Piotr Brański

Akademickie Centrum Komputerowe CYFRONET AGH, Cracovia, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland

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Publications (50)107.5 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A stable and inducible expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor type 4, 7, and 8 was obtained in T-REx 293 cells using the tetracycline system. Tetracycline administration to the cell medium resulted in rapid induction and time-dependent expression of mGlu receptors, which also correlates with its functionality in a cAMP accumulation assay. The pharmacological properties of recombinant mGlu receptors were verified using orthosteric and allosteric ligands. Data suggest that the Tet-on inducible system is suitable for functional mGlu receptors' expression and characterization by means of the cAMP accumulation assay. It makes this system a precise, reproducible, and large-scale screening method, as well as a reasonable tool to study signaling properties of mGlu receptors.
    Journal of Biomolecular Screening 11/2014; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The current treatment of depression, based on conventional antidepressant drugs that influence monoaminergic systems, is not satisfactory, and innovative antidepressant drugs are still needed. The next generation of treatments needs to be more effective, fasteracting and better tolerated than currently used antidepressants. Agrowing body of evidence indicates that compounds that modulate the glutamatergic system may be a group of novel and mechanistically distinct agents for the treatment of depression. Both preclinical and clinical data show strong, rapid and sustained effects of the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine in treatment-resistant depression. However, ketamine cannot be considered as a novel antidepressant drug because of its side-effects and abuse potential. Because glutamatergic transmission is controlled not only by ionotropic but also by metabotropic glutamate receptors, their involvement in the etiology and the therapy of depression has also been postulated. Here, we review data supporting the potential antidepressant activity of mGlu5 receptor antagonists as well as the involvement of mGlu5 receptors in the pathophysiology of depression.
    Pharmacological reports: PR 11/2013; 65(6):1506-1511. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous studies indicate the potential antidepressant actions of several mGlu5 receptor antagonists, including 3-[(2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl]-pyridine (MTEP). The explanation for the mechanism of these effects might be a key step in finding new antidepressant drugs (AD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible role of the serotonergic system in the antidepressant-like activity of MTEP in the tail suspension test (TST) in C57BL/6J mice, using selected antagonists of serotonergic receptors and by applying two different methods of serotonin (5-HT) depletion. The results of our studies showed that the mGlu5 receptor antagonist, MTEP, similar to the fluoxetine used as reference AD, did not induce antidepressant-like effects in mice pretreated with tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, para-chlorophenylalanine. On the other hand, MTEP worked as a potential AD in the TST in mice fed on a tryptophan-free (TRP-free) diet for 3 weeks. However, fluoxetine, which was used as a reference control was also active in this experiment, suggesting that a TRP-free diet was not sufficiently effective in reducing the 5-HT level. Furthermore, we showed that the 5HT2A/2C antagonist, ritanserin, yet not the 5-HT1A antagonist, WAY100635, 5HT1B antagonist, SB224289 or 5HT4 antagonist, GR125487, reversed the antidepressant-like effects of MTEP in the TST. Finally, a sub-effective dose of MTEP co-administered with a sub-effective dose of citalopram induced an antidepressant-like effect in the TST in mice. The results of our studies suggest the involvement of serotonergic system activation in the antidepressant-like effects of the mGlu5 antagonist, MTEP, in the TST in mice.
    Psychopharmacology 08/2013; · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Earlier studies have demonstrated that the agonists of the mGlu(2/3) receptors produced anxiolytic actions after peripheral administration. However, the mechanism of their action is still not clear. Therefore the aim of the present study was to specify the role of the GABAergic and serotonergic system in the mechanism of the anxiolytic activity of group II mGlu receptor activators by using the stress induced hyperthermia test (SIH) in singly housed mice. We used an orthosteric mGlu(2/3) receptor agonist, LY379268, which induced anti-hyperthermic efficacy in the doses of 1-5mg/kg (73% of inhibition after a highest dose). The effect of the second ligand used, a mGlu(2) receptor positive modulator (PAM), LY487379, was observed in a dose range of 0.5-5mg/kg and reached 53% of the inhibition. The blockade of GABAergic system by GABA(A) receptor antagonist flumazenil (10mg/kg) or GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP55845 (10mg/kg), and the blockade of serotonergic system by 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY100635 (0.1 and 1mg/kg) or 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor antagonist ritanserin (0.5mg/kg) had no influence on the anti-hyperthermic effect induced by effective dose of LY379268. However, the action of the effective dose of LY487379 was enhanced when co-administered with flumazenil, WAY100635 (0.1mg/kg) and ritanserin. Similar results were observed for the subeffective dose of LY379268 (0.5mg/kg). WAY100635 in a dose of 1mg/kg did not induce any enhancing effect on the activity of compounds. Therefore, it seems that the antagonism towards GABA(A) receptors, presynaptic 5-HT(1A) and postsynaptic 5-HT(2A/2C) receptors is responsible for the phenomenon. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'.
    Neuropharmacology 08/2011; 62(1):322-31. · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies have suggested that modulation of the glutamatergic system could be a new, efficient way to achieve antidepressant activity. Behavioral data showed that group II mGlu receptor antagonists (i.e., (1R, 2R, 3R, 5R, 6R)-2-amino-3-(3,4-dichlorobenzyloxy)-6-fluorobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (MGS0039) and (2S)-2-amino-2-[(1S,2S)-2-carboxycycloprop-1-yl]-3-(xan th-9-yl) propanoic acid (LY341495)) elicited antidepressant activity in several animal models of depression in rats and/or mice. Although the antidepressant-like activity of MGS0039 and LY341495 is well documented, the mechanism of the antidepressant action of these compounds is still not clear. The aim of the present study was to specify the role of the serotonergic system in the mechanism of the antidepressant-like activity of group II mGlu receptor ligands by using the tail suspension test (TST) in mice; the role of AMPA receptors was also investigated. Furthermore, the possible antidepressant-like action of MGS0039 using the olfactory bulbectomy (OB) model of depression in rats was investigated. The results of the TST studies showed that antidepressant-like action of group II mGlu receptor antagonists does not depend on serotonergic system activation. However, the AMPA receptor seems to play a key role in the antidepressant-like action of these compounds. Moreover, we have shown that repeated administration of MGS0039 attenuated OB-related deficits, confirming antidepressant-like activity of the tested compound. The results suggest that the blockade of group II mGlu receptors may be effective in the treatment of depression. Moreover, we have found that the mechanism of action of group II mGlu receptor antagonists differs from that of typical antidepressants, such as SSRIs.
    Psychopharmacology 12/2010; 212(4):523-35. · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our earlier studies have demonstrated that the non-selective group III mGlu receptor agonist, ACPT-I, produced anxiolytic rather than antidepressant-like actions after its peripheral administration. Here, we describe the effects of LSP1-2111 ((2S)-2-amino-4-[hydroxy[hydroxy(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-nitro-phenyl)methyl]phosphoryl]butanoic acid), a novel orthosteric, preferential agonist of the mGlu4 receptor, a member of the group III mGlu receptors family, in the stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) and elevated plus-maze (EPM) tests in mice. In both tests an anxiolytic-like effect was clearly seen in doses of 2 and 5 mg/kg, i.p. The compound did not produce antidepressant-like effects in the tail suspension test (TST) or in the forced swim test (FST) in mice. The potential anxiolytic effect of LSP1-2111 (5 mg/kg) in the SIH test was inhibited by the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil (given i.p., 10 mg/kg), and by a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist N-{2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl}-N-(2-pyridynyl)cyclohexane-carboxamide (WAY100635) (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.). At the same time, ritanserin (0.5 mg/kg i.p.), the 5-HT(2A/C) receptor antagonist, did not change the anxiolytic-like effects of LSP1-2111. Moreover, the compound was not effective in 5-HT depleted animals. The results of these studies indicate that the GABAergic and serotonergic systems are involved in the potential anxiolytic action of LSP1-2111.
    Neuropharmacology 12/2010; 59(7-8):627-34. · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Behavioral studies show that modulation of the glutamatergic system might be an efficient way to achieve antidepressant activity. Among the group III metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors, the mGlu7 receptor subtype seems to be the most promising target for potential antidepressants. It has been shown that a selective, allosteric mGlu7 receptor agonist, N,N'-bis (diphenylmethyl)-1,2-ethanediamine (AMN082), induced antidepressant-like action in behavioral tests in mice, although the mechanisms responsible for this action remained unknown. Here, we decided to investigate the possible role of the serotonergic system in the antidepressant-like activity of AMN082 in both the forced swim test (FST) in rats and the tail suspension test (TST) in mice. We found that AMN082 (1-10 mg/kg i.p.) induced a dose-dependent reduction in the immobility of rats and an increase in their swimming behavior, whereas there were not any changes in climbing behavior in the FST in rats. In the TST in mice we found that AMN082 (3 mg/kg i.p.) did not induce an antidepressant-like effect after depletion of serotonin (5-HT) with para-chlorophenylalanine. Moreover, we revealed that citalopram, but not reboxetine, when combined with AMN082 (all compounds used at low subeffective doses), induced a significant antidepressant-like effect in the TST. We also discovered that the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist N-{2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl}-N-(2-pyridynyl) cyclohexane-carboxamide (WAY100635) (0.1 mg/kg s.c.), but not the 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist ritanserin (0.5 mg/kg i.p.), blocked the antidepressant-like action of AMN082. Altogether, the results of our studies show that the antidepressant-like action of the mGlu7 receptor-positive modulator AMN082 depends on the activation of the serotonergic system.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 09/2010; 334(3):1066-74. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, while gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a primary inhibitory neuromodulator. Both amino acids act through ionotropic and metabotropic receptors that are widely distributed in the central nervous system. There are at least eight subtypes of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu), which have been divided into three groups (mGlu I, II, and III). The mGlu7 receptor subtype, which belongs to the mGlu III group, seems to play a special role, as it is abundant in brain structures that are known to be responsible for antidepressant and/or anxiolytic activity of drugs. In GABAergic neurons, GABA is synthesised from glutamate by the pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). It is expressed as two major isoforms, GAD65 and GAD67, responsible for the synthesis of the vesicular and cytoplasmic pool of neurotransmitter, respectively. Moreover, GABAergic neurons express a variety of proteins such as reelin, involved in synaptic transmission and plasticity. The aim of our study was to investigate the regulation of GABA synthesis and the level of modulatory receptor for GABA in mice lacking mGlu7 receptor for glutamate. The levels of GAD mRNA, GADs, and reelin proteins in the hippocampi of mGlu7-/- and mGlu7-/+ mice were measured using in situ hybridisation, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting (WB). GAD mRNAs in the CA and DG regions of the hippocampus were measured separately. The levels of GAD65, GAD67, and reelin proteins were determined in the homogenates using WB, and the number of stained neurons was estimated using a stereological method of counting. GABA(B) receptor level was measured using a radioligand binding assay. Our results show that the mRNA and protein levels of both GADs were decreased in the hippocampi of animals lacking the mGlu7 receptor. Decreased levels of GAD67 mRNA were found in both the CA and DG regions, while the decrease in GAD65 mRNA was observed mainly in the CA region of the hippocampus. The protein levels of GAD65 was lowered in mGlu7-/- animals only, while GAD67 and GABA(B) receptor number were decreased in both mGlu7+/- and mGlu7-/- mice when measured in the whole hippocampus. In contrast, reelin was shown to be increased both in mGlu7-/+ and mGlu7-/- mice. The results suggest that mGlu7 receptor is involved in the regulation of GABAergic system activity at the level of GABA synthesised enzymes, specific proteins expressed by GABAergic neurons and metabotropic receptor for GABA.
    Brain research 03/2010; 1334:12-24. · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • European Neuropsychopharmacology - EUR NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOL. 01/2010; 20.
  • European Neuropsychopharmacology - EUR NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOL. 01/2010; 20.
  • European Neuropsychopharmacology - EUR NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOL. 01/2009; 19.
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    ABSTRACT: Recent preclinical data indicated the antidepressant-like activity of zinc in different tests and models of depression. The present study investigates the involvement of the serotonergic system in zinc activity in the forced swim test (FST) in mice and rats. The combined treatment of sub-effective doses of zinc (hydroaspartate, 2.5 mg Zn/kg) and citalopram (15 mg/kg), fluoxetine (5 mg/kg) but not with reboxetine (2.5 mg/kg) significantly reduces the immobility time in the FST in mice. These treatments had no influence on the spontaneous locomotor activity. Moreover, while the antidepressant-like effect of zinc (5 mg/kg) in the FST was significantly blocked by pretreatment with inhibitor of serotonin synthesis, p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA, 3x200 mg/kg), 5HT-2(A/C) receptor antagonist, ritanserin (4 mg/kg) or 5HT-1A receptor antagonist, WAY 1006335 (0.1 mg/kg), the zinc-induced reduction in the locomotor activity was not affected by these serotonin modulator agents. These results indicate the specific involvement of the serotonergic system in antidepressant but not the motion behavior of zinc in mice. Also, an increase in the swimming but not climbing parameter of the rat FST observed following zinc administration (2.5 and 5 mg Zn/kg) indicates the serotonin pathway participation. This present data indicates that the antidepressant-like activity of zinc observed in the FST involves interaction with the serotonergic system.
    Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 01/2009; 33(2):323-9. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the anxiolytic-like effects of the first, selective metabotropic G-protein-coupled glutamate 7 (mGlu7) receptor agonist, N,N'-dibenzyhydryl-ethane-1,2-diamine dihydrochloride (AMN082), as measured in the modified stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) and the four-plate tests. Administration of AMN082 (3-6 mg/kg intraperitoneally) to Swiss mice produced anxiolytic-like effects in the modified SIH and four-plate tests. Moreover, it was ineffective as an anxiolytic in the SIH test in mGlu7 receptor knockout mice as compared with wild-type C57BL/6J littermate controls. In contrast, diazepam (1.25-5 mg/kg) significantly reduced SIH in both the wild-type and knockout animals. The anxiolytic-like effect of AMN082 in the SIH paradigm was abolished by pretreatment with flumazenil (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally). This indicates an involvement of gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic neurotransmission in AMN's anxiolytic actions. The results indicate that activation of the mGlu7 receptor produces anxiolytic-like effects via the modulation of the gamma-aminobutyric acid system.
    Behavioural Pharmacology 10/2008; 19(5-6):597-603. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is a neuropeptide widely distributed in the brain. The role of CRF in the behavioural activity and modulation of anxiety states in several brain structures has been well documented, but its function in the cerebral cortex still remains unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of CRF injected bilaterally into rat frontal cortex on the locomotor and exploratory activity and anxiety of rats. We also examined the effect of CRF on extracellularly recorded field potentials in rat frontal cortical slices in vitro. Behavioural experiments showed that CRF in doses of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 microg/1 microl/site decreased locomotor and exploratory activity during a 40-min session in the open field test. In the elevated plus-maze test, CRF in a dose of 0.2 microg/1 microl/site produced a significant anxiolytic-like effect, which was prevented by CRF receptor antagonists (alpha-helicalCRF(9-41) and NBI 27914). Electrophysiological experiments showed that CRF-induced a transient depression of field potentials in slices partly disinhibited by GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors antagonists. The blockade of NMDA receptors prevented the occurrence of that effect. The obtained results suggest that CRF may have anxiolytic-like effects in the frontal cortex. Moreover, the peptide inhibits locomotor and exploratory activity and depresses excitatory synaptic transmission in a NMDA receptor-dependent manner.
    Neuropeptides 08/2008; 42(5-6):513-23. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The PKA activator, 8-Br-cAMP, dose-dependently reduced the immobility time in the forced swim test in rats. This effect was antagonized by co-treatment with selective PKA inhibitor Rp-cAMPS. This is the first demonstration of the antidepressant-like activity of the PKA activator.
    Journal of Neural Transmission 07/2008; 115(6):829-30. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Earlier studies showed that chronic electroconvulsive shock (ECS) or imipramine treatment induced a sub-sensitivity of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in the hippocampus as well as an increase in the receptor protein level in this structure. In the present study, the effects of chronic imipramine (10 mg/kg, 21 days) or citalopram (10 mg/kg, 21 days) treatment on the mGlu4 or mGlu7 receptors' protein levels in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the rat brain were examined using the Western blot analysis. We also examined the influence of these drugs' administration on forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation. A non-selective agonist of all receptors belonging to the III group of mGluRs, ACPT-1, was used to establish their effects on the cAMP production. It was found that mGluR7-immunoreactivity both in the hippocampus and in the cerebral cortex was decreased after citalopram, but not imipramine treatment. No changes were observed in the mGluR4-immunoreactivity. Prolonged treatment with these two drugs failed to change the action of group III mGluR agonist, ACPT-1, on the forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation. Our results suggest that the mGluR7 receptor is influenced by prolonged treatment of the antidepressant drug citalopram in the brain regions that are considered to be implicated in the clinical response to antidepressant therapy whilst the mGlu4 receptor is not.
    Brain Research 01/2008; 1184:88-95. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Broad evidence indicates that modulation of the glutamatergic system could be an efficient way to achieve antidepressant activity. Metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGlu receptor) ligands seem to be promising agents to treat several central nervous system disorders, including psychiatric ones. The aim of our study was to investigate potential antidepressant-like activity of the first, selective, and bio-available mGlu7 receptor agonist, AMN082 (N,N'-dibenzyhydryl-ethane-1,2-diamine dihydrochloride), in wild-type (WT) and mGlu7 receptor knock-out (KO) mice. The forced swim test (FST) and the tail suspension test (TST) in mice were used to assess antidepressant-like activity of AMN082. We found that AMN082, administered IP, induced a dose-dependent decrease in the immobility time of WT animals in the FST and TST, suggesting antidepressant-like potency of an mGlu7 receptor agonist. Moreover, AMN082 did not change the behaviour of mGlu7 receptor KO mice compared to WT littermates in the TST, while imipramine, used as a reference control, significantly reduced their immobility, indicating an mGlu7 receptor-dependent mechanism of the antidepressant-like activity of AMN082. However, at high doses, AMN082 significantly decreased spontaneous locomotor activity of both mGlu7 receptor KO mice and WT control animals, suggesting off-target activity of AMN082 resulting in hypo-locomotion. These results strongly suggest that activation of the mGlu7 receptor elicits antidepressant-like effects.
    Psychopharmacology 12/2007; 194(4):555-62. · 4.06 Impact Factor
  • K Kłak, A Pałucha, P Brański, M Sowa, A Pilc
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous pharmacological data indicate involvement of glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, in the pathophysiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders. It was shown in the preclinical studies that compounds which can reduce the excess of glutamate release (for example group III metabotropic receptors agonists) possess potential therapeutic properties. Thus we focused our interests on (-)-N-phenyl-7-(hydroxyimino) cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-carboxamide (PHCCC), which is a positive allosteric modulator of mGlu4 receptor. We examined the potential antidepressant-like activity of PHCCC after injection into the brain ventricles alone, or together with (1S,3R,4S)-1-aminocyclo-pentane-1,3,4-tricarboxylic acid (ACPT-I), a nonselective group III mGlu receptor agonist, using the forced swimming test (FST) in rats. We found that ACPT-I induced a dose dependent antidepressant-like effect in FST, which was blocked by an antagonist of group III mGlu receptors (RS)-alpha-cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (CPPG). PHCCC injected intracerebroventricular was not effective, however when the compound was administered together with non-effective dose of ACPT-I, a profound antidepressant-like activity in FST was demonstrated. This effect was reversed by CPPG, group III mGlu receptors antagonist. Results of our studies indicate that a combined administration positive allosteric modulation of mGlu4 receptor and agonists of group III mGlu receptors may be a promising target in the future treatment of depressive disorder.
    Amino Acids 03/2007; 32(2):169-72. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An increasing body of evidence indicates an important role of the glutamatergic system in the pathophysiology of depression. Not only ionotropic but also metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu receptors) have been suggested to be involved in the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs. Moreover, several mGlu receptor ligands possess a great antidepressant potential. Group II mGlu receptor antagonists have been shown to induce antidepressant-like effects in rodents. An influence of chronic antidepressant treatment on group II mGlu receptors has also been suggested. In our studies, we examined an influence of repeated (21-day) imipramine treatment on the density of group II mGlu receptors and affinity of mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptor radioligand [3H]-LY341495 for group II mGlu receptors in the rat brain hippocampus and frontal cortex. Moreover, we analyzed an influence of chronic imipramine administration on the ability of group II mGlu receptor agonist, 2R,4R-APDC, to inhibit forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation in the rat brain cortical slices. We found that inhibitory properties of group II mGlu receptors were diminished after chronic, but not acute imipramine administration. However, no changes in the density or affinity of the mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptor ligand for group II mGlu receptors were observed.
    Pharmacological reports: PR 01/2007; 59(5):525-30. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), one of the most effective treatments of depression, induce mossy fiber sprouting (when assayed by means of synaptic zinc method), and this indicates an increase in the synaptic zinc level in the hippocampus following such therapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of acute and chronic zinc hydroaspartate administration on the synaptic and total zinc level in the rat hippocampus. We used two methods of zinc determination: (1) zinc-selenium method, which images the pool of synaptic zinc, and (2) flame atomic absorption spectrometry, which assays the total concentration of zinc. Our results indicate that chronic (14 x 65 mg/kg), but not acute, zinc hydroaspartate administration intraperitoneally (i.p.) increases the pool of synaptic zinc in the majority of rat hippocampal layers (by 72-190%), except for the stratum moleculare and stratum radiatum CA, and perforant path DG. On the other hand, no changes were found in total hippocampal zinc level, measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. These data suggest that chronic zinc treatment increases the pool of synaptic zinc in the hippocampus, and this effect is similar to that observed following chronic ECS treatment. The measurement of zinc concentration in the whole hippocampus by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry method is not sensitive enough to detect such subtle alteration.
    Brain Research 06/2006; 1090(1):69-75. · 2.88 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
107.50 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2013
    • Akademickie Centrum Komputerowe CYFRONET AGH
      Cracovia, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland
  • 1996–2011
    • Polish Academy of Sciences
      • • Institute of Pharmacology
      • • Department of Neurobiology
      Warsaw, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland
  • 2001
    • Jagiellonian University
      Cracovia, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland