Hirofumi Kawamoto

Okayama University, Okayama, Okayama, Japan

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Publications (86)269.72 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There have been limited studies evaluating single-session EUS-FNA and ERCP for evaluation of pancreatic masses. The aim of this study was to determine the safety of single-session EUS-FNA and ERCP, and to compare the diagnostic accuracies of cytodiagnosis by EUS-FNA, ERCP, and their combination. A total of 100 patients with pancreatic masses were prospectively enrolled. All patients underwent single-session EUS-FNA and ERCP. The main outcome measurement was frequency of post-procedural complications. Another measurement was diagnostic accuracy of cytodiagnosis by EUS-FNA, ERCP, and their combination. Procedure-related pancreatitis occurred in 10 patients, but all patients were conservatively managed. Cytodiagnosis by EUS-FNA was significantly superior to ERCP in accuracy. In patients with a pancreatic head mass, 3 cases of false negative EUS-FNA were positive on ERCP. The combination procedures improved accuracy compared with EUS-FNA alone. By contrast, in the subgroup of the pancreatic body or tail mass, the combination of EUS-FNA and ERCP did not improve cytodiagnosis compared to that with EUS-FNA alone. Single-session EUS-FNA and ERCP appears to be as safe as performing each procedure separately. EUS-FNA should be considered the principal procedure for cytodiagnosis. ERCP has only a complementary role in patients with pancreatic head mass.
    Hepato-gastroenterology 09/2014; 61(134):1775-9. · 0.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The treatment of biliary stricture is crucially important for continuing stable chemotherapy for unresectable biliary carcinoma; however, there is no consensus regarding the use of hilar biliary drainage. In this study, we examined the efficacy of endoscopic over 3-branched biliary drainage using self-expandable metallic stents (SEMSs) in patients with unresectable malignant hilar biliary stricture (HBS).
    Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 08/2014; · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serum levels of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA are an important predictor of the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic HBV infection. However, little is known about whether high levels of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) increase the risk for HCC. We investigated 167 patients who were treated with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) for at least 2 years (median: 5.8 years, range: 2-13.1 years). Relationships between reduced levels of HBsAg and various factors were evaluated. In addition, we evaluated the usefulness of quantitative serum levels of HBV DNA and HBsAg as predictors of HCC development in patients receiving long-term NA therapy. HCC developed in 9 of the 167 NA-treated patients. In the 9 patients with HCC, HBV DNA was undetectable (<2.1 log copies/mL), but HBsAg levels were ≥2000 C.O.I. in 7 patients. No maternal transmission, long NA treatment period, HBV DNA levels <3.0 log copies/mL, and reduced hepatitis B e antigen levels during the first 24 weeks of treatment were a significant factor of HBsAg levels <2000 C.O.I.. Hepatocarcinogenesis was observed in patients with high HBsAg levels, despite the negative conversion of HBV DNA as a result of long-term NA therapy. Therefore, to suppress hepatocarcinogenesis, it is important to control not only HBV DNA levels but also HBsAg levels.
    Liver cancer. 03/2014; 3(1):41-52.
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    ABSTRACT: Obstructive jaundice caused by metastases to the porta hepatis is often observed in patients with various advanced cancers; however, metastasis of lung cancer to the common bile duct with subsequent development of jaundice is rare. A 75-year-old female with lung adenocarcinoma harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation (15-bp in-frame deletion in exon 19 and T790M in exon 20) developed obstructive jaundice during therapy. Obstruction of the common bile duct caused by an intraductal tumor was identified by computed tomography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and endoscopic ultrasonography. Although primary cholangiocarcinoma was highly suspected according to the imaging findings, immunohistochemical evaluation of the intraductal tumor demonstrated thyroid transcription factor-1 positive adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, peptide nucleic acid-locked nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction clamp analysis showed that the tumor contained the same EGFR mutation as that in the primary lung cancer. Thus, we confirmed intraductal metastasis from a lung adenocarcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the second report of obstructive jaundice caused by intraductal metastasis of lung cancer.
    OncoTargets and Therapy 01/2014; 7:1847-50. · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe an interesting clinical course of a patient who developed severe ischemic liver injury due to acute embolism of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and celiac artery. A 70-year-old man was hospitalized for abdominal pain and diarrhea. Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a variant common hepatic artery arising from the SMA and multiple thromboembolic occlusions of visceral arteries, including the SMA and celiac artery. Laboratory data showed markedly elevated hepatic enzymes, which increased after admission despite the initiation of systemic anticoagulant and thrombolytic therapy. The patient was successfully treated by endovascular recanalization of the SMA occlusion via transcatheter embolus aspiration, thrombolysis, balloon angioplasty, and stent placement. Severe ischemic liver injury may occur in the setting of synchronous embolism of the SMA and celiac artery, and these phenomena may have a critical impact on the choice of treatment strategies and prognosis. Endovascular treatment appears to an effective treatment option.
    Acta medica Okayama 12/2013; 67(6):397-402. · 0.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) is considered to be an effective salvage procedure for failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with unresectable malignant biliary obstruction. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of EUS-BD. From November 2006 to May 2012, a total of 64 patients who underwent EUS-BD (44 EUS-guided choledochoduodenostomy [EUS-CDS] and 20 EUS-guided hepaticogastrostomy [EUS-HGS]) at seven tertiary-care referral centers in Japan were included. The primary outcome was the technical success rate, and the secondary outcomes were the incidence of complications, stent dysfunction rate, time to stent dysfunction, and overall survival. The technical success rate for both EUS-CDS and EUS-HGS was 95%. The reasons for technical failure were two failed dilations of the anastomosis in EUS-CDS and one puncture failure in EUS-HGS. The stent dysfunction rate and 3-month dysfunction-free patency rate were 21% and 80% for EUS-CDS and 32% and 51% for EUS-HGS. There were 12 (six in EUS-CDS and six in EUS-HGS) procedure-related complications (19%): five cases of bile leakage (3/2), three stent misplacements (1/2), one pneumoperitoneum (1/0), two cases of bleeding (1/1), one perforation (1/0), and one biloma (0/1). Bile leakage was more frequently observed in patients who underwent plastic stent placement (11%) than in those with covered metal stents (4%). This Japanese multicenter study revealed a high success rate in EUS-BD. However, the complication rate was as high as that in previous series. Covered metal stents may be useful to reduce bile leakage in EUS-BD.
    Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic sciences. 09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common liver disease that can progress to cirrhosis. Oxidative stress is one of the central mechanisms causing hepatocellular injury in the disease. In this study, antioxidant therapy using both vitamins C and E was conducted in patients with NASH. Vitamin E 300 mg/day and vitamin C 300 mg/day were administered orally to 23 patients with NASH for 12 months. Body mass index was measured during therapy. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, thioredoxin (an oxidative stress marker), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured before treatment and after 12 months in all patients. Ten of the 23 patients underwent liver biopsy before and after treatment. Body mass index remained unchanged during treatment with vitamins C and E. Serum alanine aminotransferase, thioredoxin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were decreased significantly at 12 months compared with pretreatment. Liver biopsies showed improved necroinflammatory activity in eight cases and improved fibrosis staging in 4. Serum alanine aminotransferase, thioredoxin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and liver histology were clearly improved with vitamin C and E therapy. These findings suggest that combination therapy using these vitamins may be useful in patients with NASH to minimize damage from oxidative stress and slow the processes leading to cirrhosis.
    Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research 01/2013; 5:11-6.
  • Gastrointestinal endoscopy 01/2013; 77(1):132-3. · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Little is known about the management of occluded multiple metallic stent (MS) deployed in malignant hilar biliary strictures (HBS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the endoscopic management of occluded multiple MSs deployed in HBS. Methodology: Fifty-five patients with unresectable biliary tract carcinoma had multiple MSs inserted due to HBS. The endoscopic intervention through the duodenal papilla was performed on 30 cases that had MS occlusion. The procedure success rate, the survival time after the procedure and the number of endoscopic interventions before death were analyzed, retrospectively. Results: The causes of MS obstruction were tissue ingrowth (n=20), sludge (n=7), tumor overgrowth (n=2), and hemobilia (n=1). Endoscopic cleaning or deployment of plastic stents or metallic stents was performed on these patients and was successfully accomplished only via the transpapillary approach. The survival time after MS obstruction was 219 days. The median number of endoscopic interventions before death was 3. The median interval of endoscopic intervention after the first plastic stent occlusion was 84 days. Conclusions: Our long-term data regarding the endoscopic management of occluded MSs deployed in malignant hilar biliary strictures are acceptable although the patency time of plastic stents deployed after MS occlusion was relatively short.
    Hepato-gastroenterology 10/2012; 60(123). · 0.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Herein, a case of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related sclerosing cholangitis is reported. IgG4 was diagnosed based on observations from peroral cholangioscopy and laparoscopy, and these methods are proposed for definitive and precise diagnosis of this disease. A 76-year-old male patient with inguinal Paget's disease had intrahepatic bile duct dilatations detected with computed tomography at his periodic check-up. Magnetic resonance cholangiography showed stenosis of the upper common bile duct and poststenotic dilatation of left intrahepatic bile ducts. The portal tract and bilateral intrahepatic bile ducts were surrounded by a low-density area, facing a tumor-like lesion at segment 2. Cytological examinations of the stenotic and dilated lesions revealed no cellular atypia. Histological examination of the tumor showed normal liver tissue with infiltration of lymphocytes, indicating an inflammatory pseudotumor. Peroral cholangioscopy excluded the possibility of biliary cancer and indicated that the stenotic legion was of submucosal, not mucosal, origin. Laparoscopic observations showed discoloration with wide yellowish-white lobular markings and wide depressed lesions at segments 2 and 7. Liver histology showed mild cholangitis with infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells around the bile ducts. Serum IgG4 levels were elevated. From these findings, the patient was diagnosed with IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis. After treatment with prednisolone, blood liver enzymes and IgG4 rapidly normalized, bile duct dilatations improved, and the hepatic pseudotumor disappeared. The cholangitis did not recur. In this case, biliary cancer was ruled out by observation with peroral cholangioscopy, and the spread of cholangitis in the liver periphery was verified with laparoscopy; this information could not be obtained with other modalities.
    Digestive Endoscopy 09/2012; 24(5):370-3. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Measurement of objective response to chemotherapy using imaging modalities is sometimes difficult in pancreatic cancer (PC). We aimed to verify whether monitoring of serum tumor markers (TMs), namely carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, DUPAN-2, SPan-1, can facilitate earlier confirmation of treatment failure. Monitoring of serum TMs and computed tomography were performed every 4 weeks until progression of disease in 90 patients with PC undergoing gemcitabine therapy. In Group A (January 2006-October 2007), we analyzed the fluctuation rates of TMs with high pretreatment positive rates, and defined the criteria of progressive disease under TM monitoring (TM-PD). In Group B (November 2007-October 2008), we calculated the time to progression (TTP) under this TM-PD criteria, which was compared with the TTP under the RECIST criteria. CA19-9 and SPan-1 had the highest pretreatment positive rates: 83% and 90%, respectively. In Group A (CA19-9, n = 38; SPan-1, n = 36), TM-PD criteria were defined as follows: fluctuation rates were ≥25% for a month or ≥10% for 2 consecutive months in CA19-9, and ≥10% for a month in SPan-1. In Group B (CA19-9, n = 18; SPan-1, n = 17), under these criteria, one-month earlier confirmation of treatment failure was feasible in 61% by CA19-9 and 59% by SPan-1. Furthermore, the combination could facilitate this determination in 72% (35/49), significantly better than CA19-9 alone (P = 0.004). Monitoring of serum CA19-9 and SPan-1 is helpful for earlier confirmation of treatment failure during gemcitabine therapy in PC.
    Pancreatology 09/2012; 12(5):409-16. · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Covered self-expandable metal stents (CSEMSs) were developed to prevent tumor ingrowth, but stent migration is one of the problems with CSEMSs. To evaluate a new, commercially available CSEMS with flared ends and low axial force compared with a commercially available CSEMS without the anti-migration system and high axial force. Multicenter, prospective study with a historical cohort. Twenty Japanese referral centers. This study involved patients with unresectable distal malignant biliary obstruction. Placement of a new, commercially available, partially covered SEMS. Recurrent biliary obstruction rate, time to recurrent biliary obstruction, stent-related complications, survival. Between April 2009 and March 2010, 141 patients underwent partially covered nitinol stent placement, and between May 2001 and January 2007, 138 patients underwent placement of partially covered stainless stents as a historical control. The silicone cover of the partially covered nitinol stents prevented tumor ingrowth. There were no significant differences in survival (229 vs 219 days; P = .250) or the rate of recurrent biliary obstruction (33% vs 38%; P = .385) between partially covered nitinol stents and partially covered stainless stents. Stent migration was less frequent (8% vs 17%; P = .019), and time to recurrent biliary obstruction was significantly longer (373 vs 285 days; P = .007) with partially covered nitinol stents. Stent removal was successful in 26 of 27 patients (96%). Nonrandomized, controlled trial. Partially covered nitinol stents with an anti-migration system and less axial force demonstrated longer time to recurrent biliary obstruction with no tumor ingrowth and less stent migration.
    Gastrointestinal endoscopy 04/2012; 76(1):84-92. · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the clinical characteristics of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients who progressed from stage 3, zone 3 bridging fibrosis (F3 stage NASH) to cirrhosis. Of 95 NASH patients with repeated liver biopsies during a period of 4.6 years, 6 patients progressed to cirrhosis. The initial liver biopsies of these 6 patients were diagnosed as F3 stage NASH. Simple clinical variables and non-invasive biological tests were evaluated in 33 cases of F3 stage NASH. Increases in body mass index and fluctuations in transaminase levels, as well as the evaluation of homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, ferritin, and hyaluronic acid in F3 stage NASH patients may prove useful in identifying individuals at risk of progression to cirrhosis.
    Nippon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology 01/2012; 109(12):2042-2048.
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Von Hippel-Lindau disease is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by neoplasms developing in multiple organs. Although the pancreas is one of the most frequently involved organs, the frequency of pancreatic cysts, cystadenomas, neuroendocrine tumors and diabetes has not been sufficiently evaluated due to the low prevalence of this disease. In this paper, we review and retrospectively analyze 11 patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease. Methodology: Eleven patients (6 males, 5 females) who underwent CT or MRI scans at Okayama University Hospital between 2002 and 2009 were enrolled in this study. Their pancreatic CT scans, MRI scans, biochemical test results and clinical histories were retrospectively reviewed. Results: All patients had one or more pancreatic involvements. Nine of the 11 patients had multiple pancreatic cysts, 2 had dilatation of the main pancreatic duct, 3 had a non-functioning pancreatic endocrine tumor (one patient required pancreatoduodenectomy due to the endocrine carcinoma) and 3 had diabetes mellitus. Pancreatic cystadenomas were not detected in this case series. Conclusions: The prevalence of pancreatic involvement was 100% in this study. Regular screening and scheduled follow-up for pancreatic lesions and diabetes should be performed on individuals predisposed to von Hippel-Lindau disease.
    Hepato-gastroenterology 01/2012; 59(114):589-91. · 0.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of gemcitabine (GEM) on unresectable pancreatic cancer has been reported. However, in elderly patients, severe toxicities are frequently observed. In this study we aimed to assess the efficacy of low-dose GEM on unresectable pancreatic cancer in elderly patients. We reviewed 68 elderly patients (≥65 years) with unresectable pancreatic cancer. Thirty-six patients were treated with low-dose GEM (600-800 mg/m(2); GEM group), and the other 32 received best supportive care (BSC group). Median survival was 7.6 and 2.3 months in the GEM and BSC groups, respectively. In the GEM group, the median survival period was longer in 24 patients showing partial response or stable disease than in 12 patients showing progressive disease (11.4 vs. 5.3 months). Furthermore, the patients showing progressive disease had better 6-month survival than patients in the BSC group. Thirteen patients (36%) developed severe toxicities (grade 3 or 4). Low-dose GEM, stage of disease and performance status were associated with the prognosis. Low-dose GEM may improve the prognosis of elderly patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, frequencies of severe toxicity seem lower in patients treated with low-dose GEM compared with previous reports.
    Digestion 08/2011; 84(3):230-5. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Overexpression of B Cell-activating factor (BAFF) is involved in autoimmunity, but little is known about its role in autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of BAFF in the diagnosis and pathogenesis of AIP. Patients with AIP (n = 19) were compared with 2 disease control groups (chronic pancreatitis [n = 17] and pancreatic cancer [n = 15]) and a healthy subject group (n = 19). Serum BAFF levels were assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expressions of BAFF and BAFF receptor in the pancreatic tissue of patients with AIP were estimated using immunohistochemistry. Mean serum BAFF levels were higher in the patients with AIP than in the patients with chronic pancreatitis, the patients with pancreatic cancer, and the healthy subjects (P < 0.0001 for all groups). Using the cutoff value of 1389 pg/mL, the sensitivity and specificity to differentiate AIP from disease and healthy controls were 89.5% and 92.2%, respectively. Glucocorticoid therapy decreased serum BAFF levels below 1389 pg/mL in all patients with AIP (P < 0.0001). B Cell-activating factor and BAFF receptor were expressed on cells infiltrating the pancreas of patients with AIP. B Cell-activating factor could be a novel marker for diagnosis and treatment response in AIP and may contribute to its pathogenesis.
    Pancreas 08/2011; 40(6):840-5. · 3.01 Impact Factor
  • Gastrointestinal endoscopy 05/2011; 74(2):407-9. · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor protein p53 (TP53) is the best-known tumor suppressor gene and plays a crucial role in carcinogenesis. The TP53 Arg 72 Pro polymorphism has been reported to be a risk factor for several types of cancer, but its association with pancreatic cancer has not been fully evaluated. Therefore, we investigated the effects of this polymorphism on pancreatic cancer in relation to smoking and drinking habits by examining the distribution of the SNP genotypes in 226 pancreatic cancer patients and 448 healthy controls. The frequencies of Arg/Arg, Arg/Pro and Pro/Pro were found to be 37, 49 and 15% in the pancreatic cancer cases and 44, 46 and 10% in the controls, respectively. Compared to the controls with the Arg/Arg genotype, cases with Pro/Pro homozygosity exhibited a significantly increased risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.70; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-2.88]. In stratified studies, the association was particularly strong in males (OR=2.62; 95% CI 1.32-5.23), particularly in those smoking in excess of 20 pack-years and drinking in excess of 23 g ethanol/day (OR=5.02; 95% CI 1.12-22.51). We found that the TP53 Pro/Pro genotype compared to the Arg/Arg genotype had a profound effect on pancreatic cancer risk among males, particularly among heavy smokers and excessive alcohol drinkers.
    Molecular Medicine Reports 05/2011; 4(3):489-95. · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This randomized phase II study compared the efficacy and toxicity between 4-week and 3-week schedules of gemcitabine monotherapy in advanced pancreatic cancer. Patients with advanced pancreatic cancer were randomly assigned to either a 4-week schedule (gemcitabine at 1000 mg/m² as a 30-min infusion weekly for 3 consecutive weeks every 4 weeks) or a 3-week schedule (gemcitabine at 1000 mg/m² as a 30-min infusion weekly for 2 consecutive weeks every 3 weeks). The primary endpoint was the compliance rate during the first 8 weeks between the two groups. A total of 90 patients were enrolled. The compliance rate during the first 8 weeks was the same (53.3%). For the 4- and 3-week schedules, the tumor response rates were 14.2 and 17.1% (p = 0.92), median progression free survival was 112 and 114 days (p = 0.82), and median overall survival was 206 and 250 days (p = 0.84), respectively. Grade 3-4 neutropenia was the major adverse event in both schedules: 37.7 and 35.5% (p = 0.82). In contrast, thrombocytopenia (platelet count <70000/mm³) was significantly higher for the 4-week schedule: 26.6 and 4.4% (p = 0.008). The mean received dose intensity was equal: 588 and 550 mg/m²/week (p = 0.14). The 3-week schedule of gemcitabine did not improve the compliance rate during 8 weeks compared with the 4-week schedule, but it attained a comparable efficacy with lower toxicity. Further investigation will be needed to introduce it into daily practice. Clinical trial registration number: UMIN ID 974.
    International Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/2011; 16(6):637-45. · 2.17 Impact Factor
  • Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 04/2011; 73(4). · 4.90 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

409 Citations
269.72 Total Impact Points


  • 2005–2013
    • Okayama University
      • Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
      Okayama, Okayama, Japan
  • 2012
    • Kawasaki Medical University
      • Department of General Medicine
      Kurasiki, Okayama, Japan
    • Kawasaki Saiwai Hospital
      Kawasaki, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 2006
    • University Hospital Medical Information Network
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2003
    • Hiroshima City Hospital
      Hirosima, Hiroshima, Japan