K Allen Greiner

Kansas City VA Medical Center, Kansas City, Missouri, United States

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Publications (61)120.35 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches that involve community and academic partners in activities ranging from protocol design through dissemination of study findings can increase recruitment of medically underserved and underrepresented racial/ethnic minority populations into biomedical research. Methods: Five cancer screening and prevention trials in three National Cancer Institute (Bethesda, MD)–funded Community Networks Program Centers (CNPC), in Florida, Kansas, and South Carolina, were conducted across diverse populations. Data were collected on total time period of recruitment, ratios of participants enrolled over potential participants approached, selected CBPR strategies, capacity-building development, and systematic procedures for community stakeholder involvement. Results: Community-engaged approaches used included establishing colearning opportunities, participatory procedures for community–academic involvement, and community and clinical capacity building. A relatively large proportion of individuals identified for recruitment was actually approached (between 50% and 100%). The proportion of subjects who were eligible among all those approached ranged from 25% to more than 70% (in the community setting). Recruitment rates were very high (78%–100% of eligible individuals approached) and the proportion who refused or who were not interested among those approached was very low (5%–11%). Conclusions: Recruitment strategies used by the CNPCs were associated with low refusal and high enrollment ratios of potential subjects. Adherence to CBPR principles in the spectrum of research activities, from strategic planning to project implementation, has significant potential to increase involvement in biomedical research and improve our ability to make appropriate recommendations for cancer prevention and control programming in underrepresented diverse populations. Impact: CBPR strategies should be more widely implemented to enhance study recruitment. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(3); 416–23. ©2014 AACR.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 03/2014; 23:416-423. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches that involve community and academic partners in activities ranging from protocol design through dissemination of study findings can increase recruitment of medically underserved and underrepresented racial/ethnic minority populations into biomedical research. Five cancer screening and prevention trials in three National Cancer Institute (Bethesda, MD)-funded Community Networks Program Centers (CNPC), in Florida, Kansas, and South Carolina, were conducted across diverse populations. Data were collected on total time period of recruitment, ratios of participants enrolled over potential participants approached, selected CBPR strategies, capacity-building development, and systematic procedures for community stakeholder involvement. Community-engaged approaches used included establishing colearning opportunities, participatory procedures for community-academic involvement, and community and clinical capacity building. A relatively large proportion of individuals identified for recruitment was actually approached (between 50% and 100%). The proportion of subjects who were eligible among all those approached ranged from 25% to more than 70% (in the community setting). Recruitment rates were very high (78%-100% of eligible individuals approached) and the proportion who refused or who were not interested among those approached was very low (5%-11%). Recruitment strategies used by the CNPCs were associated with low refusal and high enrollment ratios of potential subjects. Adherence to CBPR principles in the spectrum of research activities, from strategic planning to project implementation, has significant potential to increase involvement in biomedical research and improve our ability to make appropriate recommendations for cancer prevention and control programming in underrepresented diverse populations. CBPR strategies should be more widely implemented to enhance study recruitment. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(3); 416-23. ©2014 AACR.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 03/2014; 23(3):416-423. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To adapt a daily hassles measure for a low-income population and assess the relationship between hassles and health seeking behavior. The mixed methods approach used cognitive interviews (N = 23) to inform an adapted measure of daily hassles. The adapted scale was then tested via surveys (N = 144) in community health centers; multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess relationships among variables. Hassle concerning having enough money for emergencies (76.5%) and worrying about personal health (68.8%) were among the most common. Increased health-related hassles were associated with an increased likelihood to delay needed care. Findings suggest daily hassles are unique among low-income populations and should be considered in health behavior interventions.
    American journal of health behavior 03/2014; 38(2):297-306. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Texts and software that we are currently using for teaching multivariate analysis to non-statisticians lack in the delivery of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The purpose of this paper is to provide educators with a complement to these resources that includes CFA and its computation. We focus on how to use CFA to estimate a "composite reliability" of a psychometric instrument. This paper provides guidance for introducing, via a case-study, the non-statistician to CFA. As a complement to our instruction about the more traditional SPSS, we successfully piloted the software R for estimating CFA on nine non-statisticians. This approach can be used with healthcare graduate students taking a multivariate course, as well as modified for community stakeholders of our Center for American Indian Community Health (e.g. community advisory boards, summer interns, & research team members). The placement of CFA at the end of the class is strategic and gives us an opportunity to do some innovative teaching: (1) build ideas for understanding the case study using previous course work (such as ANOVA); (2) incorporate multi-dimensional scaling (that students already learned) into the selection of a factor structure (new concept); (3) use interactive data from the students (active learning); (4) review matrix algebra and its importance to psychometric evaluation; (5) show students how to do the calculation on their own; and (6) give students access to an actual recent research project.
    Case studies in business, industry and government statistics : CSBIGS. 01/2014; 5(2):88-101.
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    ABSTRACT: American Indians (AIs) have some of the poorest documented health outcomes of any racial/ethnic group. Research plays a vital role in addressing these health disparities. Historical and recent instances of unethical research, specifically the Havasupai diabetes project, have generated mistrust in AI communities. To address the concerns about unethical research held by some AIs in the Heartland (Midwest), the Center for American Indian Community Health (CAICH) has launched a series of efforts to inform AIs about research participants' rights. CAICH educates health researchers about the importance of learning and respecting a community's history, culture, values, and wishes when engaging in research with that community. Through community-based participatory research, CAICH is also empowering AIs to assert their rights as research participants. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print October 17, 2013: e1-e8. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301480).
    American Journal of Public Health 10/2013; · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: American Indians (AI) have the highest smoking rates of any racial/ethnic group in the U.S. and have more difficulty quitting smoking. Little is known about the smoking characteristics of AI smokers. The present study compared the demographic and smoking characteristics of light (≤10 cigarettes per day; N=206) and moderate/heavy (11+ cigarettes per day; N=86) AI smokers participating in a cross-sectional survey about smoking and health. Multiple methods were used to recruit participants in attendance at powwows, health and career fairs, and conferences. A total of 998 AI (76% cooperation rate) completed a survey assessing general health, sociodemographics, traditional and commercial tobacco use, knowledge and attitudes related to cancer, source of health information and care and other health-related behaviors. AI light smokers were younger and less likely to be married or living with a partner compared to moderate/heavy smokers. AI light smokers were less dependent on smoking and more likely to have home smoking restrictions. There were no differences with respect to number of quit attempts in the past year or the average length of their most recent quit attempt by light vs. moderate/heavy smoking. In addition, a similar proportion of light and heavy smokers reported using tobacco for traditional purposes such as ceremonial, spiritual and prayer. These findings highlight important differences between AI light and heavier smokers. Differences related to smoking characteristics such as level of dependence and home smoking restrictions have important implications for the treatment of AI smokers.
    Addictive behaviors 10/2013; · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE . Although colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality rates in the US population have shown a decline, American Indian (AI) CRC mortality rates appear to be increasing. CRC screening rates of AIs remain low when compared with other ethnic groups. The research team explored women's perceptions toward CRC screening, existing barriers, and suggestions to promote education and screening among AI women in Kansas and Missouri. METHODS . Using a community-based participatory research approach, the authors conducted 7 focus groups with AI women older than 50 years (N = 52) to better understand their perceptions of and attitudes toward CRC screening. RESULTS . Women recognized barriers to screening, such as embarrassment, privacy issues, fear, insurance, and cost. They countered perceived barriers through inventive suggestions for education and awareness via social support systems and intergenerational relationships. DISCUSSION . CRC screening interventions for AI must be culturally tailored.
    Journal of primary care & community health. 07/2013; 4(3):160-166.
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer mortality rates are the second leading cause of cancer death in American Indian (AI) women. AI breast cancer screening rates have been decreasing, and AI women have some of the lowest screening rates compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Our research team investigated breast cancer and breast cancer screening education prior to recommended age for screening. It is imperative to examine the perspectives of young AI women toward breast cancer screening to better understand screening perceptions among AI women. Following a community-based participatory research approach, we conducted five focus groups and four interviews with AI women aged 25-39 (N = 48) in Kansas and Missouri. Nine themes emerged from the focus groups and relate to topics such as the following: knowledge of breast cancer and breast cancer screening, barriers to screening and treatment, suggestions to improve access, and perceptions and use of health-care systems. Specifically, we found that AI women lacked knowledge of details about screenings and their risks for getting breast cancer, cost was cited as a primary barrier to screening, additional education was needed (particularly materials that were AI focused), breast health was generally not discussed with others, and more instruction was requested for techniques used to identify bodily changes or abnormalities. Understanding attitudes of AI women not of recommended screening age may provide an insight into low screening rates among AI women. Furthermore, the results may inform outreach strategies to improve current and future screening rates.
    Journal of Cancer Education 06/2013; · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: American Indian (AI) men have some of the highest rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the United States but among the lowest screening rates. Our goal was to better understand awareness and discourse about colorectal cancer in a heterogeneous group of AI men in the Midwestern United States. Focus groups were conducted with AI men (N = 29); data were analyzed using a community-participatory approach to qualitative text analysis. Several themes were identified regarding knowledge, knowledge sources, and barriers to and facilitators of screening. Men in the study felt that awareness about colorectal cancer was low, and people were interested in learning more. Education strategies need to be culturally relevant and specific.
    Preventing chronic disease 01/2013; 10:E170. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Information concerning American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) Internet use and health information needs is dearth. Our research team explored Internet use among AI/AN college students to determine Internet use in relation to health information seeking behaviors. We used a tobacco site example for participants to describe what they desired in a health site designed specifically for AI/AN. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we conducted 14 focus groups with AI/AN college students (N = 108), to better understand their perceptions of and attitudes toward Internet use and health information needs. Daily Internet use was reported across strata yet health topics investigated differed among groups. Participants in all strata desired a health website that was easy to navigate and interactive. Respectful representation of Native culture was a concern, yet no consensus was reached for a multi-tribal audience. Participants felt a website should use caution with cultural depictions due to the possible misinterpretation. Overall, participants agreed that recreational and traditional tobacco use should be differentiated and the variation of traditional use among tribes acknowledged. Data concerning Internet use for health information among AI/AN college students are needed to establish baseline indicators to effectively address disparities.
    Journal of Community Health 11/2012; · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: African immigrant and refugee communities remain medically underserved in the United States. Formative efforts are being directed to address the local needs of communities by researchers, community agencies, and local populations. However, there is a paucity of data and sparse documentation regarding these efforts. The objectives for this pilot study were to identify the health priorities of the Kansas City Somali community and to establish a working relationship between an academic medical university and the local Somali community. Our team used community-based participatory research principles and interviewed Somali community members (n = 11). Participants stated that chronic and mental health conditions were of primary concern. Medical system navigation and literacy struggles were identified as barriers. Participants offered possible solutions to some health issues, e.g., using community health workers and Qur'anic readers. Preliminary findings will help guide future research and inform strategies to improve the health and well-being of this community.
    Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 11/2012; · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality rates have decreased in the general US population; however, CRC mortality rates are increasing among American Indians (AI). AI CRC screening rates remain low when compared to other ethnic groups. Our team investigated CRC screening education prior to recommended age for screening to better understand screening perceptions among AI community members. Our research team conducted 11 focus groups with AI men and women aged 30-49 (N = 39 men and N = 31 women) in Kansas and Missouri. The results revealed that community members (1) have little knowledge of CRC, (2) do not openly discuss CRC, and (3) want additional CRC education. Variations existed among men and women's groups, but they agreed that preventive measures need to be appropriate for AI communities. Thus, AI CRC screening interventions should be culturally tailored to better meet the needs of the population.
    Journal of Cancer Education 10/2012; · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is underutilized, especially in low income, high minority populations. We examined the effect test-specific barriers have on colonoscopy and fecal immunochemical test (FIT) completion, what rationales are given for non-completion, and what "switch" patterns exist when participants are allowed to switch from one test to another. Low income adults who were not up-to-date with CRC screening guidelines were recruited from safety-net clinics and offered colonoscopy or FIT (n = 418). Follow up telephone surveys assessed test-specific barriers. Test completion was determined from patient medical records. For subjects who desired colonoscopy at baseline, finding a time to come in and transportation applied more to non-completers than completers (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). For participants who initially wanted FIT, keeping track of cards, never putting stool on cards, and not remembering to mail cards back applied more to non-completers than completers (p = 0.003, p = 0.006, and p < 0.001, respectively). The most common rationale given for not completing screening was a desire for the other screening modality: 7 % of patients who initially preferred screening by FIT completed colonoscopy, while 8 % of patients who initially preferred screening by colonoscopy completed FIT. We conclude that test-specific barriers apply more to subjects who did not complete CRC screening. As a common rationale for test non-completion is a desire to receive a different screening modality, our findings suggest screening rates could be increased by giving patients the opportunity to switch tests after an initial choice is made.
    Journal of Community Health 09/2012; · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: According to the Office of Minority Health, an estimated 4.9 million people living in the United States consider themselves American Indian or Alaska Native, either alone or in combination with one or more races/ethnicities. American Indians or Alaska Natives comprise a racial/ethnic group experiencing serious health disparities, with little if any improvement in health outcomes over the past several decades. This study was designed to explore use of the Internet as a health information source among American Indians in the Central Plains region of the United States. The authors recruited 998 Natives in the region from May 2008 to December 2009 at powwows, health fairs, focus groups, career fairs and conferences, and other social and cultural events, and asked them to complete a self-administered survey. Although compared with data from the general population, American Indians or Alaska Natives in this sample may seem to be more frequent Internet users, their use of modern wireless devices is limited, and their use of the Internet to access health information is lower in comparison with the adult U.S. population. Natives living in the Central Plains region face generational differences in general and health-related use of the Internet. Inadequate availability of culturally appropriate health information websites may drive American Indians or Alaska Natives toward search engines and general information websites.
    Journal of Health Communication 05/2012; 17(7):820-35. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: American Indians and Alaska Natives suffer significant health disparities for many infectious and chronic diseases as compared to the general population. Providing accurate and culturally tailored health information to underserved groups has been shown to influence health behaviors and health outcomes. Little prior research has explored American Indians health information use and preferences. National representative sample surveys such as the Health Information National Trends Survey provide some data on minority groups but are underpowered to provide useful information on American Indians. The present study analyzes data from a survey of over 900 American Indians from the Midwest United States and explores their sources of health information, their preferences for information presentation, and their use of health information prior to and during medical encounters. We conclude that campaigns targeting Natives should be narrowly focused and be community driven or employing community resources. American Indians use a diversity of media sources to obtain health information, with the Internet being underutilized compared to the general population. Partnership with Indian Health Service providers and pharmacists, as well as traditional healers, in the development and dissemination of new health information for Natives may provide the "expert" tone needed to promote health improvements in American Indians.
    Journal of Community Health 04/2012; · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: American Indian women have rising incidence and disproportionate mortality rates due to breast cancer. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we conducted ten focus groups with American Indian women in Kansas and Missouri to understand their barriers to mammography and identify ways to intervene to improve screening rates. Focus groups were stratified by screening status, including women who were up to date with current screening mammography recommendations (mammogram within the last 2 years, N = 7 groups, 66 participants) and women who were not (N = 3 groups, 18 participants). While many similarities were identified across strata, some differences emerged, particularly descriptions of prior negative experiences with the health care system among women who were not up to date with screening recommendations. Primary areas identified by participants for intervention included culturally appropriate educational materials and interventions directed specifically at improving American Indian women's trust in Western medicine and alleviating feelings of discrimination.
    Journal of Cancer Education 02/2012; 27 Suppl 1:S32-40. · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this exploratory study was to assess factors deemed by patients as "important" as they planned and considered undergoing colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, and to use this data to design a computer-delivered intervention to promote screening. Fifty participants 50 years or older, not up-to-date with current recommended CRC screening guidelines, were recruited from a primary care clinic. A semi-structured interview focused on aspects of preparing for colorectal cancer screening was administered; after transcription, researchers used triangulation and consensus to identify relevant themes and concepts. Four main themes were identified that dealt with issues important for both FOBT and colonoscopy planning: personal concerns, reminders, communication with healthcare providers and obtaining test results. FOBT specific themes included: sample collection and return. For colonoscopy screening, themes included: scheduling, intervention questions, colonoscopy preparation, and transportation. These can be classified as barrier, process and accessory themes. The developed computer-administered implementation intentions algorithm addressed all the identified concerns in a planned and sequential manner, in order to facilitate planning for CRC screening. The results of this study suggest that appropriate reminders, explanations of procedures, and patient understanding of temporary life disruptions, help patients develop and accept a detailed screening plan.
    Technology and health care: official journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine 01/2012; 20(1):25-35. · 0.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: American Indians are more likely to smoke, less likely to have smoke-free homes, and potentially less likely to have worksite smoke-free policies. We examined correlates of smoke-free policies at home and work among a community-based sample of American Indians in the Midwest. We examined correlates of smoke-free policies at home and work in a sample of American Indians in the Midwest using a community-based participatory research approach. 66.7% were nonsmokers, 15.6% smoked on some days, and 17.6% smoked every day. The majority (72.4%) had complete smoke-free home policies, 13.1% had partial restrictions, and 14.5% had no rules. Moreover, 62.7% had complete smoke-free worksite policies, 27.9% had partial policies, and 9.4% had no worksite smoke-free policies. Factors associated with having a complete smoke-free home policy included being a college graduate (p=.005) and a nonsmoker versus a nondaily (p=.006) or a daily smoker (p<.001). Correlates of having a complete smoke-free worksite policy included being female (p=.005) and a nonsmoker versus a nondaily (p=.03) or a daily smoker (p<.001). Having complete worksite policies was associated with having smoke-free homes (p<.001). Having complete worksite policies was related to having smoke-free home policies; both were associated with being a nonsmoker.
    Journal of health disparities research and practice. 01/2012; 5(2):81-91.
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    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer is a great concern for the American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) community, as incidence and mortality rates remain high and screening rates stay low. We conducted interviews with community leaders (n=13) and with providers from the Indian Health Service (IHS), tribal clinics, and urban safety-net clinics (n=17) in Northeast Kansas and the Kansas City Metro Area to determine their understanding of needs and barriers to colorectal cancer screening among American Indians. Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach for this pilot study, community leaders and providers identified similar needs, including: culturally-appropriate education about colorectal cancer and screenings, the potential use of Native elders as patient navigators, and an emphasis on preventive care, particularly through the IHS. Barriers included culturally specific issues such as historic mistrust and gender roles. Other barriers are similar to members of other ethnic groups, such as cost, transportation, fear, and repulsion toward the screening process.
    Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice. 01/2012; 5(2):10-23.
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    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer is a great concern for the American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) community, as incidence and mortality rates remain high and screening rates stay low. We conducted interviews with community leaders (n=13) and with providers from the Indian Health Service (IHS), tribal clinics, and urban safety-net clinics (n=17) in Northeast Kansas and the Kansas City Metro Area to determine their understanding of needs and barriers to colorectal cancer screening among American Indians. Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach for this pilot study, community leaders and providers identified similar needs, including: culturally-appropriate education about colorectal cancer and screenings, the potential use of Native elders as patient navigators, and an emphasis on preventive care, particularly through the IHS. Barriers included culturally specific issues such as historic mistrust and gender roles. Other barriers are similar to members of other ethnic groups, such as cost, transportation, fear, and repulsion toward the screening process.
    Journal of health disparities research and practice. 01/2012; 5(2).

Publication Stats

709 Citations
120.35 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2014
    • Kansas City VA Medical Center
      Kansas City, Missouri, United States
  • 2013
    • Johnson County Community College
      Overland Park, Kansas, United States
  • 2008–2013
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Division of Public Health Sciences
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
    • California State University, San Marcos
      • Department of Psychology
      San Marcos, CA, United States
  • 2011–2012
    • Emory University
      • Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education
      Atlanta, GA, United States
  • 2004–2012
    • University of Kansas
      • Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
      Lawrence, KS, United States
    • University of Missouri - Kansas City
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Kansas City, MO, United States
  • 2000–2010
    • Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences
      Kansas City, Missouri, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Houston
      • Department of Health and Human Performance
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 2006
    • Columbia University
      New York City, New York, United States