Shuhei Koshizuka

Chiba University, Chiba-shi, Chiba-ken, Japan

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Publications (9)39.79 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cell-derived Schwann cells (hBMSC-SC) promotes functional recovery after contusive spinal cord injury of adult rats. Human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC) were cultured from bone marrow of adult human patients and induced into Schwann cells (hBMSC-SC) in vitro. Schwann cell phenotype was confirmed by immunocytochemistry. Growth factors secreted from hBMSC-SC were detected using cytokine antibody array. Immunosuppressed rats were laminectomized and their spinal cords were contused using NYU impactor (10 g, 25 mm). Nine days after injury, a mixture of Matrigel and hBMSC-SC (hBMSC-SC group) was injected into the lesioned site. Five weeks after transplantation, cresyl-violet staining revealed that the area of cystic cavity was smaller in the hBMSC-SC group than that in the control group. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the number of anti-growth-associated protein-43-positive nerve fibers was significantly larger in the hBMSC-SC group than that in the control group. At the same time, the number of tyrosine hydroxylase- or serotonin-positive fibers was significantly larger at the lesion epicenter and caudal level in the hBMSC-SC group than that in the control group. In electron microscopy, formation of peripheral-type myelin was recognized near the lesion epicenter in the hBMSC-SC group. Hind limb function recovered significantly in the hBMSC-SC group compared with the control group. In conclusion, the functions of hBMSC-SC are comparable to original Schwann cells in rat spinal cord injury models, and are thus potentially useful treatments for patients with spinal cord injury.
    Neuropathology 02/2011; 31(1):48-58. · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a multipotential protein that acts as a proinflammatory cytokine, a pituitary hormone, and a cell proliferation and migration factor. The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of MIF in spinal cord injury (SCI) using female MIF knockout (KO) mice. Mouse spinal cord compression injury was produced by application of a static load (T8 level, 20 g, 5 min). We analyzed the motor function of the hind limbs and performed histological examinations. Hind-limb function recovered significantly in the KO mice starting from three weeks after injury. Cresyl-violet staining revealed that the number of surviving neurons in the KO mice was significantly larger than that of WT mice six weeks after injury. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the number of NeuN/caspase-3-active, double-positive, apoptotic neurons in the KO mice was significantly smaller than that of the WT mice 24 and 72 h after SCI. These results were related to in-vitro studies showing increased resistance of cerebellar granular neurons from MIF-KO animals to glutamate neurotoxicity. These results suggest that MIF existence hinders neuronal survival after SCI. Suppression of MIF may attenuate detrimental secondary molecular responses of the injured spinal cord.
    Acta Neuropathologica 02/2009; 117(3):321-8. · 9.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prevention of graft dislodgement in multilevel cervical corpectomy and fusion has been an unresolved problem. Anterior plate fixation has a significant failure rate. External support with a halo-vest is uncomfortable for patients. In the present study, we report a new surgical technique of anterior pedicle screw (APS) fixation for multilevel cervical corpectomy and spinal fusion, and describe the safety and utility of the system. After cervical corpectomy, the pedicles on the right side were visualised under oblique fluoroscopy. Guide wires were inserted into the pedicles from the inner wall of the excavated vertebral body until they were hidden in the pedicles. After a fibula autograft was placed, the graft was penetrated in the reverse direction by the guide wires. After drilling and tapping, cannulated screws were inserted into the pedicles through the grafted fibula along the guide wires. In 9 patients with cervical myelopathy, the surgery was accomplished with a fibula autograft using APS fixation. A total of 22 APSs were inserted, and 21 screws were placed precisely in the pedicles. There were no neurovascular complications. Patients were allowed to ambulate without a halo-vest on the second day after the surgery. Post-operatively, no dislodgement of the grated fibula occurred, and all patients improved neurologically. The insertion of APSs is feasible and safe. APS fixation enables us to obtain rigid fixation anteriorly, and we propose that APS fixation is an attractive option for multilevel cervical corpectomy and fusion.
    Acta Neurochirurgica 07/2008; 150(6):575-82; discussion 582. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy in adult rat completely transected spinal cord of adenovirus vector-mediated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) ex vivo gene transfer to bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC). BMSC were infected with adenovirus vectors carrying beta-galactosidase (AxCALacZ) or BDNF (AxCABDNF) genes. The T8 segment of spinal cord was removed and replaced by graft containing Matrigel alone (MG group) or Matrigel and BMSC infected by AxCALacZ (BMSC-LacZ group) or AxCABDNF (BMSC-BDNF group). Axons in the graft were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and functional recovery was assessed with BBB locomotor scale. In the BMSC-BDNF group, the number of fibers positive for growth associated protein-43, tyrosine hydroxylase, and calcitonin gene-related peptide was significantly larger than numbers found for the MG and BMSC-LacZ groups. Rats from BMSC-BDNF and BMSC-LacZ groups showed significant recovery of hind limb function compared with MG rats; however, there was no significant difference between groups in degree of functional recovery. These findings demonstrate that adenovirus vector-mediated ex vivo gene transfer of BDNF enhances the capacity of BMSC to promote axonal regeneration in this completely transected spinal cord model; however, BDNF failed to enhance hind limb functional recovery. Further investigation is needed to establish an optimal combination of cell therapy and neurotrophin gene transfer for cases of spinal cord injury.
    European Spine Journal 01/2008; 16(12):2206-14. · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We compared the effects of hematopoietic stem cell and marrow stromal cell transplantation for spinal cord injury in mice. From green fluorescent protein transgenic mouse bone marrow, lineage-negative, c-kit- and Sca-1-positive cells were sorted as hematopoietic stem cells and plastic-adherent cells were cultured as marrow stromal cells. One week after injury, hematopoietic stem cells or marrow stromal cells were injected into the lesioned site. Functional recovery was assessed and immunohistochemistry was performed. In the hematopoietic stem cell group, a portion of green fluorescent protein-positive cells expressed glial marker. In the marrow stem cell group, a number of green fluorescent protein and fibronectin-double positive cells were observed. No significant difference was observed in the recovery between both groups. Both hematopoietic stem cells and marrow stromal cells have the potential to restore the injured spinal cord and to promote functional recovery.
    Neuroreport 12/2005; 16(16):1763-7. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether transplantation of Schwann cells derived from bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC-SCs) promotes axonal regeneration and functional recovery in completely transected spinal cord in adult rats. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were induced to differentiate into Schwann cells in vitro. A 4-mm segment of rat spinal cord was removed completely at the T7 level. An ultra-filtration membrane tube, filled with a mixture of Matrigel (MG) and BMSC-SCs (BMSC-SC group) or Matrigel alone (MG group), was grafted into the gap. In the BMSC-SC group, the number of neurofilament- and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive nerve fibers was significantly higher compared to the MG group, although 5-hydroxytryptamine- or calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive fibers were rarely detectable in both groups. In the BMSC-SC group, significant recovery of the hindlimb function was recognized, which was abolished by retransection of the graft 6 weeks after transplantation. These results demonstrate that transplantation of BMSC-SCs promotes axonal regeneration of lesioned spinal cord, resulting in recovery of hindlimb function in rats. Transplantation of BMSC-SCs is a potentially useful treatment for spinal cord injury.
    Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 02/2005; 64(1):37-45. · 4.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a multipotential protein that acts as a pro-inflammatory cytokine, pituitary hormone, immunoregulator, and mitogen. To elucidate function of MIF in spinal cord injury, we examined expression of MIF after compression-induced spinal cord injury using Northern blot analysis, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. The MIF mRNA was up-regulated in injured spinal cord, peaking 3 days after injury shown by Northern blot analysis. In situ hybridization revealed up-regulation of MIF in microglia accumulating in the lesion epicenter 3 days after injury and astrocytes around the cystic cavity 1 week after injury. Double staining showed co-localization of MIF and tomato lectin in the lesioned site, indicating that microglia accumulating to the lesion epicenter express MIF. The time course of MIF expression is different from that of previous reports about cytokine expression peaking at earlier time points; thus, it is unlikely that MIF acts as a pro-inflammatory factor in the present study. The MIF may contribute to proliferation of astrocytes around the lesioned site in spinal cord injury because of its cell proliferation-promoting property.
    Acta Neuropathologica 08/2004; 108(1):31-6. · 9.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neurotrophins have been shown to promote axonal regeneration, but the techniques available for delivering neurotrophins have limited effectiveness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adenovirus vector mediated gene transfer of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury. We prepared adenovirus vectors encoding either beta-galactosidase (AxCALacZ) or BDNF (AxCABDNF). AxCALacZ was used to assess infection levels of the adenovirus BDNF produced by AxCABDNF was detected by Western blotting and its bioactivity was confirmed by bioassay. As a model of spinal cord injury, the rat spinal cord was completely transected at the T8 level. Immediately after transection, the vectors were injected into both stumps of the spinal cord. Axonal regeneration after transection was assessed by retrograde and anterograde tracing. In AxCALacZ-injected rats, adenovirus-infected cells were observed not only at the injected site but also in brainstem nuclei, as shown by LacZ expression. After the injection of the retrograde tracer fluorogold (FG) distal portion to the transection, AxCABDNF-injected rats showed FG-labeled neurons in the red nucleus. The anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) injected into the red nucleus was also found in regenerating rubrospinal fibers distal to the transection. These tracing experiments demonstrated the regeneration of descending axons. In addition, rats of the AxCABDNF group showed significant locomotor recovery of hindlimb function, which was completely abolished by re-transection. These results indicate that the recovery was caused by regeneration of rubrospinal axons, not by simple enhancement of the central pattern generator.
    Journal of Neurotrauma 04/2004; 21(3):329-37. · 4.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recovery in central nervous system disorders is hindered by the limited ability of the vertebrate central nervous system to regenerate lost cells, replace damaged myelin, and re-establish functional neural connections. Cell transplantation to repair central nervous system disorders is an active area of research, with the goal of reducing functional deficits. Recent animal studies showed that cells of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) fraction of bone marrow transdifferentiated into various nonhematopoietic cell lineages. We employed a mouse model of spinal cord injury and directly transplanted HSCs into the spinal cord 1 week after injury. We evaluated functional recovery using the hindlimb motor function score weekly for 5 weeks after transplantation. The data demonstrated a significant improvement in the functional outcome of mice transplanted with hematopoietic stem cells compared with control mice in which only medium was injected. Fluorescent in situ hybridization for the Y chromosome and double immunohistochemistry showed that transplanted cells survived 5 weeks after transplantation and expressed specific markers for astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neural precursors, but not for neurons. These results suggest that transplantation of HSCs from bone marrow is an effective strategy for the treatment of spinal cord injury.
    Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 02/2004; 63(1):64-72. · 4.35 Impact Factor