Daniela Caldirola

Villa San Benedetto Hospital, Albese con Cassano, Lombardy, Italy

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Publications (60)239.69 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Panic disorder (PD) is a common disabling anxiety disorder associated with relevant social costs. Effective anti-panic medications exist but have several drawbacks. From a clinical perspective, there is still a strong unmet need for more effective, faster acting and more tolerable therapeutic treatments. Areas covered: The authors review the available results on novel mechanism-based anti-panic drugs that are under investigation in animal studies up to Phase II studies. The preclinical studies investigated include: the modulators of the glutamate/orexin/cannabinoid systems, corticotrophin-releasing factor 1 (CRF1)/arginine vasopressine V1B/angiotensin II receptor antagonists and neuropeptide S. The Phase I/II studies investigated include: the modulators of the glutamate system, isoxazoline derivative, translocator protein (18 kDa) ligands and CRF1/neurokinin receptor antagonists. Expert opinion: There has been little progress in recent times. However, glutamate- and orexin-related molecular targets may represent very promising opportunities for treating panic attacks. Very preliminary findings suggest that the antagonists of CRF1 and A-II receptors may have anti-panic properties. However, new medications for PD are far from being implemented in clinical use. The reasons are multiple, including: the heterogeneity of the disorder, the translational validity of animal models and the insufficient use of biomarkers in preclinical/clinical studies. Nevertheless, biomarker-based strategies, pharmacogenomics, 'personalized psychiatry' and the NIH's Research Domain Criteria approach could help to remove those obstacles limiting drug development.
    Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs 12/2014; 24(4):1-15. DOI:10.1517/13543784.2014.996286 · 5.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: There is evidence of baseline respiratory abnormalities in panic disorder (PD), but whether they are specific to PD remains unclear. To investigate this issue, we meta-analyzed results from studies comparing baseline respiratory and hematic variables between subjects with PD and subjects with other anxiety disorders. Methods: A literature search in bibliographic databases was performed. Fixed-effects models were applied. Several moderator analyses and publication bias diagnostics were performed. Results: We found: (1) significantly lower mean end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (et-pCO2) in subjects with PD than in those with social phobia (SP) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and (2) higher mean respiratory rate, lower venous et-pCO2 and HCO3(-) concentration in subjects with PD than in those with SP. No publication bias was found. Conclusions: Subjects with PD show a condition of baseline hyperventilation when compared to subjects with SP or GAD. Hematic variables suggest that the hyperventilation may be chronic. These results support the idea that baseline respiratory abnormalities are specific to PD pathophysiology. Further studies are needed to clarify whether these abnormalities are related to a malfunction of the respiratory system or to specific cognitive/emotional/behavioral factors in this population. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Neuropsychobiology 09/2014; 70(1):52-60. DOI:10.1159/000364830 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In nonclinical samples, childhood trauma (CT) has been found to negatively affect temperament/character traits. In major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD), abnormal personality traits have been found to impair clinical course/treatment outcome. Although a link between CT and MDD/BD is firmly established, no previous studies explored the relationship between CT and temperament/character in these populations. We investigated this issue in a preliminary sample of inpatients with MDD (n = 29) or BD (n = 50). We assessed CT (sexual/physical/emotional abuse, physical/emotional neglect) (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire), personality traits (Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised version), and illness severity (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale). We found significant (p < 0.01) associations between emotional neglect, emotional abuse, physical neglect, and low self-directedness (SD). Potential underlying mechanisms are discussed. Because low SD has been previously associated with illness severity and poor outcome, the relationship between CT and low SD might partly explain the well-known negative impact of CT on course and outcome of MDD/BD.
    Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease 09/2014; 202(9):695-698. DOI:10.1097/NMD.0000000000000186 · 1.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One of the most influential theories has conceived unexpected panic attack (PA) as a primal defensive reaction to threat within the internal milieu of the body. This theory is based on findings suggesting the involvement of dysfunctional respiratory regulation and/or abnormally sensitive central neural network of carbon dioxide (CO2)/hydrogen ion (H+) chemoreception in PA. Thus, unexpected PA may be related to phylogenetically older brain structures, including the brainstem areas, which process basic functions related to the organism's internal milieu. The brainstem represents a crucial area for the regulation of homeostatic functions, including chemoreception and cardio-respiratory control. In addition, the midbrain dorsal periaqueductal gray may be involved in the unconditioned defense reactions to proximal threats, including internal physical stimuli. Our aim was to specifically consider the potential involvement of the brainstem in panic disorder (PD) by a comprehensive review of the available neuroimaging studies. Available data are limited and potentially affected by several limitations. However, preliminary evidence of a role of the brainstem in PD can be found and, secondly, the brainstem serotonergic system seems to be involved in panic modulation with indications of altered both serotonergic receptors and 5-HT transporter bindings. In conclusion, our review suggests that the brainstem may be involved in psychopathology of PD and supports the relevant role of subcortical serotonergic system in panic pathogenesis.
    CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets (Formerly Current Drug Targets - CNS & Neurological Disorders) 06/2014; DOI:10.2174/1871527313666140612112923 · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by a state of chronic and excessive anxiety and apprehension for potential negative occurrences. GAD symptoms include hypervigilance, negative anticipation, tension, intolerance of uncertainty and exaggerated worry for a period of at least 6 months. Neuroimaging studies showed that the peculiar features of the anxious experience are related to specific neural structures. This network mainly consists of limbic (e.g. the amygdala), and paralimbic regions (e.g. insula, hippocampus, cingulate cortex, prefrontal cortex), which are involved in vigilance and aversive anticipation processes. In healthy subjects these areas correctly integrate autonomic, sensory, and cognitive information, to create an accurate perception, evaluation and regulation of the internal and external stimuli. However, in individuals with GAD the anatomic and functional connections within this system appear to be disrupted, and this may lead to the pathology. Finally, a neural pattern similar to that observed in GAD patients has been also observed in individuals characterized by an anxious temperament, suggesting that common neuroanatomical structures might be involved both in GAD and anxious temperament.
    New Perspectives on Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Edited by Riccardo Guglielmo, Luigi Janiri, Gino Pozzi, 01/2014: chapter Neuroimaging in Generalized Anxiety Disorder: pages 55-68; Nova Science Publishers., ISBN: 978-1-62948-036-7
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate 1) the relationship between subjective perception of quality of life (QoL) and clinician-rated levels of psychosocial functioning and 2) the relationship of these indicators with neuropsychological performances, in a sample of 117 subjects with mood and anxiety disorders hospitalized for a 4-week psychiatric rehabilitation program. At the beginning of the hospitalization, QoL and clinician-rated functioning were respectively measured by the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-Brief Form (WHOQOL-BREF) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale, and subjects were administered a neuropsychological battery evaluating verbal and visual memory, working memory, attention, visual-constructive ability, language fluency and comprehension. We did not find any association between WHOQOL-BREF and GAF scores and between cognitive impairment and lower QoL or clinician-rated functioning. Our results suggest that 1) the individuals' condition encompasses different dimensions that are not fully captured by using only clinician-rated or self-administered evaluations; 2) the GAF scale seems unable to indicate the cognitive impairments of our subjects and the WHOQOL-BREF does not appear to be influenced by these deficits. Overall, our findings suggest the need of simultaneously use of multiple assessment tools, including objective evaluations of functioning and different measures of QoL, in order to obtain a more complete clinical picture of the patients. This may allow to identify more specific targets of therapeutic interventions and more reliable measures of outcome.
    Comprehensive psychiatry 12/2013; 55(4). DOI:10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.12.007 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Urgency, urinary incontinence and bowel disturbances are distressing side effects that have been observed during treatment with risperidone and other antipsychotics probably due to the receptor affinity profile. This occurrence can lead to poor compliance and therefore impair clinical outcome. Method: We report the case of a 50 year-old lady, who experienced urinary incontinence and diarrhoea, when switching from oral to injectable risperidone, which ceased when discontinuing the drug. Results and conclusions: It should be taken into account that some side effects can be revealed when switching from oral to depot formulations due to non-compliance to orals; nevertheless dose-dependent mechanisms and individual metabolic variability must be considered when observing idiosyncratic reactions to drugs.
    Acta Neuropsychiatrica 04/2013; 25(02). DOI:10.1111/acn.12008 · 0.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of cigarette smoking on neuropsychological performance in patients with mood disorders. One hundred depressed patients with DSM-IV-TR-defined major depressive disorder (n = 61) or bipolar disorder (n = 39), hospitalized for a 4-week psychiatric rehabilitation program, were included. Forty-five were active regular smokers, and 55 were nonsmokers who had never smoked in their lifetime. At the beginning and the end of the hospitalization, patients were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery (evaluation of verbal and visual memory, working memory, attention, visual-constructive ability, language fluency, and comprehension) as primary outcome measures and psychometric scales (evaluation of depression and illness severity). Smoking status was assessed by personal interviews. Investigators were blind to the results of neuropsychological tests and to the smoking status of the patients. Data were collected from February 2011 to January 2012. At the beginning of the hospitalization, smokers showed significantly better performance in verbal memory, language fluency, and working memory (all P values < .01) than nonsmokers. No interaction between smoking and diagnosis was found. At the end of the hospitalization, the whole group of patients significantly improved in several cognitive domains, with smokers maintaining significantly better performance in verbal memory, language fluency, and working memory (all P values < .01) than nonsmokers. Our preliminary results indicate a better performance by smokers in verbal memory and working memory domains than by nonsmokers, suggesting that a cognitive enhancement may be associated with nicotine use in depressed patients with MDD or bipolar disorder. Smoking may be a form of cognitive self-medication mediating the association between smoking and mood disorders. Further studies with larger samples are needed.
    The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 02/2013; 74(2):e130-6. DOI:10.4088/JCP.12m07985 · 5.14 Impact Factor
  • European Psychiatry 01/2013; 28:1. DOI:10.1016/S0924-9338(13)77050-0 · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The presence of abnormalities in baseline respiratory function of subjects with panic disorder (PD) is expected according to PD respiratory theories. We aimed to meta-analyze results from studies comparing baseline respiratory and hematic parameters related to respiration between subjects with PD and controls. METHODS: A literature research in bibliographic databases was performed. Fixed-effects models were applied for all parameters while random-effects models only when suitable (at least 10 independent studies). Several moderator analyses and publication bias diagnostics were performed. RESULTS: We found significantly higher mean minute ventilation and lower et-pCO(2) in subjects with PD than controls. Moreover we also found evidences of reduced HCO(3)(-) and PO(4)(-) hematic concentrations, higher indexes of respiratory variability/irregularity and higher rate of sighs and apneas. Evidence of heterogeneity was partly explained by moderator analyses. No relevant publication bias was found. LIMITATIONS: Several shortcomings affected the included studies, such as over-inclusive recruitment criteria, samples unbalanced for socio-demographic characteristics, lack of statistical details and small number of studies available for several parameters. DISCUSSION: Our results support the idea of abnormalities in respiratory function of subjects with PD. Compared to controls, they showed baseline hyperventilation; the results from hematic parameters suggest that hyperventilation may be chronic and not simply caused by their high anxiety levels during respiratory assessment. Evidences of higher variability and irregularity in respiratory patterns of subjects with PD were also found. It is unclear to what extent the higher rate of sighs and apneas may explain the other baseline respiratory abnormalities found in PD.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 10/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2012.08.034 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adult patients with panic disorder (PD) show high levels of harm avoidance and anxiety sensitivity. Peculiar temperament profiles and high anxiety sensitivity have been proposed as developmental risk factors for PD in adult age. Since familial-genetic influences play a role both in PD and in anxiety sensitivity and temperament profiles, this study aims to investigate the possible association between family history of PD and peculiar temperament-character profiles or high anxiety sensitivity in offspring of patients with PD. Thirty-four children of patients with PD with/without agoraphobia and 30 children of healthy subjects were compared. Temperament and character dimensions and anxiety sensitivity levels of children were obtained by the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory and the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index. Children of patients with PD and children of healthy subjects differed neither in temperament and character dimensions nor in anxiety sensitivity levels. Our results show that family history of PD is not associated with peculiar temperament and character profiles or high anxiety sensitivity in children, suggesting that these factors may not be early expressions of familial vulnerability to PD. Since the sample is small and the study has a cross-sectional design, longitudinal studies in larger samples are warranted to confirm these findings and to clarify the role of anxiety sensitivity and temperament-character dimensions in the development of PD.
    Psychopathology 07/2012; 45(5):300-4. DOI:10.1159/000335072 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In patients with Schizophrenia an association between smoking and improvement in cognitive deficits was found. Patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) have shown a high prevalence of smoking habit and cognitive deficits but only a few studies have investigated the effect of smoking on their cognitive functions.Objectives To study the effect of nicotine assumption on cognitive function in MDD and BD.Methods50 inpatients with MDD and 50 with BD (Major Depressive Episode) underwent a neuropsychological test battery (Anna Pesenti test, Attentive Matrices, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, Phonemic/Semantic Fluency tests, Token test) at the beginning of their hospitalization. Smoking habit (current, lifetime) was investigated by specific questionnaires. Factorial ANOVA models were applied, with cognitive test scores as dependent variables and smoking (smoker/non-smoker) and diagnosis (MDD/BD) as factors.ResultsSmokers showed significantly better performance in verbal memory (p < 0.001) and fluency tests (phonemic p = 0.012; semantic p = 0.023) than non-smokers. Significant and positive correlations were found between the scores of these tests and the number of cigarettes smoked in the 24 hours before, while no associations with the years of smoking habit were found. No effects of diagnosis or interaction between smoking and diagnosis on the cognitive performance were found.Conclusions Animal models show that nicotine can increase the monoamine levels in brain areas involved in memory and language functions. Our results suggest that the positive effect of smoking on cognitive functions may contribute to increase the smoking habit in patients with Mood Disorders as a self-medication strategy.
    European Psychiatry 01/2012; 27:1. DOI:10.1016/S0924-9338(12)74687-4 · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A connection between balance system dysfunction and Agoraphobia (AG) in Panic Disorder (PD) has been found. Balance control of many patients with PD and AG rely mainly on visual cues (visual dependence) and moving visual stimuli in their peripheral visual field induce postural instability and anxiety. These features may maintain agoraphobic symptoms after standard treatments.Objectives To study whether balance rehabilitation with moving peripheral visual stimuli would benefit patients with PD and AG not fully responders to standard treatments.Methods Six patients with PD and AG were included. Inclusion criteria: 1) panic-phobic symptoms despite adequate treatments (SSRIs for at least 3 months; cognitive behavioral therapy) and 2) balance dysfunction with instability during peripheral visual stimuli (posturography with and without peripheral visual stimulation).The patients went through 10 sessions (3 sessions/week) of balance rehabilitation: static and dynamic exercises, with movements of eyes and head, during projection of peripheral visual stimuli (video-films, 32 times-accelerated, on large lateral screens). Descriptive and non-parametric analyses were applied.ResultsAfter rehabilitation, the patients showed significant improvement both in panic-phobic symptoms (specific psychometric scale scores) (p < 0.05) and in balance performance (post-rehabilitation posturography with and without peripheral visual stimulation) (p < 0.05).Conclusions Balance rehabilitation with peripheral visual stimuli may increase the efficacy of standard treatments in patients with PD and AG and visual-balance dysfunction. Mechanisms of physical and emotional habituation to environmental destabilizing stimuli may be involved. Further larger and controlled studies are warranted.
    European Psychiatry 01/2012; 27:1. DOI:10.1016/S0924-9338(12)74288-8 · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    Up to Date on Tinnitus, 12/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-655-3
  • Giampaolo Perna, Giuseppe Guerriero, Daniela Caldirola
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Panic disorder (PD) is a common anxiety disorder impairing strongly quality of life with high social costs. Effective anti-panic medications exist but a substantial proportion of patients do not fully respond, the available drugs have several side effects and most medications have a delayed onset of their therapeutic effect. Thus, further advances are needed. AREAS COVERED: We review available data on emerging drugs for the treatment of PD including those in development, such as metabotropic glutamate II receptor agonists, D-cycloserine and levetiracetam, and new compounds with potential efficacy that may be relevant for future developments, such as modulators of cholinergic and orexin systems. EXPERT OPINION: To date, the pharmacological research on PD appears to be relatively limited and probably still needs more time before making available new advances beyond the currently used medications. Many reasons may explain these difficulties, including the heterogeneity of the disorder, the incomplete understanding of its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and difficulties in the selection of appropriate animal models in preclinical studies. Defining biomarkers and endophenotypes in PD may offer advantages in both understanding the pathophysiology of the disorder and selecting appropriate targets and outcomes for planning future pharmacological research.
    Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs 12/2011; 16(4):631-45. DOI:10.1517/14728214.2011.628313 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the possible influence of psychological variables on cardiorespiratory responses and perceived exertion of patients with Panic Disorder (PD) during a submaximal exercise test. Ten outpatients with PD and 10 matched healthy subjects walked up on a treadmill slope at a speed of 4 km/h in order to reach 65% of their maximum heart rate. Cardiorespiratory variables were continuously recorded. Before the exercise, the state and trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores), fear of physical sensations (Body Sensation Questionnaire scores), and fear of autonomic arousal (Anxiety Sensitivity Index scores) were assessed; during the exercise, levels of anxiety (VAS-A) and exertion (Borg Scale CR 10) were measured. Compared to controls, patients reached earlier the target HR and the ventilatory threshold, showed lower oxygen consumption, higher HR and lower within-subject standard deviations of HR (a measure of cardiac variability). Exertion was also higher, and there was a significant correlation between breathing frequency, tidal volume and HR. No significant associations were found between cardiorespiratory response, perceived exertion, and psychological variables in patients with PD. Although patients with PD presented poor cardiorespiratory fitness and were required to spend more effort during physical exercise, this did not appear to be related to the psychological variables considered. Further studies with larger groups are warranted.
    Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria 12/2011; 33(4):385-9. DOI:10.1590/S1516-44462011000400013 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although there are controversial issues (the "American view" and the "European view") regarding the construct and definition of agoraphobia (AG), this syndrome is well recognized and it is a burden in the lives of millions of people worldwide. To better clarify the role of drug therapy in AG, the authors summarized and discussed recent evidence on pharmacological treatments, based on clinical trials available from 2000, with the aim of highlighting pharmacotherapies that may improve this complex syndrome. A systematic review of the literature regarding the pharmacological treatment of AG was carried out using MEDLINE, EBSCO, and Cochrane databases, with keywords individuated by MeSH research. Only randomized, placebo-controlled studies or comparative clinical trials were included. After selection, 25 studies were included. All the selected studies included patients with AG associated with panic disorder. Effective compounds included selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, selective noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors, and benzodiazepines. Paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram, escitalopram, and clomipramine showed the most consistent results, while fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, and imipramine showed limited efficacy. Preliminary results suggested the potential efficacy of inositol; D-cycloserine showed mixed results for its ability to improve the outcome of exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy. More studies with the latter compounds are needed before drawing definitive conclusions. No studies have been specifically oriented toward evaluating the effect of drugs on AG; in the available studies, the improvement of AG might have been the consequence of the reduction of panic attacks. Before developing a "true" psychopharmacology of AG it is crucial to clarify its definition. There may be several potential mechanisms involved, including fear-learning processes, balance system dysfunction, high light sensitivity, and impaired visuospatial abilities, but further studies are warranted.
    Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 10/2011; 7:621-37. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S12979 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Agoraphobia in panic disorder (PD) has been related to abnormal balance system function. Vision influences balance and behavioural adaptations; peripheral vision influences orienting and fast defensive reactions whereas central vision analyzes details of objects. We have hypothesized that the abnormal balance function in PD could be mainly related to peripheral vision as part of a defensive alarm system in the brain. In 25 patients with PD and agoraphobia and 31 healthy controls we assessed, by posturography, balance system reactivity to video-films projected in peripheral and central visual fields (randomized sequence). Length, velocity and surface of body sway were calculated. Patients increased their body sway during peripheral stimulation, whereas controls did not; the two groups showed a similar increase of body sway during central stimulation. Anxiety levels during peripheral stimulation significantly influenced the postural response in the group of patients. These preliminary results suggest that the higher visual sensitivity to peripheral stimulation in patients with PD and agoraphobia may be linked to a more active "visual alarm system" involving visual, vestibular and limbic areas that might influence the development of agoraphobia in situations where environmental stimuli are uncertain.
    Psychiatry Research 05/2011; 187(3):387-91. DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2010.05.012 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to investigate and compare the brain cortical activity, as indexed by quantitative electroencephalographic (qEEG) power, coherence and asymmetry measures, in panic disorder (PD) patients during an induced panic attack with a 35% CO(2) challenge test and also in a resting condition. Fifteen subjects with PD were randomly assigned to both 35% CO(2) mixture and atmospheric compressed air, in a double-blind study design, with EEG being recorded for a 20-min period. During induced panic attacks we found a reduced right-sided frontal orbital asymmetry in the beta band, a decreased occipital frontal intra-hemispheric coherence in the delta band at both right and left sides, a left-sided occipital delta inter-hemispheric asymmetry and an increased relative power in the beta wave at T4. Our data showed a disturbed frontal cortical processing, pointing to an imbalance of the frontal and occipital sites, common to both hemispheres, and an increased right posterior activity related to the high arousing panic attack condition. Those findings corroborate the Neuroanatomical hypothesis of PD.
    The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry 12/2009; 11(2 Pt 2):357-63. DOI:10.3109/15622970903144012 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study sought to establish the prevalence of vestibular disorders, migraine and definite migrainous vertigo in patients with psychiatric disorders who were referred for treatment of dizziness, without a lifetime history of vertigo. Retrospective study. Out-patients in a university hospital. Fifty-two dizzy patients with panic disorders and agoraphobia, 30 with panic disorders without agoraphobia, and 20 with depressive disorders underwent otoneurological screening with bithermal caloric stimulation. The prevalence of migraine and migrainous vertigo was assessed. The level of dizziness was evaluated using the Dizziness Handicap Inventory. Dizzy patients with panic disorders and agoraphobia had a significantly p = 0.05 regarding the prevalence of peripheral vestibular abnormalities in the group of subjects with PD and agoraphobia and in those with depressive disorders. Migraine was equally represented in the three groups, but panic disorder patients had a higher prevalence of migrainous vertigo definite migrainous vertigo. Almost all patients with a peripheral vestibular disorder had a final diagnosis of definite migrainous vertigo according to Neuhauser criteria. These patients had higher Dizziness Handicap Inventory scores. The Dizziness Handicap Inventory total score was higher in the subgroup of patients with panic disorders with agoraphobia also presenting unilateral reduced caloric responses or definite migrainous vertigo, compared with the subgroup of remaining subjects with panic disorders with agoraphobia (p < 0.001). Our data support the hypothesis that, in patients with panic disorders (and especially those with additional agoraphobia), dizziness may be linked to malfunction of the vestibular system. However, the data are not inconsistent with the hypothesis that migrainous vertigo is the most common pathophysiological mechanism for vestibular disorders.
    The Journal of Laryngology & Otology 12/2009; 124(3):285-90. DOI:10.1017/S0022215109991976 · 0.70 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

776 Citations
239.69 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2014
    • Villa San Benedetto Hospital
      Albese con Cassano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2001–2009
    • Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele
      • Faculty of Psychology
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1995–2002
    • University of Milan
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy