[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuropsychological impairment has long been established as a fundamental characteristic of depression, but a generally accepted, specific pattern of neuropsychological impairment has not been summarized. In this study, we examined the classic neuropsychological paradigm of self-face recognition, to explore whether the self was impaired in major depressive disorder (MDD). Eighteen MDD patients and 20 healthy subjects were recruited to participate in this study. By using a face morphing technique, we measured the size of processing bias in MDD patients during different face discrimination tasks relative to controls. Results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant main effect of Group (F (1, 36) = 7.388, P = 0.01). Subsequent independent t-tests further revealed that self bias (t = 2.636, P = 0.012) and self-recognition bias (t = 2.190, P = 0.035) observed in self-famous task and self-stranger task respectively for patients were significantly greater than that for controls. Both self-processing and self-recognition were impaired in patients with MDD, indicating that MDD individuals might exist level of self-abnormalities. These findings provide a new perspective for further study on the etiological and pathological mechanisms of MDD.
Chinese Science Bulletin 10/2014; 59(28). · 1.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mindfulness is typically defined as nonjudgmental awareness of experiences in the present moment, which is beneficial for mental and physical well-being. Previous studies have identified multiple regions in the default mode network (DMN) that are involved in mindfulness, but little is known about how these regions work collaboratively as a network. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the role of the DMN in trait mindfulness by correlating spontaneous functional connectivity among DMN nodes with self-reported trait mindfulness in a large population of young adults. Among all pairs of the DMN nodes, we found that individuals with weaker functional connectivity between the thalamus and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) were more mindful of the present. Post-hoc analyses of these two nodes further revealed that graph-based nodal properties of the thalamus, not the PCC, were negatively correlated with trait mindfulness, suggesting that a low involvement of the thalamus in the DMN is relevant for high trait mindfulness. Our findings not only suggest the thalamus as a switch between mind-wandering and mindfulness, but also invite future studies on mechanisms of how mindfulness produces beneficial effects by modulating the thalamus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: authors have contributed equally to this work. In functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, object selectivity is defined as a higher neural response to an object category than other object categories. Importantly, object selectivity is widely considered as a neural signature of a functionally-specialized area in processing its preferred object category in the human brain. However, the behavioral significance of the object selectivity remains unclear. In the present study, we used the individual differences approach to correlate participants' face selectivity in the face-selective regions with their behavioral performance in face recognition measured outside the scanner in a large sample of healthy adults. Face selectivity was defined as the z score of activation with the contrast of faces vs. non-face objects, and the face recognition ability was indexed as the normalized residual of the accuracy in recognizing previously-learned faces after regressing out that for non-face objects in an old/new memory task. We found that the participants with higher face selectivity in the fusiform face area (FFA) and the occipital face area (OFA), but not in the posterior part of the superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), possessed higher face recognition ability. Importantly, the association of face selectivity in the FFA and face recognition ability cannot be accounted for by FFA response to objects or behavioral performance in object recognition, suggesting that the association is domain-specific. Finally, the association is reliable, confirmed by the replication from another independent participant group. In sum, our finding provides empirical evidence on the validity of using object selectivity as a neural signature in defining object-selective regions in the human brain.
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 07/2014; 8. · 2.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) requires immediate treatment with plasma exchange (PE) to prevent disease mortality and/or morbidity. Frequently, PE is initiated before blood sample is collected to confirm ADAMTS13 deficiency. However, the effect of PE treatments on the evaluation of ADAMTS13 is uncertain. Moreover, the pertinence of ADAMTS13 activity during PE therapy to prediction of treatment outcomes is unclear. Thus, clarification of the diagnostic and prognostic values of ADAMTS13 activity obtained during PE treatment is an unmet clinical need.Study Design and MethodsA total of 212 sequential samples were obtained during the course of daily PE treatment from 19 patients with acquired TTP. ADAMTS13 activity levels were determined in these longitudinal samples for analysis.ResultsAfter the initial three daily PE procedures, the sensitivities of ADAMTS13 activity in diagnosis of TTP (<10%) were 89, 83, and 78%, respectively. To determine prognostic value, patients with (n = 7) and without (n = 12) a recovery of ADAMTS13 activity to more than 10% within seven sessions of daily PE treatment were compared. Recovery of ADAMTS13 activity to more than 10% within 7 days is significantly associated with a timely achievement of clinical response (p < 0.01). In contrast, the patients without more than 10% ADAMTS13 within 1 week appear at risk for worse treatment outcomes manifested as TTP exacerbation, treatment refractoriness, or death.Conclusion
The data suggest that ADAMTS13 activities measured during the initial period of PE therapy offer both diagnostic and prognostic values in acquired TTP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Construction anatomical connections of large-scale brain networks via diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) plays an important role in modeling the human connectome (). In practice, one of the important but unsolved issues is the determination of nodes for network construction. Previous studies have demonstrated that significant effects exist on the topological properties if applying different of nodes (e.g., different node scales or different prior atlas) ([2, 3]). However, little is known whether the node refining in anatomical network construction matters? Here, node refining refers to whether to compute the gray matter/white matter boundary (GWB) for each node in the raw prior atlas before being used to construct the whole-brain networks with tractography. Although both methods have been widely used (e.g.,  vs. ), the node-refining effects have yet been studied. According to the procedures of anatomical network construction via dMRI, the node-refining effects appear to be significant in the network construction, as shown in Fig. 1A. In this work, we seek to evaluate the node refining effects on the topological properties of the constructed large-scale anatomical networks with the widely-used automated anatomical labeling (AAL) parcellation atlas ().
20th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping, Hamburg, Germany; 06/2014
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The opinion of mind-body interaction has been increasingly acknowledged in recent years, as exemplified by accumulating evidence indicating that physical health (body) is associated with emotion and emotion regulation (mind). Yet the neural basis linking emotion regulation with physical health remains largely uninvestigated. Here we used magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural basis of this pathway in a large population of healthy young adults. With a systematic study revealing the association of self-reported physical health and emotion traits of personality and general affective experiences, we further demonstrated that, for better physical health, individuals needed to regulate their emotion more effectively. Importantly, individuals who had larger gray matter (GM) volume in the amygdala reported not only a higher ability of emotion regulation but also better physical health. Further, GM volume in the amygdala mediated the correlation between emotion regulation ability and physical health. Our findings suggest that the amygdala plays a critical role in the neural circuit through which emotion regulation may influence physical health. Therefore, our study takes the first step towards exploring the neuroanatomical basis for body-mind interaction, and may inform interventions aimed at promoting physical health by augmenting skills of emotion regulation.
Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 06/2014; · 5.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mindfulness is the state of being attentive to and aware of what is taking place in the present, which is beneficial for reducing stress-related symptoms and improving mental and physical health. Previous studies have demonstrated that meditation practice can improve individuals' mindfulness through modifying functions and structures of multiple brain regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula, fronto-limbic network, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and temporal-parietal junction. However, little is known about the neuroanatomical correlates of trait mindfulness. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the neural correlates of individual differences in trait mindfulness by correlating the gray matter (GM) volume of each voxel across the whole brain with trait mindfulness measured by the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale in a large sample of young adults (N = 247). We found that individuals who were more mindful of the present had greater GM volume in the right hippocampus/amygdala and bilateral ACC and but less GM volume in bilateral PCC and the left orbitofrontal cortex. These results suggest that trait mindfulness is associated with brain regions involved in executive attention, emotion regulation, and self-referential processing, through which mindfulness may exerts its beneficial effects on psychological and physical well-being.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cervical cancers/CCs are one of the commonest malignancies and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women. Resveratrol inhibits CC cell growth but its molecular target(s) remains unclear. Since the signaling pathways mediated by STAT3, Notch1 and Wnt2 play beneficial roles in CC formation and progression, the effects of resveratrol on them in cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa) and squamous cell carcinoma (SiHa) cells were analyzed. The biological significances of the above signaling for HeLa and SiHa cells were evaluated by treating the cells with STAT3, Wnt or Notch selective inhibitors. The frequencies of STAT3, Notch and Wnt activations in 68 cases of CC specimens and 38 non-cancerous cervical epithelia were examined by tissue microarray-based immunohistochemical staining. The results revealed that HeLa and SiHa cells treated by 100μM resveratrol showed extensive apoptosis, accompanied with suppression of STAT3, Notch and Wnt activations. Growth inhibition and apoptosis were found in HeLa and SiHa populations treated by AG490, a STAT3/JAK3 inhibitor but not the ones treated by Notch inhibitor L-685,458 or by Wnt inhibitor XAV-939. Immunohistochemical staining performed on the tissue microarrays showed that the frequencies of Notch1, Notch2, Hes1, Wnt2, Wnt5a and p-STAT3 detection as well as β-catenin nuclear translocation in CC samples were significantly higher than that of noncancerous group (p<0.01), while the expression rate of PIAS3 was remarkably low in cancer samples (p<0.01). Our results thus demonstrate that STAT3, Wnt and Notch signaling are frequently co-activated in human CC cells and specimens and resveratrol can concurrently inhibit those signaling activations and meanwhile lead cervical squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cells to growth arrest and apoptosis. STAT3 signaling is more critical for CC cells and is the major target of resveratrol because selective inhibition of STAT3 rather than Wnt or Notch activation commits SiHa and HeLa cells to apoptosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We proposed an improved approach to measuring regional diffusivity dependency with diffusion MRI. Unlike the original approach, the improved metric can detect all types of regional dependencies. Systematical comparison was done.
2014 IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging, Beijing; 04/2014
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:To investigate the routes of elimination and excretion for triptolide recovered in rats.Methods:After a single oral administration of [(3)H]triptolide (0.8 mg/kg, 100 μCi/kg) in Sprague Dawley rats, urine and fecal samples were collected for 168 h. To study biliary excretion, bile samples were collected for 24 h through bile duct cannulation. Radioactivity was measured using a liquid scintillation analyzer, and excretion pathway analysis was performed using an HPLC/on-line radioactivity detector.Results:The total radioactivity recovered from the urine and feces of rats without bile duct ligation ranged from 86.6%-89.1%. Most of the radioactivity (68.6%-72.0%) was recovered in the feces within 72 h after oral administration, while the radioactivity recovered in the urine and bile was 17.1%-18.0% and 39.0%-39.4%, respectively. The HPLC/on-line radiochromatographic analysis revealed that most of the drug-related radioactivity was in the form of metabolites. In addition, significant gender differences in the quantity of these metabolites were found: monohydroxytriptolide sulfates were the major metabolites detected in the urine, feces, and bile of female rats, while only traces of these metabolites were found in male rats.Conclusion:Radiolabeled triptolide is mainly secreted in bile and eliminated in feces. The absorbed radioactivity is primarily eliminated in the form of metabolites, and significant gender differences are observed in the quantity of recovered metabolites, which are likely caused by the gender-specific expression of sulfotransferases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Creativity is crucial to the progression of human civilization and has led to important scientific discoveries. Especially, individuals are more likely to have scientific discoveries if they possess certain personality traits of creativity (trait creativity), including imagination, curiosity, challenge, and risk-taking. The current study used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify the brain regions underlying individual differences in trait creativity, as measured by the Williams creativity aptitude test, in a large sample (n = 246). We found that creative individuals had higher gray matter volume in the right posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG), which might be related to semantic processing during novelty seeking (e.g., novel association, conceptual integration, and metaphor understanding). More importantly, although basic personality factors such as openness to experience, extroversion, conscientiousness and agreeableness (as measured by the NEO Personality Inventory) all contributed to trait creativity, only openness to experience mediated the association between the right pMTG volume and trait creativity. Taken together, our results suggest that the basic personality trait of openness might play an important role in shaping an individual's trait creativity.
Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 03/2014; · 5.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Behavioral research has demonstrated that males have a higher capability of regulating their own and others' emotions than females; however, little is known about the sex-specific brain mechanisms involved in emotion regulation ability. In the present study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the neural basis underlying emotion regulation ability in a large sample of young adults. Assessment of emotion regulation ability was performed using the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale. As expected, males significantly scored higher in emotion regulation ability than females did. More importantly, we found the sex differences in the neuroanatomical basis of emotion regulation ability. Males showed a stronger positive relation between emotion regulation ability and regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, females demonstrated a stronger positive relation between emotion regulation ability and rGMV in an anatomical cluster that extends from the left brainstem to the left hippocampus, the left amygdala and the insular cortex. The present study provides the first empirical evidence regarding the sex-linked neuroanatomical correlates of emotion regulation ability. These findings may help understand why there is a higher prevalence of affective disorders in females and maladaptive behaviors in males.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(5):e97071. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Music is not simply a series of organized pitches, rhythms, and timbres, it is capable of evoking emotions. In the present study, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was employed to explore the neural basis that may link music to emotion. To do this, we identified the neuroanatomical correlates of the ability to extract pitch interval size in a music segment (i.e., interval perception) in a large population of healthy young adults (N = 264). Behaviorally, we found that interval perception was correlated with daily emotional experiences, indicating the intrinsic link between music and emotion. Neurally, and as expected, we found that interval perception was positively correlated with the gray matter volume (GMV) of the bilateral temporal cortex. More important, a larger GMV of the bilateral amygdala was associated with better interval perception, suggesting that the amygdala, which is the neural substrate of emotional processing, is also involved in music processing. In sum, our study provides one of first neuroanatomical evidence on the association between the amygdala and music, which contributes to our understanding of exactly how music evokes emotional responses.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e99889. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: S100A4 promotes cancer metastasis but is frequently silenced in human cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas/c-SCCs due to DNA methylation, which may explain the less metastasized property of c-SCCs.
Cancer biomarkers: section A of Disease markers 01/2014; 14(5):325-33. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conventional adjuvant chemotherapies for bladder transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs) may cause strong systemic toxicity and local irritation. Non-toxic resveratrol inhibits TCC cell growth but its feasibility in clinical management of TCCs remains obscure. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and anti-TCC efficacy of resveratrol, using the experimental models closer to the clinical treatment condition. Human TCC EJ cells were exposed to 100 µM, 150 µM and 200 µM resveratrol respectively for 1 hour and 2 hours to mimic intravesical drug instillation and the cell responses were analyzed by multiple experimental approaches. An orthotopic TCC nude mouse model was established by injecting EJ cells into the sub-urothelial layer and used for short-term intravesical resveratrol instillation. The safety of resveratrol instillation was evaluated and compared with that of MCC. The results revealed that 2 h 150 µM or 200 µM resveratrol treatment leaded to remarkable S phase arrest and apoptosis at 72 h time-point, accompanied with attenuated phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and transcription of STAT3, down-regulation of STAT3 downstream genes (survivin, cyclinD1, c-Myc and VEGF) and nuclear translocations of Sirt1 and p53. The importance of STAT3 signaling in cell growth was confirmed by treating EJ cells with JAK2 inhibitor tyrphostin AG490. The efficacy and safety of resveratrol instillation were proved by the findings from nude mouse orthotopic xenograft models, because this treatment caused growth suppression, distinctive apoptosis and STAT3 inactivation of the transplanted tumors without affecting normal urothelium. Our results thus suggest for the first time the practical values of resveratrol as a safe and effective agent in the post-operative treatment of TCCs.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e89806. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides valuable data for understanding the human mind and brain disorders, but in-scanner head motion introduces systematic and spurious biases. For example, differences in MRI measures (e.g., network strength, white matter integrity) between patient and control groups may be due to the differences in their head motion. To determine whether head motion is an important variable in itself, or just simply a confounding variable, we explored individual differences in psychological traits that may predispose some people to move more than others during an MRI scan. In the first two studies, we demonstrated in both children (N = 245) and adults (N = 581) that head motion, estimated from resting-state functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging, was reliably correlated with impulsivity scores. Further, the difference in head motion between children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typically developing children was largely due to differences in impulsivity. Finally, in the third study, we confirmed the observation that the regression approach, which aims to deal with motion issues by regressing out motion in the group analysis, would underestimate the effect of interest. Taken together, the present findings provide empirical evidence that links in-scanner head motion to psychological traits.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phenomenological research indicates that disturbance of the basic sense of self may be a core phenotypic marker of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Self-face recognition (SFR) is an experimental paradigm which can assess the basic sense of self. In this study, we used SFR to determine whether basic self-disturbance is present in the ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis population at the perceptual level.
Twenty-three UHR individuals and 23 healthy comparison subjects were administered the SFR task. The study consisted of a 2 × 3 × 2 design: two group levels (UHR for psychosis group and the healthy comparison group); three task levels (self-famous task, self-stranger task, famous-stranger task); and two hand levels (left hand and right hand). Threshold limit values in face recognition were analysed.
The analysis indicated effects for group (F(1, 43) = 5.197, P < 0.05) and interaction effects between group and task (F = 4.767, P < 0.05). An independent samples t-test was used to compare the threshold limit values of the same task between the two groups. For self-famous task, the threshold limit values of the UHR group were higher than those of healthy group both in the left and right hands (t = 2.734, P < 0.05; t = 2.864, P < 0.05), but no significant difference was found in self-stranger task and famous-stranger task (P > 0.05).
This SFR study indicates that basic self-disturbance is present in the UHR for psychosis at the behavioural level in comparison with a healthy comparison group.
Early Intervention in Psychiatry 12/2013; · 1.65 Impact Factor