Susan E Buskin

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States

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Publications (38)125.4 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: U.S. guidelines recommend genotyping for persons newly diagnosed with HIV infection to identify transmitted drug resistance mutations associated with decreased susceptibility to NRTIs, NNRTIs, and PIs. To date, testing for integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) mutations has not been routinely recommended. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of transmitted INSTI mutations among persons with primary HIV-1 infection in Seattle, WA. Persons with primary HIV-1 infection have enrolled in an observational cohort at the University of Washington Primary Infection Clinic since 1992. We performed a retrospective analysis of plasma specimens collected prospectively from the 82 antiretroviral-naive subjects who were enrolled from 2007-13, after FDA-approval of the first INSTI. Resistance testing was performed by consensus sequencing. Specimens for analysis had been obtained a median of 24 (IQR 18-41, range 8-108) days after the estimated date of HIV-1 infection. All subjects were infected with HIV-1 subtype B except for one subject infected with subtype C. Consensus sequencing identified no subjects with major INSTI mutations (T66I, E92Q, G140S, Y143C/H/R, S147G, Q148H/K/R, N155H). Using exact binomial confidence intervals, the upper bound of the 95% CI was 4.4%. Although our sample size was small, this study does not support the need at this time to evaluate integrase mutations as part of routine consensus sequencing among persons newly diagnosed with HIV-1 infection. However, it is likely that the prevalence of transmitted INSTI mutations may increase with the recent commercial introduction of additional INSTIs and presumably greater INSTI use among persons living with HIV-1.
    Antiviral therapy 05/2014; · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prevention and clinical efforts are increasingly focused on improving the HIV care cascade, the sequential steps from diagnosis to engagement in care and viral suppression. Monitoring of this cascade is largely dependent on HIV laboratory surveillance data. However, little is known about the completeness of these data or the true care status of individuals for whom no data are reported. We investigated people presumed to be living with HIV/AIDS in King County, WA, who had no laboratory results reported to HIV surveillance for at least 1 year between 2006 and 2010. We determined whether each person had relocated, died, or remained in the county. Of 7379 HIV-infected people presumed living in King County, 2545 (35%) had 1 or more 12-month gap in laboratory reporting. Among these individuals, 47% had relocated, 7% died, and 38% remained in King County; we were unable to determine the status of 8%. Of individuals remaining in the area, 91% had evidence of returning to or being in HIV care. Case investigations reduced the proportion of individuals thought to be out of care in 2011 from 27% to 16%. Investigations of individuals without laboratory results reported to HIV surveillance identified large numbers of people who are no longer living in the area. Our findings suggest that current estimates of the HIV care cascade may be too pessimistic and that individual case investigations are required to accurately define the size and composition of the population of people living with HIV in local areas.
    Sexually transmitted diseases 01/2014; 41(1):35-40. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The authors examined temporal trends and correlates of HIV testing frequency among men who have sex with men (MSM) in King County, Washington. METHODS: The authors evaluated data from MSM testing for HIV at the Public Health-Seattle & King County (PHSKC) STD Clinic and Gay City Health Project (GCHP) and testing history data from MSM in PHSKC HIV surveillance. The intertest interval (ITI) was defined as the number of days between the last negative HIV test and the current testing visit or first positive test. Correlates of the log(10)-transformed ITI were determined using generalised estimating equations linear regression. RESULTS: Between 2003 and 2010, the median ITI among MSM seeking HIV testing at the STD Clinic and GCHP were 215 (IQR: 124-409) and 257 (IQR: 148-503) days, respectively. In multivariate analyses, younger age, having only male partners and reporting ≥10 male sex partners in the last year were associated with shorter ITIs at both testing sites (p<0.05). Among GCHP attendees, having a regular healthcare provider, seeking a test as part of a regular schedule and inhaled nitrite use in the last year were also associated with shorter ITIs (p<0.001). Compared with MSM testing HIV negative, MSM newly diagnosed with HIV had longer ITIs at the STD Clinic (median of 278 vs 213 days, p=0.01) and GCHP (median 359 vs 255 days, p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Although MSM in King County appear to be testing at frequent intervals, further efforts are needed to reduce the time that HIV-infected persons are unaware of their status.
    Sexually transmitted infections 05/2012; · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serologic studies indicate that herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and HSV-2 infections are highly prevalent among people infected with HIV. As an ulcerative genital disease, HSV may be important to HIV transmission and HIV-comorbidity. Routine clinical care of HSV in this population has not been described. Data were abstracted from medical records of HIV-infected individuals by the Adult/Adolescent Spectrum of HIV Disease Project. Clinician-documented HSV diagnosis and HSV treatment, defined as any prescription for acyclovir, valacyclovir, or famciclovir, were the outcomes of interest. We present descriptive statistics and trends in HSV diagnosis and treatment. Between 1989 and 2004, 61,299 people were followed in this study. HSV was diagnosed in 20% of the population, and 32% of the population received HSV antiviral prescriptions. Prescriptions for episodic treatment were given to 28% of patients, and 11% received prescriptions for suppressive therapy. The average annual rate of HSV diagnosis declined by 31% during the course of the study. Clinically recognized HSV infections were frequent despite declining rates of diagnosis. Providers should have a high index of suspicion for HSV and consider routine screening and suppressive therapy for patients at risk of clinical disease.
    Sexually transmitted diseases 05/2012; 39(5):372-6. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare population-based metrics for assessing progress toward the US National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS) goals. Analysis of surveillance data from persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in King County, Washington, USA, 2005-2009. We examined indicators of the timing of HIV diagnosis [intertest interval, CD4 cell count at diagnosis, and AIDS ≤ 1 year of diagnosis (late diagnosis)]; linkage to initial care (CD4 or viral load report ≤3 months after diagnosis) and sustained care (a laboratory report 3-9 months after linkage); engagement in continuous care in 2009 (at least two laboratory reports ≥3 months apart); and virologic suppression. Thirty-two percent of persons had late HIV diagnoses, 31% of whom reported testing HIV negative in the 2 years preceding their HIV diagnoses. Linkage to sustained care, but not linkage to initial care, was significantly associated with subsequent virologic suppression. Among 6070 PLWHA in King County, 65% of those with at least one viral load reported in 2009 and 53% of all PLWHA had virologic suppression. Although only 66% of all PLWHA were engaged in continuous care, 81% were defined as engaged using the denominator proposed in the NHAS (at least one laboratory result reported in 2009 excluding persons establishing care in the second half of the year). Proposed metrics for monitoring the HIV care continuum may not accurately measure late diagnoses or linkage to sustained care and are sensitive to assumptions about the size of the population of PLWHA. Monitoring progress toward achievement of NHAS goals will require improvements in HIV surveillance data and refinement of care metrics.
    AIDS (London, England) 01/2012; 26(1):77-86. · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the cornerstone of HIV clinical care and is increasingly recognized as a key component of HIV prevention. However, the benefits of ART can be realized only if HIV-infected persons maintain high levels of adherence. We present interview data (collected from June 2007 through September 2008) from a national HIV surveillance system in the United States-the Medical Monitoring Project (MMP)-to describe persons taking ART. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess behavioral, sociodemographic, and medication regimen factors associated with three measures that capture different dimensions of nonadherence to ART: dose, schedule, and instruction. The use of ART among HIV-infected adults in care was high (85%), but adherence to ART was suboptimal and varied across the three measures of nonadherence. Of MMP participants currently taking ART, the following reported nonadherence during the past 48 hours: 13% to dose, 27% to schedule, and 30% to instruction. The determinants of the three measures also varied, although younger age and binge drinking were associated with all aspects of nonadherence. Our results support the measurement of multiple dimensions of medication-taking behavior in order to avoid overestimating adherence to ART.
    The Open AIDS Journal 01/2012; 6:213-23.
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    ABSTRACT: To examine trends in and correlates of liver disease and viral hepatitis in an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected cohort. The multi-site adult/adolescent spectrum of HIV-related diseases (ASD) followed 29 490 HIV-infected individuals receiving medical care in 11 U.S. metropolitan areas for an average of 2.4 years, and a total of 69 487 person-years, between 1998 and 2004. ASD collected data on the presentation, treatment, and outcomes of HIV, including liver disease, hepatitis screening, and hepatitis diagnoses. Incident liver disease, chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) were diagnosed in 0.9, 1.8, and 4.7 per 100 person-years. HBV and HCV screening increased from fewer than 20% to over 60% during this period of observation (P < 0.001). Deaths occurred in 57% of those diagnosed with liver disease relative to 15% overall (P < 0.001). Overall 10% of deaths occurred among individuals with a diagnosis of liver disease. Despite care guidelines promoting screening and vaccination for HBV and screening for HCV, screening and vaccination were not universally conducted or, if conducted, not documented. Due to high rates of incident liver disease, viral hepatitis screening, vaccination, and treatment among HIV-infected individuals should be a priority.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 04/2011; 17(14):1807-16. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine if anonymous and confidential testers differ in recency of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection at time of testing and prevalence of antiretroviral drug (ARV) resistance. We examined data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-sponsored Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing project, which performed genotypic testing on leftover HIV diagnostic serum specimens of confidentially and anonymously tested ARV-naïve persons newly diagnosed with HIV in Colorado (n = 365 at 11 sites) and King County, Washington (n = 492 at 44 sites). The serologic testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion was used to classify people as likely to have been recently infected or not. Type of testing, anonymous or confidential, was not significantly associated with either timing of HIV testing by serologic testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion or resistance rates. Mutations conferring any level of ARV resistance were present in 17% of testers, and high-level resistance mutations were present in 10%. Anonymous testers were significantly more likely to have CD4+ counts >500 cells per mm(3) (45% vs. 28%; p = 0.018), indicative of an early infection. This study indicates that anonymous testers have demographic differences relative to confidential HIV testers but were not more likely to exhibit drug resistance. Findings related to when in the course of disease anonymous testers are tested are inconsistent, but anonymous testers had higher CD4 counts, which indicates early testing and is consistent with other studies.
    Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.) 03/2011; 17(2):283-9. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are at increased risk for primary lung cancer (LC). We wished to compare the clinicopathologic features and treatment outcome of HIV-LC patients with HIV-indeterminate LC patients. We also sought to compare behavioral characteristics and immunologic features of HIV-LC patients with HIV-positive patients without LC. A database of 75 HIV-positive patients with primary LC in the HAART era was established from an international collaboration. These cases were drawn from the archives of contributing physicians who subspecialize in HIV malignancies. Patient characteristics were compared with registry data from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results program (SEER; n = 169,091 participants) and with HIV-positive individuals without LC from the Adult and Adolescent Spectrum of HIV-related Diseases project (ASD; n = 36,569 participants). The median age at HIV-related LC diagnosis was 50 years compared with 68 years for SEER participants (P < .001). HIV-LC patients, like their SEER counterparts, most frequently presented with stage IIIB/IV cancers (77% vs. 70%), usually with adenocarcinoma (46% vs. 47%) or squamous carcinoma (35% vs. 25%) histologies. HIV-LC patients and ASD participants had comparable median nadir CD4+ cell counts (138 cells/µL vs. 160 cells/µL). At LC diagnosis, their median CD4+ count was 340 cells/µL and 86% were receiving HAART. Sixty-three HIV-LC patients (84%) received cancer-specific treatments, but chemotherapy-associated toxicity was substantial. The median survival for both HIV-LC patients and SEER participants with stage IIIB/IV was 9 months. Most HIV-positive patients were receiving HAART and had substantial improvement in CD4+ cell count at time of LC diagnosis. They were able to receive LC treatments; their tumor types and overall survival were similar to SEER LC participants. However, HIV-LC patients were diagnosed with LC at a younger age than their HIV-indeterminate counterparts. Future research should explore how screening, diagnostic and treatment strategies directed toward the general population may apply to HIV-positive patients at risk for LC.
    Clinical Lung Cancer 11/2010; 11(6):396-404. · 2.04 Impact Factor
  • Heather Pines, Laura Koutsky, Susan Buskin
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-infected individuals with access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) are living longer and the causes of excess morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are becoming comparable to individuals without HIV infection. However, many PLWHA smoke cigarettes-a well known contributor to excess morbidity and mortality. To investigate the association between smoking and mortality among PLWHA during the HAART era (1996+), we conducted a retrospective cohort study of 2,108 PLWHA enrolled in Seattle and King County's Adult and Adolescent Spectrum of HIV Disease Study. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality were obtained using Cox proportional hazards regression. Compared to never smokers, current smokers (aHR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.3, 2.3) and individuals with an increased dose and/or duration of smoking were at greater risk of all-cause mortality. Although additional research is needed to evaluate the full effect of smoking on cause-specific mortality, smoking cessation programs should target PLWHA to further increase their life expectancy.
    AIDS and Behavior 03/2010; 15(1):243-51. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    Infectious Agents and Cancer 01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected black African immigrants living in King County, Washington, we evaluated delay in HIV diagnosis, access to HIV care, and risk of progression to AIDS or death. We compared differences in the risk of progression to AIDS or death between HIV-positive African-born black individuals and 2 groups of HIV-positive US-born individuals. There were significant differences across the groups in residence at time of HIV diagnosis, gender, HIV transmission category, and initial CD4 count. Black Africans were more likely to present with an AIDS diagnosis (45%), compared to both US-born nonblacks (25%) and US-born blacks (35%). No significant independent associations were observed in rates of HIV disease progression when black African immigrants were compared to their US-born counterparts. Once having initiated HIV care, African-born blacks accessed HIV care and progressed to AIDS at similar rates compared to US-born individuals. However, African-born blacks initiated care with more advanced HIV disease. Results underscore the need for health interventions promoting HIV testing among black African immigrants and reducing barriers to HIV testing.
    Journal of the National Medical Association 12/2009; 101(12):1230-6. · 0.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nephropathy complicates the course and adversely impacts on the prognosis of HIV-infected patients. We examined trends and correlates of all-cause nephropathy (ACN). Correlates of and trends in ACN were examined in the entire Adult/Adolescent Spectrum of HIV Disease longitudinal observational cohort. Patients were enrolled and followed in the cohort for a median period of 3 years between January 1990 and December 2003 in 11 US metropolitan areas. The incidence of ACN rose among HIV-infected individuals through the mid-1990s, then declined. The proportion of patients with ACN at the time of death increased over the study period. Black race, injection-drug use (IDU), indinavir, hypertension, diabetes, decreased CD4+ lymphocyte count, increased viral load, and increased age were all highly associated with ACN. Nephropathy represents an important health disparity impacting HIV-infected blacks and IDU with implications for mortality.
    Journal of the National Medical Association 12/2009; 101(12):1205-13. · 0.91 Impact Factor
  • The Indian Journal of Medical Research 08/2009; 130(1):89-92. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-1 drug resistance has been detected in 8%-24% of recently infected North Americans when assessed by consensus sequencing of plasma. We hypothesized that rates were likely higher but not detected because drug-resistant mutants are transmitted or regressed to levels below the limit of detection by consensus sequencing of HIV-1 RNA. Specimens from antiretroviral-naive individuals recently diagnosed with HIV-1 infection were compared at 15 codons to determine if testing of DNA using a sensitive oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) would detect drug resistance mutants not evident by consensus sequencing of serum. HIV-1 drug resistance at 15 major resistance codons was greater by OLA compared with consensus sequencing: 18 of 104 vs. 12 of 104 individuals (P < or = 0.008) and 33 vs. 18 total mutations (P < or = 0.001); increasing the rate of detection at these 15 codons by 83%. Additional mutations were detected by consensus sequencing at L33, M46, D67, V108, and K219 that were not assessed by OLA. The increased detection of drug-resistant HIV-1 by testing peripheral blood cells with a sensitive assay implies that both low and high levels of drug-resistant mutants are transmitted or persist in antiretroviral-naive individuals, suggesting that the clinical relevance of mutants persisting at both levels should be evaluated.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 04/2009; 51(3):283-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In February 2007, Public Health-Seattle and King County issued a press release describing a cluster of multiclass drug-resistant HIV cases among men who had sex with men (MSM). We evaluated the effect of the press release among MSM in the Seattle area. We administered a rapid assessment survey at venues where MSM congregate. Eligible participants were men who had sex with men in the past year, were older than 18 years, and were residents of western Washington State. Among 325 participants, 57% heard or saw messages related to the press release. Of these, 87% remembered 1 or more key points, but only 5% remembered key prevention messages. Ninety-eight percent of participants thought it was important for the health department to get the message out about drug-resistant HIV. The press release was found to be a useful and well-received method to inform the public about an HIV drug-resistant cluster. Low retention and nonprominent coverage of key prevention messages suggests that health departments using press releases as a prevention tool need to carefully consider placement and emphasis of those messages in a press statement.
    American Journal of Public Health 03/2009; 99 Suppl 1:S131-6. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: From 2005 through 2007, Seattle health care providers identified cases of primary multiclass drug-resistant (MDR) HIV-1 with common patterns of resistance to antiretrovirals (ARVs). Through surveillance activities and genetic analysis, the local Health Department and the University of Washington identified phylogenetically linked cases among ARV treatment-naive and -experienced individuals. HIV-1 pol nucleotide consensus sequences submitted to the University of Washington Clinical Virology Laboratory were assessed for phylogenetically related MDR HIV. Demographic and clinical data collected included HIV diagnosis date, ARV history, and laboratory results. Seven ARV-naive men had phylogenetically linked MDR strains with resistance to most ARVs; these were linked to 2 ARV-experienced men. All 9 men reported methamphetamine use and multiple anonymous male partners. Primary transmissions were diagnosed for more than a 2-year period, 2005-2007. Three, including the 2 ARV-experienced men, were prescribed ARVs. This cluster of 9 men with phylogenetically related highly drug-resistant MDR HIV strains and common risk factors but without reported direct epidemiologic links may have important implications to public health. This cluster demonstrates the importance of primary resistance testing and of collaboration between the public and private medical community in identifying MDR outbreaks. Public health interventions and surveillance are needed to reduce transmission of MDR HIV-1.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 10/2008; 49(2):205-11. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-infected patients continue to die in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). To describe the cause of mortality in the HAART era between 2 cohorts by conducting a comparative retrospective analysis. The Virginia Mason Medical Center (VMMC) cohort was composed of 60 died HIV-infected patients from 600 patients. The second cohort was comprised of 351 died patients from the Seattle portion of the Adult and Adolescent Spectrum of Diseases Project (Seattle-ASD) of 4721 patients. Among the abstracted data were the conditions present at death, defined as any major cause of morbidity present at death for both cohorts. Non-AIDS defining illnesses (non-ADI) were a major source of mortality in 60% and 45% for the VMMC and Seattle-ASD cohorts, respectively. The most common fatal non-ADI in both cohorts were cancer (7% and 19%), bacterial infections (15%), and liver failure (9% and 14%). Cancer (10%) and wasting (7%) were prominent fatal ADI in both cohorts. In each cohort, patients died despite a nondetectable HIV viral load and a CD4 lymphocyte count >200 cells/microL. This included 11 of 60 (18%) VMMC patients (all of whom died of non-ADI) and 35 of 351 (10%) Seattle-ASD patients (81% died with non-ADI). In 2 well-characterized urban HIV cohorts, non-ADI were a major cause of mortality in the HAART era. A substantial number of these patients died despite nondetectable HIV viral loads and reasonably well-preserved immune function measured by CD4 cell counts.
    The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 10/2008; 336(3):217-23. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Ryan White HIV/AIDS Care Act (now the Treatment Modernization Act; Ryan White Program, or RWP) is a source of federal public funding for HIV care in the United States. The Health Services and Resources Administration requires that facilities or providers who receive RWP funds ensure that HIV health services are accessible and delivered according to established HIV-related treatment guidelines. We used data from population-based samples of persons in care for HIV infection in three states to compare the quality of HIV care in facilities supported by the RWP, with facilities not supported by the RWP. Within each area (King County in Washington State; southern Louisiana; and Michigan), a probability sample of patients receiving care for HIV infection in 1998 was drawn. Based on medical records abstraction, information was collected on prescription of antiretroviral therapy according to treatment recommendations, prescription of prophylactic therapy, and provision of recommended vaccinations and screening tests. We calculated population-level estimates of the extent to which HIV care was provided according to then-current treatment guidelines in RWP-supported and non-RWP-supported facilities. For all treatment outcomes analyzed, the compliance with care guidelines was at least as good for patients who received care at RWP-supported (vs non-RWP supported) facilities. For some outcomes in some states, delivery of recommended care was significantly more common for patients receiving care in RWP-supported facilities: for example, in Louisiana, patients receiving care in RWP-supported facilities were more likely to receive indicated prophylaxis for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia and Mycobacterium avium complex, and in all three states, women receiving care in RWP-supported facilities were more likely to have received an annual Pap smear. The quality of HIV care provided in 1998 to patients in RWP-supported facilities was of equivalent or better quality than in non-RWP supported facilities; however, there were significant opportunities for improvement in all facility types. Data from population-based clinical outcomes surveillance data can be used as part of a broader strategy to evaluate the quality of publicly-supported HIV care.
    PLoS ONE 02/2008; 3(9):e3250. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess clinician sexual risk assessment and sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening rates in a large cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in King County, Washington. We abstracted data from medical records of HIV-infected patients seen in diverse clinical settings during 2000-2003 and used [chi]2 and logistic regression to identify factors associated with higher rates of sexual risk assessment and STI testing. We defined patients as having had a sexual risk or STI assessment if the medical record included any information about the patient's recent sexual behavior or included laboratory test results for gonorrhea, chlamydial infection, syphilis, or trichomoniasis. The proportion of patients with any recorded risk assessment or STI testing increased from 16% in 2000 to 46% in 2001, and thereafter remained stable. On multivariate analysis, having a sexual risk or STI evaluation was significantly associated with later time period of evaluation, receiving care in a HIV specialty clinic, higher number of outpatient visits, being men who have sex with men, Seattle residence (vs. residence outside Seattle), female gender, higher CD4 count, white race, and having never received antiretroviral therapy. Although sexual risk and STI evaluation rates increased from 2000 to 2001, they now appear to be stable and many patients, particularly those seen outside of HIV specialty clinics, are not routinely evaluated for ongoing risks or STI. Clinicians and public health authorities need to develop better mechanisms to assure recommended risk assessments and STI testing among persons with HIV.
    Sex Transm Dis 01/2008; 34(12):940-6. · 2.59 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

365 Citations
125.40 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • 2007–2011
    • King County
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2010
    • Virginia Mason Medical Center
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2002–2010
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 2008
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Intervention and Support
      Atlanta, MI, United States
  • 2004
    • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
      Seattle, Washington, United States