Hideaki Iwasawa

Tokyo Medical University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (27)19.69 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Combining peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD) has been common treatment option in Japan. Methods: In this retrospective, multicenter, observational study, the clinical characteristics and outcomes of 104 patients (57 ± 11 years, males 72%) who had switched from PD alone to combined therapy with PD and HD were studied. Clinical parameters were measured at baseline and after 3 months of combined therapy. Results: At baseline, urine volume, dialysate-to-plasma ratio of creatinine (D/P Cr), and total Kt/V were 150 ml/day (range: 0-2,000 ml/day), 0.67 ± 0.11, and 1.8 ± 0.4, respectively. During the first 3 months of combined therapy, body weight, urine volume, serum creatinine level, and D/P Cr decreased, whereas hemoglobin levels increased. Conclusions: In patients where PD does not result in acceptable outcomes, combined therapy with PD and HD may have potential benefits in terms of dialysis adequacy and hydration status. Video Journal Club "Cappuccino with Claudio Ronco" at http://www.karger.com/?doi=368389 © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Blood Purification 11/2014; 38(2):149-153. DOI:10.1159/000368389 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary protein intake (PI) induces glomerular hyperfiltration and reduced dietary PI can be effective in preserving kidney function. However, there is limited information regarding the relationship between dietary PI and glomerular histological changes in chronic kidney disease. We investigated the relationship between changes in dietary PI and both the changes in creatinine clearance and glomerular histomorphometry in adult patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN).
    Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10157-014-1055-1 · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AIMS: We investigated the handling of phosphate by end-stage kidneys and the contribution of residual renal function (RRF) to phosphate homeostasis in haemodialysis patients. METHODS: Blood and 24-hour urinary specimens were obtained from 79 consecutive chronic haemodialysis patients with a urinary output greater than 100 mL/day. Thirty-five patients with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ≥3.0 mL/min were included as group A, and 44 patients with GFR <3.0 mL/min as group B. Additionally, the whole dialysed fluids during a session of haemodialysis were collected from another nine patients. Concentrations of phosphate, creatinine, urea nitrogen, intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) were measured. RESULTS: 24-hour urinary phosphate excretion (UPE) was 283 ± 115 and 139 ± 57 mg/day (9.1 ± 3.5 and 4.5 ± 1.8 mmol/day) in groups A and B, respectively. Tubular reabsorption of phosphate (TRP) was 39.2 ± 13.3 and 31.7 ± 13.6% in groups A and B, respectively (P=0.02). UPE significantly correlated with GFR (r=0.85, p<0.001) and PTH (r=0.44, p<0.001), but not with FGF-23, in the entire patient population. The correlation between UPE and intact PTH levels was absent in group B. Weekly UPE in group A was significantly greater (P<0.001), while that in group B was similar to the amount of phosphate removed by a haemodialysis session. CONCLUSIONS: UPE by end-stage kidneys depends more on GFR than diminishing TRP. The action of PTH on the kidneys remains until GFR decreases to as low as 3 mL/min. RRF plays a significant role in phosphate elimination, and it is possible that FGF-23 no longer act effectively to excrete phosphate in the urine in these patients.
    Nephrology 02/2013; 18(4). DOI:10.1111/nep.12039 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glycated albumin (GA), which is an alternative glycemic marker, is influenced by factors associated with albumin turnover, and it is not clear whether proteinuria influences GA values in diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We enrolled 94 diabetic patients with CKD stages 3 to 5. GA, glycated hemoglobin, and urinary protein excretion (UP) levels were consecutively obtained in each patient. The correlations between GA and UP and those between changes in GA and UP were examined. There was a significant correlation between GA and UP in all cases (r=-0.46, p<0.0001), however no significant correlation was found in cases with UP of 0-3.49 g/day (r=0.01). GA values in cases with UP ≥3.5 g/day were significantly lower than those in cases with UP <3.5 g/day [UP ≥3.5 g/day and serum albumin (Alb) ≤3 g/dL; 12.0 ± 1.3%, UP ≥3.5 g/day and Alb >3 g/dL; 17.8 ± 4.3%, 0≥ UP <3.5 g/day; 21.2 ± 4.2%], while no significant difference in HbA(1c) or glucose levels was found. In cases with a minimum of UP ≥0.5 g/day, no significant correlation was found between the difference in GA and the difference in UP at the point of maximum UP and minimum UP (r=0.04). Nephrotic-range proteinuria decreases GA values independent of the glycemic state, while non-nephrotic range proteinuria has no significant influence on GA values in diabetic CKD patients.
    Internal Medicine 01/2011; 50(1):23-9. DOI:10.2169/internalmedicine.50.4129 · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Haemodiafiltration (HDF) is the most efficient blood purification method and can remove a wide spectrum of solutes of different molecular weights (MW). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the removed amounts of solutes, especially the larger molecules, could be increased by changing the HDF filtration procedure. A new first-half intensive HDF treatment (F-HDF) was designed, whereby convective clearance is intensively forced during the first half of a HDF session. We compared the removed amounts of solutes in the same group of nine patients treated by F-HDF, constant rate-replacing HDF (C-HDF) and a high-flux haemodialysis (HD). F-HDF can remove significantly larger amounts of α(1) -microglobulin (MG), molecular weight (MW) 33,000, compared with HD and C-HDF (30.1 ± 15.1 vs 12.4 ± 0.3, 15.0 ± 3.1 mg, P < 0.01). Regarding the removal amounts and clear space of β(2) MG, MW 11,800, there were no significant differences between the three treatment modalities. Regarding amounts of creatinine, urea nitrogen and phosphorus, there were no significant differences between the three treatment modalities. In post-replacement HDF with a high-flux membrane dialyzer, the method used in the present study in which replacement is completed during the first half of the process, is associated with a greater rate of larger molecule removal than the conventional uniform replacement method.
    Nephrology 12/2010; 16(5):476-82. DOI:10.1111/j.1440-1797.2010.01431.x · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic nephrotoxicity of long-term cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment is a matter of concern in patients with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS). Twenty-eight adult NS patients (25, minimal-change nephrotic syndrome (NS); three, focal-segmental glomerulosclerosis) were divided into three groups. Group A was continuously treated with CsA for more than 5 years (143 ± 40 months, 1.3 ± 0.4 mg/kg per day at final analysis, n = 12); group B had been previously treated with CsA (70 ± 27 months, n = 6); and group C had been treated with corticosteroids alone (n = 10). The clinical variables related to chronic CsA nephrotoxicity were examined. In groups A and B, estimated glomerular filtration rate decreased from 86 ± 22 and 107 ± 17 to 83 ± 23 and 88 ± 13 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) , respectively, at final analysis (both P < 0.05). Serum magnesium levels in group A were significantly lower than those in group B or C (A, 1.78 ± 0.16 mg/dL; B, 2.00 ± 0.14 mg/dL; C, 2.03 ± 0.10 mg/dL; A vs B, C, P < 0.01), and a significant correlation between these and the duration of CsA treatment was found (r = -0.68, P < 0.001). There was a trend towards a correlation between the duration of CsA administration and urinary α1-microglobulin (r = 0.38, P = 0.07). Mild decrease in renal function and hypomagnesemia were found in adult SDNS patients with long-term CsA treatment. Careful monitoring of renal function, blood pressure and serum magnesium levels is necessary.
    Nephrology 11/2010; 16(3):319-25. DOI:10.1111/j.1440-1797.2010.01425.x · 1.86 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Nutrition Supplements 01/2010; 5(2):191-192. DOI:10.1016/S1744-1161(10)70505-6
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of home blood pressure (HBP) control on renal and cardiovascular outcomes is not fully defined, and the optimal blood pressure (BP) target in elderly patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unknown. To clarify the influence of HBP on the progression of CKD and the occurrence of cardiovascular events in elderly CKD patients, we recruited 104 patients with stage 3 to 5 CKD, who were > or =70 years of age. The mean follow-up duration was 39+/-15 months. HBP was measured every morning and evening for 7 consecutive days. HBP data were obtained every 6 months for 79 of these patients. There were significant correlations observed between morning systolic BP (SBP), evening SBP and the change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) during the follow-up period (baseline/follow-up; morning r=-0.55/-0.51, evening r=-0.48/-0.38, all P<0.0001, baseline: baseline values, follow-up: mean values obtained every 6 months during the follow-up period). Stepwise multivariate regression analysis identified morning SBP and urinary protein excretion as independent predictors of a change in eGFR during the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that baseline morning SBP, baseline evening SBP and follow-up morning SBP were significantly associated with an increased risk of renal events (hazard ratios; 1.04 (95% CI, 1.01-1.07), 1.06 (1.02-1.09) and 1.10 (1.04-1.17), respectively). However, Cox proportional hazards analyses showed that there was no significant association between BP and the risk of cardiovascular events. In conclusion, even among elderly CKD patients, HBP is a significant predictor of decline in renal function and the development of end-stage renal disease. In addition, the optimal target BP for elderly CKD patients needs to be clarified.
    Hypertension Research 10/2009; 32(12):1123-9. DOI:10.1038/hr.2009.165 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated to clarify the predialysis factors associated with prognosis in type 2 diabetic patients entering chronic dialysis. One hundred and twenty-four type 2 diabetic patients who started chronic dialysis in our department between January 1992 and November 2000 were studied. the variables in the predialysis period and those at initiation of dialysis were collected and evaluated in association with prognosis after a mean follow up of 37 ± 23 months from initiation of dialysis by using Cox's proportional-hazards model. the 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates after initiating chronic dialysis were 92.7, 74.6, and 56.5%, respectively. During follow up, 40 patients died. Univariate analysis demonstrated that serum albumin (Alb) levels, haemoglobin A1c, and no preparation for permanent vascular or peritoneal access at initiation of dialysis were significantly associated with prognosis. In multivariate analysis, Alb levels (hazard ratio, 2.09, per decrease of 1 g/dL; confidence interval, 1.05–4.19), and age (1.54, per decrease of 10 years; 1.06–2.22) at initiation of dialysis remained significant predictors of mortality. In conclusion, Alb levels and age at initiation of dialysis are associated with prognosis in type 2 diabetic patients on chronic dialysis. It should be elucidated whether improvement of Alb levels at initiation of dialysis would have a favourable influence on survival after diabetic patients with renal failure are entered into chronic dialysis.
    Nephrology 06/2008; 7(5):250 - 256. DOI:10.1046/j.1440-1797.2002.00121.x · 1.86 Impact Factor
  • Nihon Toseki Igakkai Zasshi 01/2008; 41(3):187-193. DOI:10.4009/jsdt.41.187
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the characteristics of the day-by-day variability of home blood pressure (HBP) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We obtained HBP recordings from 368 CKD patients (63+/-13 years, eGFR 34+/-23 mL/min/1.73 m2, males 253). The day-by-day variability of HBP was defined as the coefficient of variation (CV) values of BP measurements every morning after waking and every evening before sleeping on 7 consecutive days. In a portion of the patients, the CV values of HBP were collected every 6 months during a 2-year period and the association with a decline in GFR was examined. CV values of morning/evening systolic BP (SBP) were 5.4+/-2.4%, 6.1+/-2.9 % (p<0.01). The CV values of morning SBP in females or patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) were significantly greater than those in males or patients without DN, respectively (females 5.9+/-2.3%, males 5.2+/-2.4%, p< 0.01, DN 6.1+/-2.8 %, non DN 5.2+/-2.2 %, p<0.05). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that female gender, DN, the number of antihypertensive drugs, higher heart rate and higher CV values of heart rate were associated with higher CV values of the morning SBP. CV values of the morning SBP showed no significant change during the 2-year period (0; 5.4+/-2.6%, 1 year; 5.3+/-2.9%, 2 years 5.6+/-3.1%, n=200). There was no significant difference in the change in eGFR between a group with high CV values (greater than 5 %) and a group with low CV values (lower than 5 %) during the 2-year period. In CKD patients, the day-by-day variability of HBP tended to be greater in the evening, in female and DN patients. There was no significant association between the day-by-day variability of HBP and decline rate in eGFR. Further studies are needed to clarify the clinical significance of the day-by-day variability of HBP in CKD patients.
    Nippon Jinzo Gakkai shi 01/2008; 50(5):588-96.
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    ABSTRACT: Evaluation and monitoring of nutritional status is a fundamental concept in providing nutritional care to patients with end-stage renal failure. There have been, however, few practically available indices assessing whole body protein stores of patients. We enrolled 448 end-stage renal disease patients, 394 on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and 54 on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD) in this study. 83 Age- and sex-matched subjects (controls) whose creatinine clearance was more than 70 ml/min and urinary protein excretion was less than 1.0 g/day were also recruited for comparison. To assess whole body somatic protein stores, we devised the body protein index (BPI). The volume of body protein mass was measured by multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and then BPI was calculated as body protein mass (kg) divided by height in meters (m2). Based on BPI, we defined the nutritional status of the patients as normal if the value was within -10% of the mean value of control subjects, -10 to -14% as mild malnutrition, -15 to -19% as moderate malnutrition, and <-20% as severe malnutrition. The required time for measurement was 5.2 +/- 1.3 min and coefficient of variation of measurements was 0.8 +/- 0.2%. Among men the mean BPI in both HD and PD patients was significantly lower than those of control subjects (4.25 +/- 0.37, 4.38 +/- 0.34 vs. 4.72 +/- 0.37 kg/m2, p < 0.001). In women, BPI was significantly lower in HD patients than in control subjects (3.65 +/- 0.34 vs. 4.00 +/- 0.34 kg/m2, p < 0.033), whereas only a nonsignificant lower tendency was found in PD patients (3.83 +/- 0.39 kg/m2, p = 0.067). There were no significant differences in BPI values between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects, both in men (4.26 +/- 0.41 vs. 4.25 +/- 0.36 kg/m2) and women (3.69 +/- 0.36 vs. 3.65 +/- 0.34 kg/m2). Based on BPI nutritional categories, 113 (28.7%) of all HD patients were classified as having mild malnutrition, 57 (14.5%) as having moderate malnutrition, 40 (10.1%) as having severe malnutrition, and 184 (46.7%) were classified as normal. The patients of longer dialysis history groups showed a tendency of lower BPI compared to those of shorter dialysis history groups (p < 0.05), although the ages of the patients of the two groups did not significantly differ. No correlations were found between BPI and serum albumin or transferrin concentrations. Only weak correlations were found with albumin in male and transferrin in female HD patients. BPI calculated from measurement of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis could evaluate whole body somatic protein stores, and is a potentially useful new marker assessing nutritional status in patients with chronic renal failure. Decreased body somatic protein stores, mainly due to muscle wasting, was prevalent in end-stage renal failure patients on maintenance dialysis.
    Contributions to nephrology 02/2007; 155:18-28. DOI:10.1159/0000100993 · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 32-year-old woman was admitted at 36 weeks' gestation because of increasing proteinuria and generalized edema. At the time of admission, serum creatinine was 1.3 mg/dl, and urinalysis demonstrated 4+ protein and 2+ occult blood. During her pregnancy, her blood pressure had been in the normal range. A normal healthy female neonate was delivered by caesarean section at 38 weeks' gestation. After delivery, the woman's 24-hour urine protein excretion was 11 g/day and serum albumin was 1.4 g/dl , hence nephrotic syndrome was diagnosed. Eleven days after delivery, a renal biopsy showed focal segmental lesions with glomerular epithelial cell injury. She was given 50 mg/day prednisolone and after a month, her 24-hour urinary protein excretion decreased to 2 g/day. One year later, she achieved complete remission. Although she had a relapse of nephrotic syndrome after twenty-one months, steroid therapy again achieved a good response.
    Nippon Jinzo Gakkai shi 02/2006; 48(7):680-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Proteinuria is a recognized complication of obesity, but the pathogenesis remains unclear. We undertook the present study to clarify the factors contributing to proteinuria associated with obesity. We studied 12 obese patients with proteinuria. Twenty-seven age-matched obese subjects without proteinuria served as controls. A glucose tolerance test and renal biopsy were performed in all patients. Fasting serum insulin and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were regarded as reflecting insulin resistance. To delineate the relation between insulin resistance and proteinuria, troglitazone, which acts an insulin sensitizer was given to 6 of 12 patients with a regular diet for 8 weeks. The 6 others were observed without receiving troglitazone. The 12 patients showed the presence of a cluster of insulin resistance factors: higher blood pressure, higher body mass index, higher fasting plasma glucose, higher fasting serum insulin, and higher HOMA-IR than controls. The renal biopsy specimens exhibited no histological abnormalities in 7, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in 3 and benign nephrosclerosis in 2. Troglitazone attenuated HOMA-IR and ameliorated proteinuria, but did not affect body weight, creatinine clearance, or blood pressure. In contrast, the parameters in the patients not given troglitazone did not change. Insulin resistance is a factor contributing to obesity-related proteinuria. The role of insulin resistance as a factor reducing proteinuria remains to be clarified.
    Internal Medicine 07/2005; 44(6):548-53. DOI:10.2169/internalmedicine.44.548 · 0.97 Impact Factor
  • Nihon Toseki Igakkai Zasshi 01/2005; 38(6):1299-1304. DOI:10.4009/jsdt.38.1299
  • Nihon Toseki Igakkai Zasshi 01/2005; 38(1):31-39. DOI:10.4009/jsdt.38.31
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    ABSTRACT: There have been few studies on cyclosporine (CsA) monotherapy in adult minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS). To delineate CsA therapy as new treatment options for MCNS, we conducted a prospective single-center study. We assessed the efficacy of 3 different regimens in 36 patients, consisting of 26 first attacks or 10 relapses, of adult-onset MCNS. In 12 patients, CsA alone was given orally at a dose of 2-3 mg/kg/d, and in 12 patients, CsA after intravenous pulse methylprednisolone therapy (CsA/PMT) was given at the same dose. CsA was given for 12 months, tapered slowly, then stopped. The other 12 patients were treated with oral prednisolone (PSL, 40-60 mg/d) alone for 4 to 6 weeks, followed by daily PSL, with slowly tapering doses. Complete remission (CR) was obtained in 75% with CsA alone, 100% with CsA/PMT and 92% with PSL alone (p = 0.0379). The days required for CR were shortest in the CsA/PMT group (40.9 +/- 35.5 days with CsA alone vs. 11.0 +/- 5.6 with CsA/PMT vs. 21.5 +/- 15.8 with PSL alone). The cumulative rates of CR were significantly different among the 3 groups (p < 0.0001). The real numbers of the relapse were smallest in the CsA/PMT group, however, the cumulative rates of sustained remission among the 3 treatment arms were not statistically different. Renal function was well preserved with each treatment period. CsA-associated adverse effects were minimal but one patient developed new-onset hypertension and gingival hyperplasia. However, the adverse effects of PSL alone were serious in 3 cases: bleeding from gastric ulcer, diabetes mellitus, and aseptic necrosis. Many patients with PSL but few with CsA experienced cosmetic problems. CsA/PMT may be the most advantageous when the clinical efficacy of each treatment for MCNS is integrated.
    Internal Medicine 08/2004; 43(8):668-73. DOI:10.2169/internalmedicine.43.668 · 0.97 Impact Factor
  • Toshiyuki Nakao, Hideaki Iwasawa, Ryo Tomaru
    Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology 11/2003; Suppl 127:86-91.
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    ABSTRACT: The therapeutic approach to patients with membranous lupus nephropathy (MLN) remains controversial. We have attempted combination therapy for MLN. Five patients with MLN (WHO class Va and Vb) and nephrotic syndrome were treated with 1 g methylprednisolone intravenously for 3 consecutive days followed by daily prednisolone at the dose of 30-40 mg plus cyclosporine at the dose of 100-200 mg and angiotensin receptor blocker(40 mg of valsartan). Initial dosage prednisolone was given for 1 month, and then tapered gradually in terms of dosage and interval. These patients were followed up for a minimum of 12 months. Complete remission was obtained in 4 patients after a mean of 7.3 +/- 2.1 months, and partial remission was obtained in the remaining patient. Daily prednisolone dosage significantly decreased from a baseline mean of 0.69 +/- 0.11 mg/kg to a mean of 0.10 +/- 0.02 mg/kg at the last follow-up. Lupus activity, as measured by SLE disease activity index, significantly decreased in all patients. Serum creatinine level and blood pressure remained stable. It was concluded that quadritherapy, including intravenous methylprednisolone, prednisolone, cyclosporine, and angiotensin receptor blocker, was beneficial in inducing remission of nephrotic syndrome, reducing lupus activity, and sparing prednisolone dosage with an acceptably low risk for side effects.
    Nippon Jinzo Gakkai shi 11/2003; 45(7):689-94.
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    ABSTRACT: There are various forms of renal lesions in patients with human immunodeficiency virus(HIV), however reported cases of immune-complex glomerulonephritis are scarce. Here we describe an HIV-positive patient with Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis(HSPN), which presented as nephrotic syndrome. In addition to therapy combined with glucocorticosteroid and inhibition of the renin-angiotesin system(RAS), plasmapheresis and antiretroviral therapy produced a favorable outcome. A 26-year-old HIV positive man was admitted for purpura on both lower limbs. Despite glucocorticosteroid treatment, purpura recurred and urinary protein increased to 5-10 g daily. HSPN was diagnosed based on the skin and renal biopsies. During 2 months of treatment with combined glucocorticosteroid and RAS inhibition, nephrotic syndrome persisted. He received double filtration plasmapheresis(DFPP). Soon after, urine protein decreased to 2-3 g daily and macrohematuria decreased. The second renal biopsy showed a decrease in IgA deposition and improvement of acute inflammatory changes. In addition, highly active antiretroviral therapy was started to reduce the high viral load. After 3 weeks, HIV-1-RNA rapidly decreased and urine protein decreased to 1 g daily. After a year, urinary protein was negative, but mild microhematuria persisted. We speculate that the refractory nephrotic syndrome in this patient might be associated with the abnormal immunological condition due to HIV infection.
    Nippon Jinzo Gakkai shi 02/2003; 45(4):387-92.