cardiac rhythm abnormalities; (3) severe cardiac conduction abnormalities; and (4) hemopericardium.
One hundred twenty-eight patients were included and myocardial contusion was diagnosed in 29 patients. Patients with myocardial contusion had more severe trauma, experienced more frequently associated thoracic lesions, and had a lower left ventricular ejection fraction area (48 +/- 15 vs 61 +/- 10%; p < 0.001). Elevated circulating cardiac troponin T concentrations were significantly more frequent in patients with a myocardial contusion (31 vs 9%; p < 0.007). An elevated circulating cardiac troponin T concentration (> or = 0.5 microgram/L) was more accurate than MB fraction of creatine kinase (CK) (CK-MB) and CK-MB/CK ratio in the diagnosis of myocardial contusion, as shown by an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AROC), which was significantly different from 0.50 (AROC = 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.56 to 0.80). However, this improvement was not clinically acceptable (sensitivity, 0.31; specificity, 0.91).
Circulating cardiac troponin T measurement had a slightly greater diagnostic value than usual biological parameters (CK-MB, CK-MB/CK) in myocardial contusion. Nevertheless, it was concluded that an elevated circulating cardiac troponin T concentration has no important clinical value in the diagnosis of myocardial contusion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In isolated rabbit hearts perfused with suspension of red blood cells, we investigated the role of the endothelium and of several substances in the coronary vasoconstriction induced by a high arterial blood oxygen tension (PaO2). Red blood cells in Krebs-Henseleit buffer were oxygenated to obtain control and high-PaO2 perfusates. Arterial oxygen content was kept constant in both perfusates by reducing hemoglobin concentration in the high-PaO2 perfusate. Coronary blood flow was kept constant so that oxygen supply would not vary with the rise in PaO2. Increases in perfusion pressure therefore reflected increased coronary resistance. The high PaO2-induced coronary vasoconstriction was not affected by administration of indomethacin, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, NG-nitro-L-arginine, or superoxide dismutase and catalase but was abolished after endothelium damage or by cromakalim. These results demonstrate that 1) the endothelium contributes to the high PaO2-induced coronary vasoconstriction; 2) this effect is independent of cyclooxygenase or lipoxygenase products, nitric oxide, or free radicals; and 3) the closure of ATP-sensitive K+ channels mediates this vasoconstriction.
The American journal of physiology 02/1997; 272(1 Pt 2):H67-75. · 3.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertonic saline improves organ perfusion and animal survival during hemorrhagic shock because it expands plasma volume and increases tissue oxygenation. Because both decreased and increased myocardial performance have been reported with hypertonic saline, the effects of hyperosmolarity and the mechanism accounting for it were investigated in isolated blood-perfused rabbit hearts. Coronary blood flow (CBF), myocardial contractility, relaxation, and oxygen consumption were measured during administration of blood perfusates containing 140-180 mmol sodium concentrations ([Na+]). In two other series of experiments, the role of Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange in the inotropic effect of hyperosmolarity (160 mmol sodium concentration) and hypertonicity (sucrose) were also investigated. Hypertonic [Na+] induced a significant increase in contractility and relaxation, combined with a coronary vasodilation. Myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) increased at all hypertonic [Na+] without significant change in coronary venous oxygen tension (PVO2) and content (CVO2). Amiloride (0.3 mmol) inhibited the improved contractility observed with 160 mmol sodium. Similar Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger blockade did not inhibit the inotropic effect of sucrose. These results confirm the positive inotropic effect of hypertonic [Na+]. The inhibition of this improvement by amiloride suggests that calcium influx through the sarcolemna could be the major mechanism of this effect.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To define the mechanisms of the stable and prolonged post-operative plasma volume expansion observed with Hydroxyethyl Starches (HES) and to determine whether a partial intravascular hydrolysis of large molecules contribute to reinforce the colloid-osmotic effect.
Prospective, pharmacologic study using single dose of drug.
University-based, post-anesthesia care unit.
The protocol was performed during the post-operative period, in 10 patients after stable recovery from general anesthesia for carotid endarterectomy.
HES 200/0.62 (500 ml) was infused over 30 min. Standard hemodynamic and biological variables, HES concentration and colloid osmotic pressure were obtained at each measurement. Plasma volume was calculated using 51Cr-labelled RBCs. Patterns of changes in number average molecular weight (MWn) and weight average MW (MWw) were measured using gel permeation chromatography. Measurements were obtained at control, end of infusion, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h and 24 h after infusion.
Plasma volume increased by 693 ml (+21%) after the infusion of HES and remained constant over 24 h. HES concentration progressively decreased to reach a value of 35% of the peak at 24 h. MWn and MWw, initially decreased when compared with the dose solution and changed little in the 24 h study period. Diuresis significantly decreased at 3 h up to 24 h. Plasma albumin decreased after infusion and then progressively increased to reach a significantly higher value at 24 h than after infusion.
Initial plasma volume expansion and decrease in HES concentration agree with previously-published data. Maintenance of plasma volume expansion over 24 h was not related to a partial intravascular hydrolysis. Low elimination rate of HES, extravascular mobilization of albumin and post-operative renal adaptations were possibly the 3 main mechanisms to explain a prolonged plasma volume expansion with HES 200/0.62, 6%.
Intensive Care Medicine 08/1995; 21(7):577-83. · 5.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brain death may induce myocardial dysfunction, the mechanisms of which are not yet fully understood. Circulating cardiac troponin T is considered a highly sensitive and specific marker of myocardial cell injury.
We prospectively measured circulating cardiac troponin T in 100 brain-dead patients and measured the left ventricular ejection fraction area (LVEFa), using transesophageal echocardiography. Sixty-one patients had normal LVEFa, 25 had moderate decrease in LVEFa (30% to 50%), and 14 had severe decrease in LVEFa (< or = 30%). Circulating cardiac troponin T concentrations were significantly higher (1.68 +/- 1.03 micrograms/L-1, P < .01) in patients with a severe decrease in LVEFa than in the two other groups (0.42 +/- 0.43 and 0.12 +/- 0.16 microgram/L-1, respectively), and there was a significant correlation between LVEFa and cardiac troponin T concentration (p = -0.59, P < .0001). An elevated circulating cardiac troponin T concentration (> or = 0.5 microgram/L-1) was more accurate (sensitivity, 1.00; specificity, 0.84) in predicting a severe decrease in LVEFa than an elevated CKMB value or an increased CKMB/CK ratio.
An elevated circulating cardiac troponin T was associated with a severe decrease in LVEFa in brain-dead patients, suggesting that severe and potentially irreversible myocardial cell damage occurred. In contrast, CKMB determination was not useful. Since the quality of the donor's heart is considered an important prognosis factor in heart transplantation, the determination of circulating cardiac troponin T concentration could be useful to the heart transplantation team.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this prospective study was to determine if inhaled nitric oxide (NO) would reverse the increase in pulmonary arterial pressures and in pulmonary vascular resistance induced by acute permissive hypercapnia in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.
In 11 critically ill patients (mean age 59 +/- 22 yr) with acute respiratory distress syndrome (Murray Score > or = 2.5), the lungs were mechanically ventilated with NO 2 ppm during both normocapnic and hypercapnic conditions. Four phases were studied: normocapnia (arterial carbon dioxide tension 38 +/- 6 mmHg, tidal volume (655 +/- 132 ml); normocapnia plus inhaled NO 2 ppm; hypercapnia (arterial carbon dioxide tension 65 +/- 15 mmHg, tidal volume 330 +/- 93 ml); and hypercapnia plus inhaled NO 2 ppm. Continuous recordings were made of heart rate, arterial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, tracheal pressure, and tidal volume (by pneumotachograph). At the end of each condition, arterial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, cardiac filling pressures, and cardiac output were measured. Simultaneous arterial and mixed venous blood samples were obtained to measure arterial oxygen tension, arterial carbon dioxide tension, mixed venous oxygen tension, arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation, mixed venous hemoglobin oxygen saturation, pH, and blood hemoglobin and methemoglobin concentrations (by hemoximeter). In addition, plasma concentrations of catecholamines were measured with a radioenzymatic assay. In 5 patients, end-tidal carbon dioxide tension was measured with a nonaspirative infrared capnometer. Calculations were made of pulmonary vascular resistance index, systemic vascular resistance index, true pulmonary shunt, and alveolar dead space.
During hypercapnia, NO decreased pulmonary vascular resistance index from 525 +/- 223 to 393 +/- 142 dyn.s.cm-5.m-2 (P < 0.01), a value similar to that measured in normocapnic conditions (391 +/- 122 dyn.s.cm-5.m-2). It also reduced mean pulmonary artery pressure from 40 +/- 9 to 35 +/- 8 mmHg (P < 0.01). NO increased arterial oxygen tension (inspired oxygen fraction 1) from 184 +/- 67 to 270 +/- 87 mmHg during normocapnia and from 189 +/- 73 to 258 +/- 101 mmHg during hypercapnia (P < 0.01). NO decreased true pulmonary shunt during normocapnia (from 34 +/- 3% to 28 +/- 4%, P < 0.001) but had no significant effect on it during hypercapnia (39 +/- 7% vs. 38 +/- 8.5%). In five patients, NO resulted in a decrease in alveolar dead space from 34 +/- 7% to 28 +/- 10% in normocapnic conditions and from 30 +/- 9% to 22 +/- 10% in hypercapnic conditions (P < 0.05).
Inhaled NO completely reversed the increase in pulmonary vascular resistance index induced by acute permissive hypercapnia. It only partially reduced the pulmonary hypertension induced by acute permissive hypercapnia, probably because the flow component of the increase in pulmonary pressure (i.e., the increase in cardiac output) was not reduced by inhaled NO. A significant increase in arterial oxygenation after NO administration was observed during normocapnic and hypercapnic conditions. A ventilation strategy combining permissive hypercapnia and inhaled NO may reduce the potentially deleterious effects that permissive hypercapnia alone has on lung parenchyma and pulmonary circulation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the dose-response curve of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) in terms of pulmonary vasodilation and improvement in PaO2 in adults with severe acute respiratory failure.
Prospective randomized study.
A 14-bed ICU in a teaching hospital.
6 critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory failure (lung injury severity score > or = 2.5) and pulmonary hypertension.
8 concentrations of inhaled NO were administered at random: 100, 400, 700, 1000, 1300, 1600, 1900 and 5000 parts per billion (ppb). Control measurements were performed before NO inhalation and after the last concentration administered. After an NO exposure of 15-20 min, hemodynamic parameters obtained from a fiberoptic Swan-Ganz catheter, blood gases, methemoglobin blood concentrations and intratracheal NO and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations, continuously monitored using a bedside chemiluminescence apparatus, were recorded on a Gould ES 1000 recorder. In 2 patients end-tidal CO2 was also recorded.
The administration of 100-2000 ppb of inhaled NO induced: i) a dose-dependent decrease in pulmonary artery pressure and in pulmonary vascular resistance (maximum decrease--25%); ii) a dose-dependent increase in PaO2 via a dose-dependent reduction in pulmonary shunt; iii) a slight but significant decrease in PaCO2 via a reduction in alveolar dead space; iv) a dose-dependent increase in mixed venous oxygen saturation (SVO2). Systemic hemodynamic variables and methemoglobin blood concentrations did not change. Maximum NO2 concentrations never exceeded 165 ppb. In 2 patients, 91% and 74% of the pulmonary vasodilation was obtained for inhaled NO concentrations of 100 ppb.
In hypoxemic patients with pulmonary hypertension and severe acute respiratory failure, therapeutic inhaled NO concentrations are in the range 100-2000 ppb. The risk of toxicity related to NO inhalation is therefore markedly reduced. Continuous SVO2 monitoring appears useful at the bedside for determining optimum therapeutic inhaled NO concentrations in a given patient.
Intensive Care Medicine 05/1994; 20(5):319-27. · 5.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some clinical and experimental studies suggest that propofol decreases myocardial contractility and relaxation, whereas others report preserved cardiac function. To investigate the effects of propofol on intrinsic contractility and relaxation, increasing concentrations of propofol were infused in isolated blood-perfused rabbit hearts. Equimolar concentrations of thiopental were infused as a reference group.
Coronary blood flow, left ventricular contractility and relaxation (as maximal positive and negative left ventricular pressure derivatives [dP/dtmax and dP/dtmin], respectively), and myocardial oxygen consumption (MvO2) were measured during infusion of 10-1,000 microM propofol in blood-perfused hearts. To determine whether the effects of propofol depend on the heart's perfusate, propofol also was infused in isolated buffer-perfused rabbit hearts. In addition, the effects of propofol solvent were investigated in blood- and buffer-perfused preparations.
In blood-perfused preparations, coronary blood flow increased with propofol concentrations greater than 30 microM and with 300 and 1,000 microM thiopental. Left ventricular dP/dtmax and dP/dtmin remained unchanged with propofol and decreased with concentrations of thiopental equal to or greater than 30 microM. MvO2 increased with 1,000 microM propofol, whereas coronary venous oxygen tension and content remained unchanged. MvO2 decreased with thiopental associated with a significant increase in coronary venous oxygen tension and content. In six buffer-perfused hearts, basal coronary blood flow was much greater and MvO2 less than in blood-perfused hearts. Left ventricular dP/dtmax and dP/dtmin decreased with 30, 100, and 300 microM propofol. Propofol vehicle did not change coronary blood flow, myocardial performance, or MvO2 of blood- or buffer-perfused hearts.
When compared to a reference drug such as thiopental, propofol did not depress the myocardial performance of blood-perfused rabbit hearts. The type of the perfusate (blood vs. buffer), however, had a major influence on the myocardial effects of propofol.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Some clinical and experimental studies suggest that propofol decreases myocardial contractility and relaxation, whereas others report preserved cardiac function. To investigate the effects of propofol on intrinsic contractility and relaxation, increasing concentrations of propofol were infused in isolated blood-perfused rabbit hearts. Equimolar concentrations of thiopental were infused as a reference group.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The peripheral vascular effects of thiopental 5 mg/kg and propofol 2.5 mg/kg were compared in five patients whose lungs were being ventilated and in whom a Jarvik-7 artificial heart had been implanted. The patients were monitored, using catheters that had been surgically inserted into the radial artery, the right and left atria, and the pulmonary artery. The Jarvik-7 settings were modified to render the artificial heart "preload independent" and to maintain cardiac output constant. Each patient received both drugs, with the interval between each drug ranging from 16 to 28 h. Hemodynamic parameters and catecholamine and atrial natriuretic peptide plasma concentrations were measured before drug administration and 5, 10, 15, 30, and 45 min later. Both drugs significantly decreased arterial pressure, systemic vascular resistance index, pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), and right and left atrial pressures (RAP and LAP, respectively). However, propofol 2.5 mg/kg induced a significantly greater and more prolonged decrease in arterial pressure, systemic vascular resistance index, and RAP than that after administration of thiopental 5 mg/kg (P less than 0.05). Five minutes after drug injection, mean arterial pressure decreased by 21% after thiopental and by 39% after propofol (P less than 0.01); systemic vascular resistance index decreased by 21% after thiopental and by 44% after propofol (P less than 0.05); RAP decreased by 20% after thiopental and by 50% after propofol (P less than 0.05); mean PAP decreased by 18% after thiopental and by 32% after propofol (P less than 0.09); and LAP decreased by 40% after thiopental and by 46% after propofol (P less than 0.2). With both drugs, atrial natriuretic peptide, norepinephrine, and epinephrine plasma concentrations remained stable throughout the study period. Because cardiac output was maintained constant throughout the study, these results suggest that propofol 2.5 mg/kg is a more potent vasodilator of venous and arterial beds than is thiopental 5 mg/kg.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intentional normovolemic hemodilution was chosen as the model to compare a 6% low molecular weight hydroxyethyl starch (LMW HES) to 4% albumin. The study ran over the plasma exchange period for 24 h. Nine patients, scheduled for abdominal aortic surgery, were included in each group. After basal measurements, blood was withdrawn and simultaneously replaced by either 4% albumin (Group 1) or 6% LMW HES (Group 2) to achieve a final hematocrit of approximately 30%. Hemodynamic blood oxygen gas and hormonal plasma levels were determined before hemodilution then at 30 min, 1, 2, 3, and 24 h after the end of hemodilution. Basal value for total blood volume was 4377 +/- 162 ml in group 1 and 4138 +/- 315 ml in group 2. As in both groups the decrease in blood cell volume was exactly compensated by the increase in plasma volume, no significant change in total blood volume (respectively 4432 +/- 159 and 4305 +/- 267 ml) was observed. Throughout the study, in both groups, no significant change in mean arterial and right atrial pressures was observed. In group 2 (LMW HES), a significant increase of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure was noted 120 min after hemodilution. After hemodilution, despite a significant decrease in arterial oxygen O2 content, systemic oxygen transport did not significantly vary until 24 h in relation to the increased cardiac index. An increase in O2 extraction was observed after the exchange but no further increase was observed until the 24 h. No significant changes either in global O2 consumption or in lactate concentration were detected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Intensive Care Medicine 02/1991; 17(3):141-8. · 5.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thirty-one critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure and circulatory shock were divided into three groups. Group 1 included 11 patients with an inserted mixed venous saturation (SvO2) catheter using three-reference wavelengths and characterized by one transmitting and one detecting fiberoptic filament (Oximetrix opticath catheter); group 2 included eight patients with an inserted SvO2 catheter using two-reference wavelengths and characterized by one transmitting and one detecting fiberoptic filament; (Edwards sat-one catheter); group 3 included 12 patients with an inserted SvO2 catheter using two-reference wavelengths and characterized by one transmitting and two detecting fiberoptic filaments. Once calibration procedures were performed, SvO2 measured by the catheter and by an hemoximeter OSM 3 (reference value) were compared following each therapeutic intervention. Over a period of 1.5 to 6 hours during which the hematocrit value remained unchanged, 119 measurements were obtained in group 1, 91 in group 2 and 181 in group 3. The dispersion of SvO2 values was much more pronounced with the two-reference wavelength systems using either one or two detecting fiber optic filaments, and the correlation coefficient was significantly higher with the three-reference wavelength system (r = 0.970 for the Oximetrix catheter vs r = 0.855 for the Edwards catheter and r = 0.826 for the Spectramed catheter, p less than 0.001). After 24 hours, the spontaneous drifts in the two-reference wavelength systems, using either one or two detecting fiber optic filaments (expressed as the SvO2 value measured by the catheter minus the reference SvO2 value) were significantly higher than the spontaneous drift in the three-reference wavelength system (9.3 +/- 7 percent for the Edwards catheter and +/- 6 +/- 4.1 percent for the Spectramed catheter vs 3.3 +/- 3.1 percent for the Oximetrix catheter, p less than 0.05). This study shows that a three-wavelength system is more accurate than a two-wavelength system for measuring acute changes in SvO2. The addition of a second detecting fiber optic filament does not seem to improve the accuracy of the system when SvO2 changes occur in conditions of stable hematocrit.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The peripheral vascular effects of isoflurane and halothane were compared in five critically ill patients in whom a Jarvik-7 artificial heart had been implanted. The lungs of all patients were mechanically ventilated in the postoperative period and the patients were monitored with an arterial catheter and with catheters that had been surgically inserted into the right and left atria and into the pulmonary artery. Norepinephrine and epinephrine plasma concentrations were measured using a radioenzymatic assay. The Jarvik-7 settings were modified to render the artificial heart "preload independent" and to maintain cardiac output constant. Each patient was anesthetized twice using halothane and isoflurane at two different MAC levels, 1 and 1.5 (Datex vapour analyzer), with the interval between each anesthetic ranging from 12 to 26 h. Both anesthetics significantly decreased mean arterial pressure (from 100 +/- 11 mmHg to 66 +/- 13 mmHg for halothane and from 102 +/- 17 mmHg to 48 +/- 11 mmHg for isoflurane; mean +/- SD) and systemic vascular resistance index (from 27 +/- 11 Wood units/m2 to 18 +/- 6 Wood units/m2 for halothane and from 30 +/- 6 Wood units/m2 to 13 +/- 3 Wood units/m2 for isoflurane; mean +/- SD), but with isoflurane to a significantly greater extent than with halothane (P less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)