Carlos Chan

Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Tlalpam, Mexico City, Mexico

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Publications (47)109.25 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic pseudocysts (PPC) are a complication that occurs in acute and chronic pancreatitis. They comprise 75 % of cystic lesions of the pancreas. There are scarce data about surgical versus endoscopic treatment on PPC. The aim of this study was to compare both treatment modalities regarding clinical success, complication rate, recurrence, hospital stay and cost. Retrospectively, data obtained prospectively from 2000 to 2012 were analyzed. A PPC was defined as a fluid collection in the pancreatic or peripancreatic area that had a well-defined wall and contained no solid debris or recognizable parenchymal necrosis. Clinical success was defined as complete resolution or a decrease in size of the PPC to 2 cm or smaller. Overall, 64 procedures in 61 patients were included: 21 (33 %) cases were drained endoscopically guided by EUS and 43 (67 %) cases were drained surgically. The clinical success of the endoscopic group was 90.5 versus 90.7 % for the surgical group (P = 0.7), with a complication rate of 23.8 and 25.6 %, respectively (P = 0.8), and a mortality rate of 0 and 2.3 % for each group, respectively (P = 0.4). The hospital stay was lower for the endoscopic group: 0 (0-10) days compared with 7 (2-42) days in the surgical group (P < 0.0001). Likewise, the cost was lower in the endoscopic group (P < 0.001). The recurrence rate was similar in both groups: 9.5 and 4.5 % respectively (P = 0.59). The two recurrences found in the endoscopic group were associated with stent migration, and the recurrence in the surgical group was due to the type of surgery performed (open drainage). Endoscopic treatment of PPC offers the same clinical success, recurrence, complication and mortality rate as surgical treatment but with a shorter hospital stay and lower costs.
    Surgical Endoscopy 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00464-015-4351-2 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Noninvasive imaging techniques have shown limitations to identify insulinomas. In few studies reported so far, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has proven to be able to locate lesions. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of computed tomography versus EUS for the detection of insulinomas. In a retrospective manner prospectively collected data were analyzed. Patients with hypoglucemia and hyperinsulinemia were included. Diagnostic yield was measured in relationship to sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy. Surgical specimens were considered the gold standard. Sensitivity, positive predictive value, and accuracy of EUS was 100%, 95.4% and 95.4%, respectively. In the case of CT the sensitivity was 60%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 7%, and accuracy were 68%. EUS is useful in the preoperative assessment of patients with hypoglycemia and serum hyperinsulinemia.
    03/2015; 4(1):52-5. DOI:10.4103/2303-9027.151349
  • Pancreas 08/2014; 43(6):971-972. DOI:10.1097/MPA.0000000000000134 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: To follow up patients with pseudotumoral chronic pancreatitis (PCP) to assess their outcome and identify an optimal surveillance interval. Methods: Data obtained prospectively were analyzed in a retrospective manner. Patients with clinical evidence of chronic pancreatitis (abdominal pain in the epigastrium, steatorrhea, and diabetes mellitus), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) criteria > 4, and EUS-fine needle aspiration (FNA) were included. A pseudotumor was defined as a non-neoplastic space-occupying lesion, a cause of chronic pancreatitis that may mimic changes typical of pancreatic cancer on CT or endoscopic ultrasound but without histological evidence. A real tumor was defined as a neoplastic space-occupying lesion because of pancreatic cancer confirmed by histology. Results: Thirty-five patients with chronic pancreatitis were included, 26 (74.2%) of whom were men. Nine (25.7%) patients were diagnosed with pseudotumoral chronic pancreatitis and two (2/35; 5.7%) patients with pseudotumoral chronic pancreatitis were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer on follow-up. The time between the diagnosis of pseudotumoral chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic adenocarcinoma was 35 and 30 d in the two patients. Definitive diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma was made by surgery. In the remaining six patients with pseudotumoral chronic pancreatitis, the median of follow-up was 11 mo (range 1-22 mo) and they showed no evidence of malignancy on surveillance. In the follow-up of patients without pseudotumoral chronic pancreatitis but with chronic pancreatitis, none were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. According to our data, older patients with chronic pancreatitis are at risk of pseudotumoral chronic pancreatitis. Conclusion: According to characteristics of patient, detection of PCP should lead a surveillance program for pancreatic cancer with EUS-FNA in < 1 mo or directly to surgical resection.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 07/2014; 20(26):8612-6. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v20.i26.8612 · 2.37 Impact Factor
  • Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 05/2014; 79(5):AB410-AB411. DOI:10.1016/j.gie.2014.02.544 · 5.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies compare the direct impact of pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) on the patient's quality of life (QOL). The effect of PD in QOL, comparing the preoperative vs. postoperative status, was analyzed. A prospective single-center study was performed. PD patients in a 2-year period were included. A general QOL instrument was applied preoperative, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery and compared with national norms. Thirty-seven patients were recruited. Twenty of 37 were female. Ampullary carcinoma 14/37, ductal adenocarcinoma in 9/37, and other malignant neoplasms 14/37 were diagnosed. Mortality was absent; 48.6% had complications, 13.5 % required reoperation. Three (median) and 4 (mode) questionnaires were answered per individual. 85 % answered the last questionnaire. 4/37 had cancer related death before a year. Median follow-up was 29 (3-72) months. QOL diminished a month after surgery, physical function (67 vs 40, p<0.0001) and emotional role (37 vs 17, p<0.032) did so significantly. Three months after surgery QOL improved yet not significantly. Six and 12 months postoperatively, physical role (9 vs 49, p=0.001), physical pain (51 vs 71, p=0.01), social function (52 vs 63, p=0.014), vitality (54 vs 64, p=0.018), and emotional role (41 vs 69, p=0.006) improved significantly. PD has a favorable impact in quality of life as demonstrated by the improvement of most parameters assessed in the postoperative period.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 05/2012; 16(7):1341-6. DOI:10.1007/s11605-012-1898-2 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biliary complications after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) are multifactorial in origin. In most series, the frequency of such complications ranges from 5-20%. Most can be treated by endoscopy and/or interventional radiology. For cases in which this option is not successful, surgical approach is indicated. We report the results of reoperation using an intrahepatic bilioenteric anastomosis. The medical charts of patients with biliary complications after OLT during a 10-year period (1997-2007), who failed to respond to nonsurgical treatment and were surgically treated, were reviewed. Roux-en-Y hepatojejunostomy was performed. Segments IV and V were partially removed after cutting the hilar plate, thus obtaining healthy ducts without ischemic or inflammatory reaction and allowing a wide hepatojejunostomy. Five cases (8.4%) with biliary complications after duct-to-duct anastomosis not amenable to further endoscopic management or interventional radiology were identified. Hepaticojejunostomy was achieved in all cases (wide, tension-free, nonischemic, fine hydrolyzable sutures), and segments IV and V were partially removed. No cholangitis, jaundice, and liver function test abnormalities were present in the postoperative. Mean follow-up was 24 months. Only one patient died of causes not related to bile duct reconstruction during follow-up. Intrahepatic hepatojejunostomy with partial resection of segments IV and V offers an excellent therapeutic alternative for biliary complications that require a surgical approach after OLT.
    World Journal of Surgery 02/2009; 33(3):534-8. DOI:10.1007/s00268-008-9876-2 · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bile duct injuries related to laparoscopic and/or open cholecystectomy are a frequent finding and require surgical treatment. Complete obstruction is due to either intentionally or unintentionally placed ligatures or clips. The intentional application is usually performed to "facilitate identification of the duct by bile duct dilation." Considering that we are a national referral center for such injuries, we decided to analyze our cases of voluntary and involuntary duct ligation after iatrogenic bile duct injury. We reviewed the files of patients with voluntary or involuntary bile duct ligation. Results of preoperative evaluation of the ducts, operative treatment, and postoperative results were analyzed. A total of 413 patients were included. Forty-five patients presented with complete obstruction. In 15 cases, the ligature was intentional, and in 30 cases, occlusion was involuntary. Bile duct dilation (>10 mm) was demonstrated in one case of voluntary (6%) and three cases of involuntary ligations (10%). The remaining cases in both groups had no duct dilation and developed necrosis at the blinded duct and leakage proximal to the ligature, with different degrees of bilioperitoneum and/or biloma. In all cases, a Roux-en-Y hepatojejunostomy was performed. Bile duct ligature produces dilation in a very small number of patients (less than 10%) and usually produces necrosis of the blinded stump with subsequent bile leakage. Placement of a subhepatic drain and transference of the patient to a qualified center for reconstruction is the best approach if the primary surgeon is not able to do the repair.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 06/2008; 12(6):1029-32. DOI:10.1007/s11605-007-0434-2 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To analyze data in a single institution series of pancreaticoduodenectomies (PD) performed in a 7-year period after the transition to a high-volume center for pancreatic surgery. PD has developed dramatically in the last century. Mortality is minimal yet complications are still frequent (around 40%). There are very few reports of PD in Latin America. Data on all PDs performed by a single surgeon from March 2000 to July 2006 in our institution were collected prospectively. During the study's time frame 122 PDs were performed; 84% were classical resections. Mean age was 57.9 years. Of the patients, 51% were female. Intraoperative mean values included blood loss 881 ml, operative time 5 h and 35 min, and vein resection in 14 cases. Both ampullary and pancreatic cancer accounted for 34% of cases (42 patients each), 5.7% were distal bile duct and 4% duodenal carcinomas. Benign pathology included chronic pancreatitis, neuroendocrine tumors, cystic lesions, and other miscellaneous tumors. Overall operative mortality was 6.5% in the 7-year period, 2.2% in the later 5 years. There was a total of 75 consecutive PDs without mortality. Of the patients, 41.8% had one or more complications. Mean survival for pancreatic cancer was 22.6 months and ampullary adenocarcinoma was 31.4 months. To our knowledge, this is the largest single surgeon series of PD performed in Latin America. It emphasizes the importance of experience and expertise at high-volume centers in developing countries.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 04/2008; 12(3):527-33. DOI:10.1007/s11605-007-0274-0 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The frequency of bile duct injuries associated to cholecystectomy remains constant (0.3-0.6%). A multidisciplinary approach (endoscopical, radiological, and surgical) is necessary to optimize the outcome of the patient. Surgery is indicated when complete section of the duct is identified (Strasberg's E injuries) requiring a bilioenteric anastomosis as treatment. Nowadays, the most frequent technique used for reconstruction is a Roux-en-Y hepatojejunostomy. Long-term results of reconstruction are related to several technical and anatomic factors, but an ischemic duct (with subsequent scarring) plays a mayor role. In this paper, we report the results of biliary reconstructions comparing the extrahepatic-probably ischemic -- to intrahepatic -- non ischemic -- repairs. We reviewed the files of patients referred to our hospital (third-level teaching hospital) for bile duct repair after iatrogenic injury from 1990 to July 2006. Injury classification, time lapse since injury, surgical repair technique, and long-term follow-up were noted. In all cases, a Roux-en-Y hepatojejunostomy was done. Partial resection of segment IV was performed in 136 patients to obtain noninflamed, nonscarred, nonischemic biliary ducts with the purpose of reaching the confluence and achieving a high-quality bilioenteric anastomosis. An anastomosis at the level of the confluence was attempted in 293 patients (in 198 the confluence was preserved and in 95 it was lost). In the remaining 80 patients, a low bilioenteric anastomosis was done at the level of the common hepatic duct. We compared intrahepatic (198) and extrahepatic (80) repairs. A total of 405 cases (88 males, 317 females) were identified, with a mean age of 42 years (range 17-75). All of the injuries were classified as Strasberg E1, E2, E3, E5 (less frequent); those with E4 classification (separated ducts) were excluded. In all cases, the confluence was preserved (N = 293). Thirty-two cases were repaired minutes to hours after the injury occurred. The remaining 373 patients arrived weeks after the injury. In 198 cases, an intrahepatic repair was done, including the 136 in which resection of segments IV and V was part of the surgery. In the remaining 80 cases (operated between 1990 and 1997), an extrahepatic repair was done at the level of the common hepatic duct where the surgeon found a healthy duct. Twelve (15%) of the 80 cases with extrahepatic anastomosis required a new intervention (surgical or radiological), compared to only 8 of the 198 (3%) that had an intrahepatic anastomosis (P = 0.00062). Good results were obtained in 85% and 97% of the cases with extrahepatic anastomosis and intrahepatic anastomosis, respectively. Both groups had a reintervention rate of 7% (20/278). An intrahepatic anastomosis requires finding nonscarred, nonischemic ducts, thus allowing a safe and high-quality anastomosis with significantly better results when compared to the low-level anastomosis group.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 03/2008; 12(2):364-8. DOI:10.1007/s11605-007-0428-0 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A variant of bilioenteric anastomosis, laterolateral hepatojejunostomy, is described in which the opened anterior aspect of the common hepatic duct and left hepatic duct is anastomosed to a Roux jejunal limb. This technique is specially designed for thin, injured bile ducts in which a conventional anastomosis is difficult due to the small diameter of the ducts. A wide anastomosis is obtained, leaving the posterior wall as a conduit for bile, ensuring an adequate anastomotic diameter.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 09/2006; 10(8):1164-9. DOI:10.1016/j.gassur.2006.04.004 · 2.80 Impact Factor
  • Carlos Chan · Ismael Domínguez
    Revista de gastroenterologia de Mexico 09/2006; 71 Suppl 1:42-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Analyze the experience with pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) at the INCMNSZ. PD has become a popular procedure in hospitals throughout the USA and Europe in the last 25 years, where mortality is < 5% y morbidity remains around 40%. Nonetheless there are very few reports on PD in Latin America. The data of all PD's performed at the INCMNSZ between 1999 and 2005 was gathered prospectively and analyzed retrospectively. 133 PDs where performed; 47.5% where men and 52.5% where women. Median of age was 57.7 years. 81.5% underwent classical resection and 18.5% a pylorus preserving procedure. Intraoperative variables include: blood loss: 940 mL. (1,000). transfusion requirements: 1.9 U, median operative time: 5:49 (+/- 1:02) and median hospital stay: 14 days. Most frequent diagnosis include ampulary adenocarcinoma and pancreatic cancer Mortality in the entire series was 9.2%, decreased to 2.7% in the 2002-2005 period and from April 2003 has remained in 0. A total of 14 portal-superior mesenteric vein resections where performed. To our knowledge this is the largest series of PD in Latin America. Popularity and indications for PD are expanding. Mortality is acceptable and morbidity remains high despite much effort. This procedure is performed with a satisfactory outcome in high volume centers. Involvement of the portal-superior mesenteric vein is not a contraindication of PD.
    Revista de gastroenterologia de Mexico 07/2006; 71(3):252-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Roux-en-Y hepatojejunostomy is the procedure of choice for biliary reconstruction after complex iatrogenic injury that is usually associated with vascular injuries and concomitant ischemia of the ducts. To avoid the ischemic component, our group routinely performs a high repair to assure an anastomosis in noninflamed, nonscarred, and nonischemic ducts. If the duct bifurcation is preserved, the Hepp-Couinaud approach for reconstruction is an excellent choice. Partial liver resection of segments IV and V allows adequate exposure of the bile duct at its bifurcation with an anterior approach of the ducts (therefore not jeopardizing the circulation), allowing a high quality anastomosis. Long-term results of bile duct reconstruction using this approach are described. Two hundred eighty-five bile duct reconstructions were done between 1989 and 2004 in a tertiary care university hospital. The first partial-segment IV resection was done in 1994; 94 cases have been reconstructed since then using this approach. All of them had a complex injury (Strasberg E1-E5), and although in many cases the bifurcation was preserved (E1-E3), a high bilioenteric anastomosis was done to facilitate the reconstruction. In 70 cases, the bifurcation was identified, and in the 24 in which the confluence was not preserved, the right and left ducts were found except in one case. In three patients, the right duct was found unsuitable for anastomosis, and a liver resection was done. In the remaining 21, an anastomosis was done using a stent (transhepatic, transanastomotic) through the right duct. According to Lillemoe's criteria, 86 cases had good results (91%). In four of the eight remaining patients, there was the need to operate again due to the presence of an obstruction and/or cholangitis. In the rest, radiological instrumentation was done. Four of these cases have developed secondary biliary cirrhosis, two of which have died while waiting for a liver transplant, four and six years after reconstruction. Partial segments IV and V resection allows adequate exposure of the confluence and the isolated left or right hepatic ducts. Anterior exposure of the ducts allows an anastomosis in well-preserved, nonischemic, nonscarred, or noninflamed ducts. Parenchyma removal also allows the free placement of the jejunal limb, without external compression and tension, obtaining a high quality anastomosis with excellent long-term results.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 02/2006; 10(1):77-82. DOI:10.1016/j.gassur.2005.07.003 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Liver transplantation (LT) is probably the biggest surgical aggression that a patient can endure. It was considered only as a last option in the era of experimental LT, yet it evolved into the definitive treatment for some types of acute and chronic end stage liver disease. In terms of technique LT is the most complex of all types of transplantations. The surgical procedure in itself is well established and has changed little through time. Liver transplantation owes its improvement to better and more systematic anesthetic procedures and to perioperative care more than being due to improvement of the surgical technique. The first surgical procedure was described by Thomas Starzl in 1969. His initial work has been strengthened with the development of venous bypass, the refinement in vascular and biliary reconstruction technique and the development of the split liver. Up to date technical aspects of orthotopic liver transplantation are described in the present article.
    Revista de investigacion clinica; organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutricion 04/2005; 57(2):262-272. · 0.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Liver transplantation (LT) is probably the biggest surgical aggression that a patient can endure. It was considered only as a last option in the era of experimental LT, yet it evolved into the definitive treatment for some types of acute and chronic end stage liver disease. In terms of technique LT is the most complex of all types of transplantations. The surgical procedure in itself is well established and has changed little through time. Liver transplantation owes its improvement to better and more systematic anesthetic procedures and to perioperative care more than being due to improvement of the surgical technique. The first surgical procedure was described by Thomas Starzl in 1969. His initial work has been strengthened with the development of venous bypass, the refinement in vascular and biliary reconstruction technique and the development of the split liver. Up to date technical aspects of orthotopic liver transplantation are described in the present article.
    Revista de investigacion clinica; organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutricion 03/2005; 57(2):262-72. · 0.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biliary reconstruction is performed according to the level of the injury. A comparative study between patients in whom the biliary junction was preserved and another group where the biliary junction was not preserved was done. A retrospective review of the biliary reconstructions performed at our institution after iatrogenic lesions between 1990-2002 was done. Postoperative outcome, functional status of the anastomosis, recurrent cholangitis, need for radiological instrumentation and/or reoperation were analyzed. We reviewed 204 cases, 130 cases had a preserved biliary junction while in 74 the injury included the junction. All patients were treated with a Roux-en-Y hepatojejunostomy. In the first group, 4% required reoperation, 4% underwent radiological percutaneous instrumentation, 8% had anastomotic dysfunction and 4% cholangitis. In the second group, 24% needed reoperation and 80% radiological instrumentation. Anastomotic dysfunction was observed in 64% and cholangitis in 55%. It is important to note that 52 of the 74 cases in the second group had a history of more than two reconstruction attempts. When the biliary junction is preserved after a iatrogenic injury we found a significantly better outcome. The results of biliary reconstruction in this type of patient are better long-term compared to those where the junction was not preserved, evidenced by a lower reoperation and radiological instrumentation rate.
    Hepato-gastroenterology 01/2005; 52(61):40-4. · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cystic disease of the biliary tract (CDBT) is characterized by varying degrees of dilatation of the biliary system with high morbidity and mortality in which the surgical management is the corner stone of treatment. The cyst-enterostomies (CE) temporarily solve the obstruction to the biliary flow but have a high long-term morbidity. Complete resection of affected bile ducts with Roux-en-Y derivation (CRR-en-Y) is a good procedure with low mortality and complications. The purpose of the study was to analyze the outcome of CRR-en-Y versus CE in the treatment of CDBS in adult patients from 1970 to 2002. Patients who underwent surgical treatment were divided for their analysis into two groups: Group I: CRR-en-Y and Group II: CE. Following features were compared: demography, clinical picture, postoperative morbimortality, outcome and survival. Thirty-four adult patients were analyzed. There were 82% (28) females and 18% (6) males. The age average was 33.58 years (13-84). Seventy percent (30) were "choledochal cyst". Eighty percent (27) were surgically handled: 52% (14) with CRR-en-Y (Group I) versus 58% (13) with CE (Group II). Both groups were comparable. Without operative mortality and low postoperative morbidity in both, CE had more long-term complications: In this group 70% (9) were readmitted: and 7 underwent reoperation. Mean follow-up was 35 months (6-132) versus 152 months (12-408) respectively. CRR-en-Y is the standard treatment of CDBS in the adult patient.
    Hepato-gastroenterology 01/2005; 52(61):13-6. · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Non-cirrhotic portal hypertension has a better prognosis than other forms of portal hypertension because of a well-preserved liver function in most cases. These patients are good candidates to receive surgical treatment, which is the therapeutic choice available with the lowest rebleeding rate. Because of abnormalities in the splanchnic vessels due to the nature of the diseases, many of them cannot be shunted. An extensive esophagogastric devascularization, the complete portoazygos disconnection, was evaluated. A retrospective review of files of 31 patients, among 491 operations between 1991 an 2001 was carried out in a tertiary care Academic University Hospital. Patients comprised those with non-cirrhotic bleeding portal hypertension treated by means of complete portoazygos disconnection. Extensive two-stage (thoracic and abdominal) esophagogastric devascularization with modified transection of the esophagus was performed. Main outcome measures: recurrence of hemorrhage, encephalopathy and survival. Thirty-one patients were treated. In 17 cases (54%) a hypercoagulable state was demonstrated. No operative mortality was observed (0-30 days) with a total of 62 operations (two stages per patient). No case of encephalopathy was observed and in 3 cases (9%) rebleeding was recorded. The survival curve showed a 5-year survival of 97% and a 10-year survival of 93%. Complete portoazygos disconnection is an excellent surgical alternative for patients with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension, with a low morbidity and mortality as well as a low rebleeding rate and good long-term survival.
    Hepato-gastroenterology 11/2004; 51(60):1757-60. · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cystic disease of biliary tract (CDBT) characterizes by the presence of sacular expansions of the biliary tree. It is an uncommon disease associated with high morbidity and malignant transformation. More than 60% of patients are women and can be diagnosed in the adult life. To evaluate the results obtained during last three decades in the management of CDBT in the adult patient. All the patients with CDBT treated from 1970 to 2002 were included. Demographic data, clinical picture, boarding diagnosis, classification, treatment, evolution and survival were analyzed. 34 patients. Twenty eight (82%) women and 6 (18%) men with a mean age of 33 years (range 13-84). The most frequent symptoms were abdominal pain, nausea-vomit and jaundice. Cholangiography was made in all cases. All the types described by Todani were documented. Twenty-seven patients (80%) were surgically treated. The mean follow-up was 84 months (range 1-408 months). Fifteen patients (44.1%) were readmitted and 9 (26.4%) had a reoperation. Three (9%) died with malignant transformation. The global survival was 91.1% to 12 months. In the adult patient, diagnosis of CDBT requires a high level of suspicion and its confirmation depends on the image studies. The CDBT diagnosis considers an indication of surgical treatment. Complete resection of the biliary tract with Roux en-Y hepato-jejunal anastomosis have less rate of mechanical complications, hospitalary readmissions and surgical reintervention.
    Revista de investigacion clinica; organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutricion 11/2004; 56(6):718-25. · 0.48 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

312 Citations
109.25 Total Impact Points


  • 1994–2015
    • Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán
      • Department of Immunology and Rheumatology
      Tlalpam, Mexico City, Mexico
  • 2001–2002
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Department of Surgery
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States