[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is a major contributing factor to the inflammatory component of acne. The many prescription medications for acne allow for a large number of potential combination treatments. However, several antibiotics, apart from their antibacterial effects, exert side‑effects, such as the suppression of host inflammatory responses. Purified bee venom (BV) is a natural toxin produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). BV has been widely used as a traditional medicine for various diseases. In the present study, to investigate the therapeutic effects of BV against P. acnes-induced inflammatory skin disease, P. acnes was intradermally injected into the ears of mice. After the injection, BV was applied to the skin surface of the right ear. Histological observation revealed that P. acnes induced a considerable increase in the number of infiltrated inflammatory cells. However, treatment with BV markedly reduced these reactions compared with the P. acnes-injected mice not treated with BV. Moreover, the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-1β were significantly reduced in the BV-treated mice compared with the untreated P. acnes-injected mice. In addition, treatment with BV significantly inhibited Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and CD14 expression in P. acnes-injected tissue. The binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein (AP)-1 was markedly suppressed following treatment with BV. The results from our study, using an animal model, indicate that BV exerts an inhibitory effect on inflammatory skin diseases. In conclusion, our data indicate that BV has potential for use as an anti-acne agent and may be useful in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine 09/2014; · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women worldwide. Recently anticancer agents have been developed using natural substances. To evaluate the anticancer effect of hydrolysates of silk fibroin (HSF), we investigated the effect of HSF on cell viability and apoptosis of a breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, induced through the mitochondrial pathway. The result showed that HSF decreased cell viability in MCF-7 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, resulting in an increase in the sub-G1 phase cell population. HSF increased the level of the pro-apoptotic Bax protein and decreased the levels of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein. In addition, HSF induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through a mitochondria-dependent pathway by increasing levels of cytochtome c, and cleavage of PARP. Taken together, these findings suggest that HSF inhibits the proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells through a mitochondria and caspase dependent apoptotic pathway.
International Journal of Industrial Entomology. 12/2013; 27(2).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, matured silkworm hemolymph was studied for inhibitory effect on melanin formation, tyrosinase activities. A matured silkworm hemolymph mass purification method was developed and some of suppressing melanin formation effects were investigated, too. As a result, the advanced purification method was higher in yield rate than existing one by 53%. A free radical scavenging activity of hemolymph was higher than sericin on the market(, ) and lower than vitamin C() by . An inhibitory effect on melanin synthesis was higher in hemolymph compared to Morus bark and arbutin by 9.15% and 11.56%, respectively. An inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity was higher in hemolymph than Morus bark and lower than arbutin. Effect of hemolymph on suppressing of tyrosinase was almost 90%. Thus, these results suggest that hemolymph of matured silkworm may have beneficial properties as a material for cosmetics.
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science. 11/2013; 51(2).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to demonstrate that a silk fibroin (SF) and 4-hexylresorcinol (4-HR) incorporation membrane could be used for a guided bone regeneration technique. Fourier transform infrared measurements were obtained to determine change of physical property of SF membrane by 4-HR incorporation. Two peri-implant defects, 3.0 × 5.0 mm (width × length), were prepared on the lateral side of the implant hole in the tibia of New Zealand white rabbits (n = 8). The peri-implant defect was left unfilled in the control group. Silk fibroin + 4-HR membrane was applied to the peri-implant defect in the experimental group. The 8 animals were killed at 8 weeks after implantation. Subsequently, removal torque test and histomorphometric evaluation were done. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed no specific chemical interaction between 4-HR and SF. In the histomorphometric analysis, the mean bone regeneration was 18.3 ± 1.9 mm in the experimental group and 9.3 ± 0.9 mm in the control group (P = 0.004). In conclusion, the SF and 4-HR incorporation membrane successfully regenerated bone in the rabbit tibia peri-implant bone defect model.
The Journal of craniofacial surgery 11/2013; 24(6):1927-30. · 0.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antheraea pernyi silkworm is one of typical wild silkworms, which spins a tawny color cocoon. The cocoon has been used as a resource for textile material due to strong chemical stability and good mechanical properties. In this study, to increase the solubility efficiency of A. pernyi silk fibroin, the composition of dissolution solvent were examined. Calcium chloride tertiary system, normally used for dissolution of Bombyx mori silk fibroin, does not act on A. pernyi silk fibroin. Calcium nitrate system dissolves A. pernyi silk fibroin, and calcium nitrate ethanol system do more easily than calcium nitrate system. Amino acid composition of A. pernyi silk fibroin obtained after dissolution is mainly composed of alanine, glycine, and serine. A. pernyi silk fibroin would be used for non-textile applications near future.
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science. 04/2013; 51(1).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) venom (BV) has been traditionally used for the treatment of pain and inflammatory diseases such as itchy skin problems. However, the precise mechanism of BV in ameliorating the scratching behavior is not fully understood.
In order to evaluate the effect of BV on atopic dermatitis-related symptoms in mice, we used a mouse skin scratching model induced by compound 48/80. The anti-itch effect of BV was investigated in a compound 48/80-induced mouse scratching behavior model. BALB/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with vehicle (saline 0.9%) or BV (0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg). One hour after treatment, the animals received a subcutaneous injection of compound 48/80. Intraperitoneal administration of BV (0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg) attenuated compound 48/80-induced scratching behaviors. The anti-scratching behavior effect of BV was in proportional to its vascular permeability effects. Treatment with BV also inhibited the degranulation of mast cells and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in compound 48/80-treated skin tissues. According to these results, BV may improve atopic dermatitis-related symptoms by inhibiting the mast cell degranulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression.
International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 01/2013; 6(12):2896-903. · 1.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Silk fibroin is a natural biomaterial that has the biocompatibility and other many advantages. But as a silk fibroin membrane thickness increases, the transparency becomes more opaque. Because the transparency of membranes tissue such as the cornea and dura mater are necessary, transparent membrane is required to replace these transparent membranes. In this study, we fabricated blending silk fibroin membranes that made by mixing the various inorganic salts or polymer in an aqueous solution of silk fibroin. The transparency of the membranes were analyzed. the transparency of these membranes is very different, depending on the mixed materials. Inorganic salts mixed silk membrane was more transparent than the polymer mixed one. Especially, the silk fibroin membrane with calcium chloride was very transparent. We showed the possibility of blending silk fibroin membrane, which can be used in perfect transparent membrane such as the cornea. In the future, we expect that the transparent blending silk fibroin membrane can be used in various medical applications.
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science. 01/2013; 51(2).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibroin and sericin are natural proteins obtained from cocoon and one of the spotlight materials for medical device. Medical device made of these proteins also has the advantage that this material is biodegradable in to amino acid. In this study, we prepared silk sponges using fibroin, sericin and additives. The characterizations of the silk sponges such as morphology, stability, and blood absorbency were observed. The structural stability of the silk sponge decreased significantly by increasing sericin contents. The effect on the concentrations of ethanol to induce crystallization was observed to be superior to 70% ethanol. Structural stability of silk sponges containing additives was very lower than those not containing additives. The blood absorbency of the silk sponges was found to be excellent, regardless of the composition of sericin and fibroin. The resilient power of these sponges was also very good, in spite of the repeated soaking and drying. Therefore, we expect that the silk sponges can be used medical supplies such as plastic implants and hemostatic cotton.
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science. 01/2013; 51(1).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heavy metals and residual agricultural chemicals in Bombyx mori silkworm cocoon for nontextile usages were examined. Proximate composition of silkworm cocoon was examined; contents of moisture, crude protein, crude fat, and ash were about 5 ~ 6%, 93 ~ 94%, 0.4 ~ 0.5%, and 0.3 ~ 0.4%, respectively. The Heavy metals were analyzed by ICP/MS after acid digestion. Arsenic, cadmium, and lead were not detected. The average contents of mercury, zinc, and cupric were 0.317, 3.99, and 2.06 mg/kg, respectively. Agricultural chemicals, such as dichlorvos and paraquart also were not detected. Silkworm cocoon may be safe used for nontextile applications.
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science. 12/2012; 50(2).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Silk is a natural polymer that has the advantages of the biocompatibility, excellent mechanical strength, low immune rejection, and molding facility. But silk does not dissolve easily in water or general solvent. To investigate the characteristics of silk biological membranes according to dissolving condition of silk fibroin, we made the silk biological membranes using silk fibroin solutions with different amount and dissolving time of silk. The characterizations of the silk biological membranes such as morphology, structure, and mechanical strength were observed. Although each biological membrane has the same fibroin content, there was a significant difference in the thickness and transparency. But there was no significant change in the molecular weight of the silk fibroin solutions and morphology of silk biological membranes. We were established the manufacturing condition for silk fibroin biological membrane. So we expect that the conditions will help in the development of medical supplies in the future.
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science. 12/2012; 50(2).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone disease can be associated with bone resorption by osteoclasts, and interest in the development of antiresorptive agents has recently increased. The hydrolysate of silk fibroin has been studied with respect to such biomedical applications. In a previous study, silk fibroin showed indirect inhibitory effects on the differentiation of osteoclasts. To further evaluate the effect of a hydrolysate of silk fibroin on osteoclasts, we investigated the direct effects of the silk fibroin hydrolysate on osteoclastogenesis and apoptosis of osteoclasts induced by receptor activation of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). The silk fibroin hydrolysate inhibited RANKL-induced formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) in RAW 264.7 cells. The inhibitory effect of the silk fibroin hydrolysate resulted in the decreased expression of osteoclast marker genes, such as matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), cathepsin-K and calcitonin receptor (CTR). In addition, the silk fibroin hydrolysate blocked the signaling pathways of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and expression of transcription factors, such as nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) and NF-κB. Finally, the silk fibroin hydrolysate induced apoptosis signaling cascades. Taken together, the present results indicate that silk fibroin hydrolysate has antiresorptive activity by both inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and inducing osteoclast apoptosis.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine 11/2012; 30(5):1203-10. · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of researcher have studied biomaterials for cartilage regeneration and are now proceeding. Silk protein was attempted for use as biomedical materials by many researchers because it is natural polymer with biocompatibility and excellent mechanical strength. In this study, we want to know a possibility of silk protein on the cartilage regeneration. We isolated chondrocytes from nasal cartilage and confirmed optimal culture condition of the cells. To observe the effects of silk fibroin on chondrogenesis, we added silk fibroin solutions to the culture medium of chondrocyte and detected gene expression levels related chondrogenesis such as col2, col10. The chondrocytes showed optimal growth when they were cultured in DMEM medium supplemented with 10% FBS 100 M ascorbic acid. The levels of col2 gene expression were increased in non-autoclaved silk fibroin, but decreased in autoclaved one. Also the gene expression levels of col10 were increased in silk fibroin, particulary at 3D culture. Based on the results of this study, we had seen the possibility of silk fibroin for cartilage regeneration. In future studies, we should know more clearly the relationship between cartilage regeneration and the silk protein.
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science. 06/2012; 50(1).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Silk fibroin (SF) peptide has been traditionally used as a treatment for flatulence, spasms, and phlegm. In this study, we examined whether SF peptide enhanced the antiinflammatory effect of PEP-1-FK506 binding protein (PEP-1-FK506BP) through comparing the anti-inflammatory activities of SF peptide and/or PEP-1-FK506BP. In the presence or absence of SF peptide, transduction levels of PEP-1-FK506BP into HaCaT cells and mice skin and anti-inflammatory activities of PEP-1-FK506BP were identified by Western blot and histological analyses. SF peptide alone effectively reduced both mice ear edema and the elevated levels of cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-6 and -1beta, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, showing similar anti-inflammatory effect to that of PEP-1-FK506BP. Furthermore, co-treatment with SF peptide and PEP-1- FK506BP exhibited more enhanced anti-inflammatory effects than the samples treated with SF peptides or PEP- 1-FK506BP alone, suggesting the possibility that SF peptide and PEP-1-FK506BP might interact with each other. Moreover, the transduction data demonstrated that SF peptide did not affect the transduction of PEP-1- FK506BP into HaCaT cells and mice skin, indicating that the improvement of anti-inflammatory effect of PEP-1- FK506BP was not caused by enhanced transduction of PEP-1-FK506BP. Thus, these results suggest the possibility that co-treatment with SF peptide and PEP-1-FK506BP may be exploited as a useful therapy for various inflammationrelated diseases.
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 04/2012; 22(4):494-500. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, silk gland powder of silkworm were investigated to see the possibility for baby powder cosmetics materials. To test possibility as a baby powder cosmetics, total content rate of amino acids, DPPH free radical scavenging assay, MTT assay, and clinical trial were done. According to the result of the analysis of the amino acids of silk gland powder, serin (26.77%) content was the highest and asparatic acid (15.47%), and glycine (9.62%) were followed. DPPH free radical scavenging activity of silk gland powder was lower than vitamin C by 82.3% and 97%, respectively, which is relatively good. Moisture effect were increased in silk gland powder compared to control cosmetics by 50%. Also, silk gland powder was classified as a practically non-irritating material based on the score 0.05 of primary irritation index. Thus, these results suggest that silk gland powder of silkworm may have beneficial properties as a material for baby powder cosmetics.
Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science. 01/2012; 50(1).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated whether silk fibroin peptide derived from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, could inhibit inflammation and enhance the anti-inflammatory activity of Tat-superoxide dismutase (Tat-SOD), which was previously reported to effectively penetrate various cells and tissues and exert anti-oxidative activity in a mouse model of inflammation. Inflammation was induced by topical treatment of mouse ears with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Histological, Western blot, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction data demonstrated that silk fibroin peptide or Tat-SOD alone could suppress elevated levels of cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-6, interleukin-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced by TPA. Moreover, silk fibroin peptide significantly enhanced the anti-inflammatory activity of Tat-SOD, although it had no influence on in vitro and in vivo transduction of Tat-SOD. Silk fibroin peptide exhibited anti- inflammatory activity in a mice model of inflammation. Therefore, silk fibroin peptide alone or in combination with Tat-SOD might be used as a therapeutic agent for various inflammatory diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bone regeneration ability of silk fibroin (SF) membrane.
Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and solubility test against distilled water were performed with 3 different types of SF membrane (SM1, SM2, and SM3). Subsequently, microscopic computerized tomography (μ-CT) and histomorphometric analyses were performed in rabbit calvarial defect model after SF membrane application at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery.
FT-IR showed that the conformation of the SF membrane was a random coil structure and that SM1 was the least soluble. When SM1 was used in the animal model, the groups with SM1 had significantly higher new bone formation than the uncovered control in both the μ-CT and the histomorphometric analyses (P < .05).
The SF membrane had more new bone formation compared with the uncovered control.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study involves a comparison between the bone regeneration of nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA), as derived from eggshells either with or without silk fibroin scaffolds, and the unfilled control in the rabbit calvarial bony defect model.
Sixteen 4-month-old New Zealand white rabbits, with a mean weight of 2.8 kg (range, 2.5-3.0 kg), were used in this experiment. After the formation of bilateral parietal bony defects (diameter, 8.0 mm), either an nHA or an nHA+silk fibroin combination (nHA+silk) was grafted. The control was unfilled defect. The bone regeneration was evaluated by micro-computed tomography (μCT) and histomorphometric analyses at 4 and 8 weeks.
All measured variables of the μCT analysis were significantly higher in the grafted groups (nHA and nHA+silk) than in the unfilled control groups at both 4 and 8 weeks after operation (P < .05). On histomorphometric analysis, there was no significant difference between the groups at 4 weeks after operation. However, the nHA group exerted significantly higher bone regeneration (40.16% ± 8.27%) compared with the unfilled control group (25.66% ± 10.98%) or the nHA+silk group (16.62% ± 3.05%) (P < .05).
The nHA from eggshells exerted better bone formation than the unfilled control group on both μCT and histomorphometric analyses. Considering the rapid healing in bony defect and easy availability, the nHA from the eggshells could prove to be a good new bone substitute.
Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons 06/2011; 69(6):1578-86. · 1.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Silk fibroin, a natural protein produced by silkworm, is a good biomaterial which has biodegradability and biocompatibility. To ascertain the effects of silk fibroin on cell growth, silk fibroin films were prepared using silk fibroin aqueous solutions of various concentrations. We investigated the attachment, proliferation, morphology of the cells and the expression levels of genes related to cell attachment and growth on the silk fibroin films. When the cells were cultured on the 0.1 and 1% silk fibroin film, the cell adhesion ability was very excellent. Particularly, overall cell growth on the 1% silk fibroin film was definitely superior to the others. Also, expression levels of genes related cell growth were increased on the 0.1 and 1% silk fibroin film. These results suggest silk as a material for medical applications.
Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry 01/2011; 54(3).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to test the use of colored cocoon silkworm, Golden Silk, as a host for the fruiting body production of Cordyceps mushroom. Golden Silk variety had a shorter larval period than Yangwonjam at and 78.5% RH: The average larval period of the Golden Silk was 24 days and 7 hr, and that of the Yangwonjam was 24 days and 15 hr. In the infection test of I. tenuipes on silkworm, the larval period of normal silkworms was longer than the silkworms inoculated with I. tenuipes in both Golden Silk and Yangwonjam. The pupae survival percentage of Golden Silk was 94.4%, whereas it was 91.9% in Yangwonjam. Golden Silk had a higher pupation rate than Yangwonjam. The pupation rate of normal silkworms was about 5% higher than that of silkworms inoculated with I. tenuipes. Infection rate of I. tenuipes into larvae of 5th instar newly exuviated silkworm was 93.8% in Golden Silk, and 96.9% in Yangwonjam. Synnemata production of I. tenuipes was better in Yangwonjam with an incidence rate of 99.8% than Golden Silk with 98.6%. The average synnemata weight of Golden Silk was 1.12 g and that of Yangwonjam 1.29 g. Golden Silk had a lower synnemata weight than Yangwonjam. But no significant difference was observed in synnemata weight varieties. The synnemata of I. tenuipes produced on pupae were white or milky-white in color, and similar in shape and color to wild synnemata collected in Korea.
International Journal of Industrial Entomology. 01/2011; 22(1).