ABSTRACT: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with increased short-term mortality of septic patients; however, the exact influence of AKI on long-term mortality in such patients has not yet been determined.
We retrospectively evaluated the impact of AKI, defined by the "Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, End-stage kidney disease" (RIFLE) classification based on creatinine criteria, on 2-year mortality in a cohort of 234 hospital surviving septic patients who had been hospitalized at the Infectious Disease Intensive Care Unit of our Hospital.
Mean-follow-up was 21 +/- 6.4 months. During this period, 32 patients (13.7%) died. At 6 months, 1 and 2 years of follow-up, the cumulative probability of death of patients with previous AKI was 8.3, 16.9 and 34.2%, respectively, as compared with 2.2, 6 and 8.9% in patients without previous AKI (log-rank, P < 0.0001). In the univariate analysis, age (hazard ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.7, P < 0.0001), as well as pre-existing cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio 3.6, 95% CI 1.4-9.4, P = 0.009), illness severity as evaluated by nonrenal APACHE II (hazard ratio 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.6, P = 0.002), and previous AKI (hazard ratio 4.2, 95% CI 2.1-8.5, P < 0.0001) were associated with increased 2-year mortality, while gender, race, pre-existing hypertension, cirrhosis, HIV infection, neoplasm, and baseline glomerular filtration rate did not. In the multivariate analysis, however, only previous AKI (hazard ratio 3.2, 95% CI 1.6-6.5, P = 0.001) and age (hazard ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.6, P < 0.0001) emerged as independent predictors of 2-year mortality.
Acute kidney injury had a negative impact on long-term mortality of patients with sepsis.
BMC Nephrology 01/2010; 11:9. · 2.18 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To analyze the clinical characteristics of septic acute kidney injury (AKI) according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) classification, and to evaluate the capacity of this system in predicting in-hospital mortality of septic patients.
Patients with sepsis admitted to the infectious diseases intensive care unit (ICU) of our hospital between January 2004 and June 2007 were retrospectively studied. Maximum AKIN stage within the first three days of hospitalization was recorded.
Three hundred fifteen patients were evaluated. According to AKIN criteria, 99 patients (31.4%) had AKI: 26.2% at stage 1, 20.2% at stage 2, and 53.6% at stage 3. Four patients (1.9%) with no AKI progressed to stage 1, two patients (7.7%) at stage 1 progressed to stage 2, one patient (3.8%) at stage 1 progressed to stage 3, and one patient at stage 2 (5%) progressed to stage 3. The mortality rate was 25.3% and increased significantly from normal renal function to stage 3 (normal, 12.5%; stage 1, 34.6%; stage 2, 45%; stage 3, 64.1%; p<0.0001). After adjusting for age, gender, race, pre-existing chronic kidney disease, illness severity as evaluated by acute physiology and chronic health evaluation, version II (APACHE II) score, need for mechanical ventilation, and vasopressor use, AKIN stage 1 (odds ratio (OR) 3.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-8.19, p=0.029), stage 2 (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.11-9.78, p=0.031), and stage 3 (OR 7.35, 95% CI 3.13-17.25, p<0.0001) predicted mortality.
AKIN criteria are a useful tool to characterize and stratify septic patients according to the risk of death.
International journal of infectious diseases: IJID: official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases 10/2008; 13(2):176-81. · 2.17 Impact Factor
Critical care (London, England) 02/2007; 11(2):408. · 4.61 Impact Factor
Critical care (London, England) 02/2007; 11(2):411. · 4.61 Impact Factor