Jeong Hun Kim

Hanyang University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (176)490.73 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this research is to design a piezoelectric tile for harvesting energy from footsteps and to optimize the system for harvesting maximum energy. Because piezoelectric modules easily break when directly subjected to energy generated by human movements, we designed a tile that employs indirect energy transmission using springs and a tip mass. We aimed at matching the mechanical resonance frequency of the tile with that of the piezoelectric modules. The resonance frequency of a piezoelectric module with a 10-g tip mass was almost similar to the vibration frequency of the tile at 22.5 Hz when we dropped an 80-g steel ball from a 1-m height. We performed impedance matching and realized a matching value of 15 kΩ. Under these optimal mechanical and electrical conditions, we harvested 770-μW RMS and 55-mW peak output power.
    Current Applied Physics 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cap.2015.02.009 · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of angiogenesis and thus contributes to many vasoproliferative retinopathies including retinopathy of prematurity. Based on the importance of canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels in VEGF signaling, we firstly evaluated the expression of TRPC channels in mouse retina by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. All seven TRPC channels were expressed in mouse retina. TRPC4 channels were chosen for further analysis based on their upregulation on hypoxic retina according to the GEO database under the identifier GSE19886. Interestingly, TRPC4 suppression by intravitreal injection of siRNA against mTRPC4 significantly inhibited retinal neovascularization. To further investigate the effect of TRPC4 suppression on neovascularization, human retina microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) that are responsible for initiating neovascularization in response to increased VEGF in OIR retina were transfected with siRNA against TRPC4. As we have expected, suppression of TRPC4 effectively inhibited VEGF-induced migration and tube formation as well. Further evaluation on VEGF signaling pathway by western blot analysis of signaling molecules discovered that VEGF-induced activation of ERK, p38 MAPK and AKT signaling pathways were inhibited by suppression of TRPC4. These findings suggest that suppression of TRPC4 could be an alternative therapeutic option for VEGF-induced retinal neovascularization.
    Cell Calcium 01/2015; 9(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ceca.2015.01.002 · 4.21 Impact Factor
  • Dong Hyun Jo, Jin Hyoung Kim, Jeong Hun Kim
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    ABSTRACT: Pathologic angiogenesis induced by hypoxia is a hallmark of ischemic retinopathy including diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity. These 2 diseases affect substantial number of working population and preterm babies, respectively, resulting in visual deterioration. It is essential for novel therapeutics for ischemic retinopathy to demonstrate the potency in reducing pathologic angiogenesis and the safety without definite toxicity on the retina and the whole body. In this review, we suggest a novel platform of integrative studies from in vitro to in vivo experiments on angiogenesis and toxicity with the aim of accelerating and facilitating the development of novel therapeutic agents for ischemic retinopathy. Robust in vitro and in vivo studies with bridging microfluidic and ex vivo systems help researchers to evaluate the efficacy and anticipate the toxicity of candidate drugs. We hope that novel therapeutic approach based on this platform will be developed in near future and reduce the incidence of vision loss from ischemic retinopathy.
    Biomedecine [?] Pharmacotherapy 12/2014; 69C. DOI:10.1016/j.biopha.2014.12.027 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the clinical course of congenital aniridia and to evaluate prognostic factors for visual outcome after long-term follow-up. The medical records of 120 eyes from 60 patients with congenital aniridia were retrospectively reviewed. The prevalence and clinical course of ophthalmic characteristics, systemic disease, refractive errors, and visual acuity were assessed. Prognostic factors for final visual outcomes were analyzed. Aniridic keratopathy developed in 82 (69%) of 119 eyes. Macular hypoplasia was observed in 70 eyes of 35 patients (91%). Cataract was observed in 63 of 120 eyes (53%). Nystagmus was present in 41 patients (68% of 60 patients) at the initial visit but decreased in five patients (8% of 60 patients). Ocular hypertension was detected in 19 eyes (20% of 93 eyes), six (32% of 19 eyes) of which developed secondarily after cataract surgery. The mean changes in spherical equivalent and astigmatism during the follow-up period were -1.10 and 1.53 diopter, respectively. The mean final visual acuity was 1.028 logarithm of minimal angle of resolution. Nystagmus and ocular hypertension were identified as prognostic factors for poor visual outcome. Identification of nystagmus and ocular hypertension was important to predict final visual outcome. Based on the high rate of secondary ocular hypertension after cataract surgery, careful management is needed.
    Korean Journal of Ophthalmology 12/2014; 28(6):479-485. DOI:10.3341/kjo.2014.28.6.479
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    ABSTRACT: Background Progressive retinal degeneration without retinal pigmentation has been repeatedly observed in Korean nephronophthisis (NPHP) type 1 patients with a total homozygous deletion of NPHP1.DesignRetrospective case seriesParticipantsPatients with clinical diagnosis of NPHP and genetic diagnosis of total deletion of NPHP1 (n = 5) were included in this study.Methods Patients with clinical diagnosis of NPHP (n = 57) were screened for total deletion of NPHP1 by PCR for the 20 exons of NPHP1. The clinical and ophthalmological findings of NPHP type 1 patients were reviewed. Additionally, four exons of MALL, a gene adjacent to NPHP1, were amplified using PCR, and amplification failure was considered a homozygous deletion encompassing the corresponding exons.Main Outcome MeasureOphthalmologic findings in NPHP type 1 patients.ResultsFive of 57 patients with clinical diagnosis of NPHP were diagnosed as having NPHP type 1 by genetic analysis. Chronic renal failure was diagnosed in these five patients at 7.9–15.4 years of age. All the patients with NPHP type 1 had progressive decline in visual acuity with various ages of onset (2–17 years). Ophthalmologic examinations revealed unexpected findings of retinopathy with large or small flecks, which was compatible with Stargardt-like retinopathy or albipunctatus retinopathy in majority of them (4 of 5). The genetic study revealed an additional deletion of exon 1 of the adjacent gene MALL.Conclusions We report the unexpectedly common retinal involvement of NPHP type 1 with an additional MALL deletion in a Korean cohort.
    Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 11/2014; DOI:10.1111/ceo.12469 · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Retinoblastoma, the most common intraocular malignant tumor in children, is characterized by the loss of both functional alleles of RB1 gene, which however alone cannot maintain malignant characteristics of retinoblastoma cells. Nevertheless, the investigation of other molecular aberrations such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and miRNAs is still lacking. In this study, we demonstrate that STAT3 is activated in retinoblastoma cells, Ki67-positive areas of in vivo orthotopic tumors in BALB/c nude mice, and human retinoblastoma tissues of the advanced stage. Furthermore, target genes of STAT3 including BCL2, BCL2L1, BIRC5, and MMP9 are up-regulated in retinoblastoma cells compared to other retinal constituent cells. Interestingly, STAT3 inhibition by targeted siRNA suppresses the proliferation of retinoblastoma cells and the formation of in vivo orthotopic tumors. In line with these results, STAT3 siRNA effectively induces down-regulation of target genes of STAT3. In addition, miRNA microarray analysis and further real-time PCR experiments with STAT3 siRNA treatment show that STAT3 activation is related to the up-regulation of miR-17-92 clusters in retinoblastoma cells via positive feedback loop between them. In conclusion, we suggest that STAT3 inhibition could be a potential therapeutic approach in retinoblastoma through the suppression of tumor proliferation.
    Oncotarget 10/2014; · 6.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purposes of the present study were to explore whether hippocampal atrophy exists in pure subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) as defined by negative (11)C-Pittsburg compound-B (PiB(-)) positron emission tomography and to compare hippocampal volume and shape between PiB(-) SVaD and PiB positive (PiB(+)) Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. Hippocampal volume and shape were compared among 40 patients with PiB(-) SVaD, 34 with PiB(+) AD, and 21 elderly with normal cognitive function (NC). The normalized hippocampal volume of PiB(-) SVaD was significantly smaller than NC but larger than that of PiB(+) AD (NC > PiB(-) SVaD > PiB(+) AD). Both PiB(-) SVaD and PiB(+) AD patients had deflated shape changes in the cornus ammonis (CA) 1 and subiculum compared with NC. However, direct comparison between PiB(-) SVaD and PiB(+) AD demonstrated more inward deformity in the subiculum of the left hippocampus in PiB(+) AD. PiB(-) SVaD patients did have smaller hippocampal volumes and inward shape change on CA 1 and subiculum compared with NC, suggesting that cumulative ischemia without amyloid pathology could lead to hippocampal atrophy and shape changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Neurobiology of Aging 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.08.009 · 4.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Here, we report a method of fabricating thin layer of polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS), with a thickness in the range of 60 to 80 nm, which can be repeatedly generated (more than ten times) from the same block of PDMS via controlled interfacial fracture. The thin layers can be transferred to various substrates by peeling off from the bulk PDMS. The cleavage is attributed to the built-in stress at the fracture interface due to plasma treatment, resulting in the repetitive formation of the thin membranes, with no residue from processing, and with a surface roughness of ~5 nm. We were able to demonstrate transferred patterns with controlled thickness by varying the oxygen plasma treatment conditions and the composition of bulk PDMS stamp. Using the method, we achieved residual-free patterns with sub-micron resolution for applications in biomolecule array templates.
    ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 07/2014; 6(14). DOI:10.1021/am502477w · 5.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we demonstrate that titanium dioxide nanoparticles suppress pathologic angiogenesis without definite toxicity. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles inhibited in vitro angiogenic processes and in vivo retinal neovascularization. Nevertheless, they did not induce significant toxicity at the level of gene expression, cellular viability, histologic integrity, and apoptotic activity. In general, local administration requires fewer nanoparticles than systemic application. Local delivery can be a safer platform to utilize nanoparticles for therapeutic uses.
    Nanomedicine: nanotechnology, biology, and medicine 07/2014; 10(5). DOI:10.1016/j.nano.2014.02.007 · 6.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to investigate the p53 expression pattern in tumor cells and in mature tumor vascular endothelium of retinoblastoma. Nuclear p53 accumulation was observed in most of the tumor cells in both the human and orthotopic retinoblastoma animal models using SNUOT-Rb1 and Y79 cells. In the orthotopic animal model, some of the tumor vascular endothelium also demonstrated nuclear p53 immunoreactivity, and the ratio of p53 positivity among the total mature tumor vascular endothelium was slightly higher in the Y79 cell model when compared with the SNUOT-Rb1 cell model. In addition, in the human retinoblastoma specimens, 32.9% of the tumor vascular endothelium showed p53 nuclear staining. In conclusion, some of the mature tumor vascular endothelium in both the human and orthotopic models of retinoblastoma share the same cytogenetic abnormality (an abnormal nuclear accumulation of p53) with retinoblastoma cells.
    Oncology Reports 06/2014; 32(2). DOI:10.3892/or.2014.3236 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nanoparticles can be involved in biological activities such as apoptosis, angiogenesis, and oxidative stress by themselves. In particular, inorganic nanoparticles such as gold and silica nanoparticles are known to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated pathological angiogenesis. In this study, we show that anti-angiogenic effect of inorganic nanospheres is determined by their sizes. We demonstrate that 20 nm size gold and silica nanospheres suppress VEGF-induced activation of VEGF receptor-2, in vitro angiogenesis, and in vivo pathological angiogenesis more efficiently than their 100 nm size counterparts. Our results suggest that modulation of the size of gold and silica nanospheres determines their inhibitory activity to VEGF-mediated angiogenesis.
    Nano Research 06/2014; 7(6). DOI:10.1007/s12274-014-0445-8 · 6.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To enhance the output power of piezoelectric energy harvesting system up to the watt level, we designed a multi-piezoelectric array (MPA) energy harvesting system that can overcome the limitations of a single-piezoelectric harvesting systems. The MPA energy harvesting system was designed using an impact-type harvester utilizing a hitting stick, as such systems can generate higher output power than vibration-type methods using a cantilever in a single-piezoelectric energy harvesting system. We investigated the effects that various connection and rectification methods had on the output power of a piezoelectric energy harvesting system consisting of four 35 ×45 × 0.2 mm3 piezoelectric modules. We found that the output power was highest when each module was rectified before the modules were connected in parallel and that the optimal load resistance was inversely proportional to the number of modules if they were connected in parallel. To obtain watt-level power from the proposed MPA energy harvesting system, we designed a system consisting of 102 piezoelectric modules based on the derived optimized experimental conditions, from which we were able to obtain an output power of 1.99 W at 1800 hpm (hits per minute) and 500 Ω.
    Journal of Electroceramics 06/2014; 32(4):396-403. DOI:10.1007/s10832-014-9934-0 · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In diabetic retinopathy (DR), visual deterioration is related with retinal neovascularization and vascular hyperpermeability. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents are currently utilized to suppress retinal neovascularization and macular edema (ME); however, there are still concerns on the widespread use of them because VEGF is a trophic factor for neuronal and endothelial cells in the retina. As an alternative treatment strategy for DR, it is logical to address hypoxia-related molecules to treat DR because the retina is in relative hypoxia as DR progresses. In this study, we demonstrate that destabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) by SH-1242 and SH-1280, novel heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) inhibitors, leads to suppression of hypoxia-mediated retinal neovascularization and vascular leakage in diabetic retina. In vitro experiments showed that these inhibitors inhibited hypoxia-induced upregulation of target genes of HIF-1α and further secretion of VEGF. Furthermore, these inhibitors effectively suppressed expression of target genes of HIF-1α including vegfa in the retina of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mice. Interestingly, despite hsp90 inhibition, these inhibitors do not induce definite toxicity at the level of gene expression, cellular viability, and histologic integrity. We suggest that SH-1242 and SH-1280 can be utilized in the treatment of DR, as an alternative treatment of direct VEGF inhibition.
    Journal of Molecular Medicine 05/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00109-014-1168-8 · 4.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To analyse clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of osteosarcoma that developed in survivors of bilateral retinoblastoma. Three institutions participated in this retrospective study. Among survivors of bilateral retinoblastoma who were diagnosed and treated between 1995 and 2012, 8 cases (4 male, 4 female) of osteosarcoma were identified. Medical records were thoroughly reviewed. Median age at diagnosis of bilateral retinoblastoma was 8.5 months (range 1.4-18.4 months). Treatment modalities for retinoblastoma were: enucleation+chemotherapy+radiotherapy (n=6); chemotherapy combined with focal therapy (n=1); and chemotherapy+radiotherapy (n=1). Median radiotherapy dose was 46.5 Gy (range 45-54 Gy). Median age at diagnosis of osteosarcoma was 8.9 years (range 5.4-20.3 years). Median interval between retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma was 8.2 years (range 5.0-20.0 years). Tumour locations were femur (n=5), tibia (n=1), mandible (n=1), and nasal cavity (n=1). Two patients presented with lung metastasis. Seven patients received multimodal treatment, and treatment was refused in 1 patient. After diagnosis of osteosarcoma, the patients were followed for a median of 17.3 months (range 4.4-56.4 months). The 2-year overall survival and event-free survival rates were 56.3±19.9% and 33.3±18.0%, respectively. At the time of analysis, 5 patients remained alive, and 2 of them were on therapy. Of the 3 surviving patients without evidence of disease, 2 received high dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood stem cell support. Our data could be used as a basis for future studies aimed at reaching consensus about long term follow-up and treatment guidelines for this genetically susceptible group of patients.
    The British journal of ophthalmology 05/2014; 98(10). DOI:10.1136/bjophthalmol-2014-305116 · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pericyte loss is an early characteristic change in diabetic retinopathy. Despite accumulating evidences that hyperglycemia induced angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) has a central role in pericyte loss, the precise molecular mechanism has not been elucidated. This study was to investigate the role of Ang2 in pericyte loss in diabetic retinopathy. We demonstrated that pericyte loss occurred with Ang2 increase in the diabetic mice retina, and the source of Ang2 could be endothelial cell. Ang2 induced pericyte apoptosis via p53 pathway under high glucose while Ang2 alone did not induce apoptosis. Integrin, not Tie-2 receptor, was involved for Ang2 induced pericyte apoptosis under high glucose as an Ang2 receptor. High glucose changed integrin expression pattern which increased integrin α3 and β1 in pericyte. Furthermore, in vitro, Ang2 induced pericyte apoptosis was effectively attenuated via p53 suppression by blocking integrin α3 and β1. In vivo, while intravitreal injection of Ang2 induced pericyte loss in C57/BL6 mice retina, intravitreal injection of anti-integrin α3 and β1 antibodies attenuated Ang2 induced pericyte loss. Taken together, Ang2 induced pericyte apoptosis under high glucose via α3β1 integrin. Glycemic control or blocking Ang2/integrin signaling could be a potential therapeutic target to prevent pericyte loss in early diabetic retinopathy.
    Diabetes 04/2014; 63(9). DOI:10.2337/db13-1942 · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the clinical outcomes were associated with socioeconomic status (SES) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The author analyzed 2,358 patients (64.9 ± 12.3 yr old, 71.5% male) hospitalized with AMI between November 2005 and June 2010. SES was measured by the self-reported education (years of schooling), the residential address (social deprivation index), and the national health insurance status (medical aid beneficiaries). Sequential multivariable modeling assessed the relationship of SES factors with 3-yr major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and mortality after the adjustment for demographic and clinical factors. During the 3-yr follow-up, 630 (26.7%) MACEs and 322 (13.7%) all-cause deaths occurred in 2,358 patients. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression modeling, the only lower education of SES variables was associated with MACEs (hazard ratio [HR], 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.91) and mortality (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.16-3.20) in the patients with AMI who underwent PCI. The study results indicate that the lower education is a significant associated factor to increased poor clinical outcomes in patients with AMI who underwent PCI.
    Journal of Korean medical science 04/2014; 29(4):536-43. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.4.536 · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extracellular deposit of amyloid beta (Aβ) is a common pathologic feature in both age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and Alzheimer's disease, but the role of intracellular Aβ on the tight junction of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is unknown. In this study, we investigated the intracellular Aβ expression and its role on the outer blood retinal barrier in the retina of 5XFAD mice, a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. The retina of 5XFAD mice showed the pathologic features of AMD with intracellular Aβ in the RPE. As intracellular Aβ accumulated, zonular occludens-1 and occludin were markedly attenuated and lost their integrity as tight junctions in the RPE of 5XFAD mice. Also, Aβ42 uptake by ARPE-19 cells induced the tight junction breakdown of zonular occludens-1 and occludin without cell death. These results implicate that intracellular Aβ42 could play a role in the breakdown of the outer blood retinal barrier in 5XFAD mice. Thus, we suggested that 5XFAD mice could be a mouse model of dry AMD with regard to the Aβ42 related pathology.
    Neurobiology of aging 03/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.03.008 · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy are leading causes of blindness. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to be the main factor that induces pathological angiogenesis in these diseases. In this study, we investigate the therapeutic potential and safety profiles of high-affinity peptides targeting VEGF which are identified using an 'aptide' technology. We show that two VEGF-binding aptides, APTVEGF1 and APTVEGF2, demonstrate high binding affinity and specificity to VEGF. Furthermore, they suppress VEGF-induced activation of VEGF receptor-2, in vitro angiogenesis, and in vivo pathological choroidal and retinal neovascularization. Despite potent anti-angiogenic effects, both VEGF-binding aptides do not induce any definite toxicity at the level of cellular viability, histological integrity, and gene expression. Our data show the therapeutic potential of VEGF-binding peptides for the treatment of choroidal and retinal neovascularization.
    Biomaterials 03/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.12.031 · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Retinal neovascularization in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is the most common cause of blindness for children. Despite evidence that hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α -VEGF axis is associated with the pathogenesis of ROP, the inhibitors of HIF-1α have not been established as a therapeutic target in the control of ROP pathophysiology. We investigated the hypothesis that degradation of HIF-1α as a master regulator of angiogenesis in hypoxic condition, using β-lapachone, would confer protection against hypoxia-induced retinopathy without affecting physiological vascular development in mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), an animal model of ROP. The effects of β-lapachone were examined after intraocular injection in mice with OIR. Intraocular administration of β-lapachone resulted in significant reduction in hypoxia-induced retinal neovascularization without retinal toxicity or perturbation of developmental retinal angiogenesis. Our results demonstrate that HIF-1α-mediated VEGF expression in OIR is associated with pathological neovascularization, not physiological angiogenesis. Thus, strategies blocking HIF-1α in the developing eye in the pathological hypoxia could serve as a novel therapeutic target for ROP.
    Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 02/2014; DOI:10.1111/jcmm.12235 · 3.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the dose-effect relationship for single muscle advancement in consecutive esotropia and consecutive exotropia. Medical records from 22 patients with consecutive esotropia (n = 11) or exotropia (n = 11) were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had undergone either single lateral rectus or medial rectus advancement surgery. The alterations in muscle position and the angle deviation were measured in millimeters and prism diopters (PD) and the change in deviation was determined by subtracting the postoperative angle of deviation at 1 week from the preoperative angle. To quantify the clinical effect of muscle advancement, the ratio of the change in muscle position to the change in visual angle deviation was calculated (ie, the surgical dose-effect relationship). The mean deviation was 25.5 ± 10.4 PD preoperatively and 0 ± 6.9 PD at 1 week postoperatively. The success rate was 82% in the consecutive esotropia group and 91% in the consecutive exotropia group. The average correction ratio was 4.31 ± 0.96 PD/mm. In multiple regression analysis of total patients with consecutive strabismus and the consecutive esotropia group, the amount of muscle advancement and preoperative angle deviation were positively correlated with the correction ratio. In the consecutive exotropia group, there was no significant relationship between variables. Single muscle advancement generally provides enough correction for most consecutive strabismus cases. Surgical dose-effect relationship increases with preoperative angle deviation and amount of muscle advancement. Surgeons should consider reducing the amount of muscle advancement in patients with larger angle deviations, especially patients with consecutive esotropia. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 20XX;XX:XX-XX.].
    Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus 02/2014; 51(2):1-7. DOI:10.3928/01913913-20140205-01 · 0.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
490.73 Total Impact Points


  • 2012–2015
    • Hanyang University
      • Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • University of Michigan
      • Life Sciences Institute
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • 2004–2015
    • Seoul National University
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2014
    • MEDIPOST Biomedical Research Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012–2014
    • Chonnam National University
      • Department of Cardiology
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
  • 2006–2014
    • Korea University
      • • Department of Computer Science and Radio Communications Engineering
      • • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      • • Department of Food Bioscience and Technology
      • • Department of Electrical Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • University of Auckland
      • Liggins Institute
      Окленд, Auckland, New Zealand
  • 2002–2014
    • Seoul National University Hospital
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2013
    • Asan Medical Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008
    • Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
  • 2007
    • Ewha Womans University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005
    • Yonsei University
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea