P Cosnay

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Tours, Tours, Centre, France

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Publications (165)316.04 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Amyloidosis is a severe systemic disease. Cardiac involvement may occur in the three main types of amyloidosis (acquired monoclonal light-chain, hereditary transthyretin and senile amyloidosis) and has a major impact on prognosis. Imaging the heart to characterize and detect early cardiac involvement is one of the major aims in the assessment of this disease. Electrocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography are important diagnostic and prognostic tools in patients with cardiac involvement. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging better characterizes myocardial involvement, functional abnormalities and amyloid deposition due to its high spatial resolution. Nuclear imaging has a role in the diagnosis of transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy. Cardiac biomarkers are now used for risk stratification and staging of patients with light-chain systemic amyloidosis. Different types of cardiac complications may occur, including diastolic followed by systolic heart failure, atrial and/or ventricular arrhythmias, conduction disturbances, embolic events and sometimes sudden death. Senile amyloid and hereditary transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy have better prognoses than light-chain amyloidosis. Cardiac treatment of heart failure is usually ineffective and is often poorly tolerated because of its hypotensive and bradycardiac effects. The three main types of amyloid disease, despite their similar cardiac appearance, have specific new aetiological treatments that may change the prognosis of this disease. Cardiologists should be aware of this disease to allow early treatment.
    Archives of cardiovascular diseases 09/2013; · 0.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundVentricular premature beats are common in patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP). The purpose of this study was to determine whether symptomatic patients with MVP had certain functional characteristics and if ventricular arrhythmia (VA) could be explained by functional extravalvular abnormalities. Single photon emission computed tomography equilibrium radionuclide angiography with Fourier phase analysis was preferred to the planar radionuclide method. Only patients without significant mitral regurgitation were studied. Methods and ResultsA total of 23 symptomatic patients with MVP (13 men, 10 women, mean age, 47 ± 14 years) without mitral regurgitation underwent single photon emission computed tomography equilibrium radionuclide angiography. Symptoms were present in 20 patients, and VA was present in 14 patients. Ejection fraction, regional wall motion, and Fourier phase analysis were examined in both ventricles and compared with results for normal subjects. Ventricular abnormalities were observed in 20 (87%) patients: decreased left ventricular and right ventricular ejection fractions, increased standard deviations of the mean phase and focal wall motion, and/or delayed phase abnormalities. Abnormalities were less frequent but more marked in the right ventricular free wall, the infundibulum, or the septum compared with left ventricular delayed abnormalities, which were more frequent but limited. In 12 of 14 patients with VA, phase-delayed areas were observed in the ventricle where the origin of ventricular premature beats was suspected on the basis of their electrocardiographic morphologic features. A relation was found between late potentials and delayed-phase areas (right ventricle or septum) and left bundle branch block morphologic features of VA. ConclusionsSymptomatic patients with MVP frequently have ventricular dysfunction in 1 or both ventricles, sometimes limited but more marked in the presence of severe VA even without significant mitral regurgitation, suggesting structural modification. The use of a sensitive, accurate, and 3-dimensional method such as single photon emission computed tomography equilibrium radionuclide angiography may be of interest for a noninvasive investigation, especially in young symptomatic patients with MVP and VA.
    Journal of Nuclear Cardiology 04/2012; 7(5):471-477. · 2.85 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Neurology 04/2012; 247(8):643-644. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are efficient in reducing mortality in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. High-rate cut-off programming may be effective in reducing appropriate and inappropriate therapies, but as the long-term consequences on morbidity and mortality remain unclear, it is underutilized. We prospectively studied 365 consecutive patients (mean age 60 ± 10 years), with ischaemic (63%) or non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy and left ventricular dysfunction (mean ejection fraction 25 ± 7%), who were implanted with an ICD in primary prevention of sudden cardiac death (41% single chamber, 31% dual chamber, and 28% biventricular). All devices were programmed with a shock-only zone over 220 beats per minute (b.p.m.) and a monitoring zone between 170 and 220 b.p.m. During a median follow-up of 40 months, 41 patients received appropriate shocks (11.2%) and 24 inappropriate shocks (6.6%). Then, 306 patients never experienced any ICD shock (84%). Inappropriate discharges were related to supraventricular tachyarrhythmia in 10 patients, and noise/oversensing in 14 patients. Ventricular tachycardia episodes, sustained or not, were recorded in the monitoring zone in 43 patients (11.8%). Seven of these patients were symptomatic (1.9%), without lethal consequence. Sixty-two patients (17%) died: 35 from end-stage heart failure, 1 from unexplained sudden death, and 26 from a documented non-cardiac cause. High-rate cut-off (220 b.p.m.) shock-only ICD programming, in primary prevention patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, appeared to be safe during a long-term follow-up. It also resulted in a very low rate of discharges, which are known to be deleterious in this population.
    Europace 03/2012; 14(7):968-74. · 2.77 Impact Factor
  • Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases Supplements 01/2011; 3(1):68-68.
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    ABSTRACT: In atrial fibrillation (AF), the absence of a clear benefit of a rhythm-control strategy over a rate-control strategy seen in recent trials may be due to the fact that many of the usual antiarrhythmic strategy have significant weaknesses. Besides research efforts to improve the efficacy and safety of conventional antiarrhythmic agents, therapies directed 'upstream'of the electrical aspects of AF, towards the underlying anatomical substrate and atrial remodelling, have been proposed as new pharmacological therapeutic approaches. Potential upstream therapies for AF comprise a variety of agents such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), statins, N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and steroids. On the basis of experimental data, clinical studies have provided information on the potential of upstream therapy for the prevention of AF across a broad spectrum of cardiovascular patient groups. In patients with heart failure or hypertension, data are sufficient to support the use of ACEI or ARB as treatment that may decrease the risk of AF beyond their other beneficial effects. Similarly, it is highly possible that the use of statin in patients with a recognized indication may be associated with a benefit against AF. However, in most clinical settings, the evidence appears to be insufficient to drive changes in therapy management per se, and large-scale, randomized controlled trials with adequately defined endpoints are still needed. The results from these trials may help to understand the complex mechanisms that lead to AF, and may clarify the benefit-to-risk ratio of these new therapeutic approaches.
    Annales de cardiologie et d'angeiologie 12/2010; 59 Suppl 1:S28-32. · 0.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the case of an 18-year-old man with Danon disease, a genetic disorder inclunding a severe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with very broad QRS, who had an implantable cardioverter defibrillator for primary prevention. Nine months after implantation, he received two inappropriate shocks due to R-wave double counting during sinus tachycardia. We discuss how to avoid such inappropriate therapy.
    Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 03/2010; 33(5):618-9. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 65-year-old patient presented with recurrent cardiac decompensation 12 years after aortic prosthesis replacement and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membrane pericardial substitution. Diagnosis of pericardial constriction was difficult. Only one cardiac imaging method, radionuclide ventriculography, was helpful. Upon re-operation, an epicardial fibrous strap which restricted right ventricle (RV) diastolic expansion was found between the anterior free wall and diaphragmatic portion of the RV. Clinical status dramatically improved after surgical removal of this bridle, as did ventricular filling curves in radionuclide imaging. This case shows that delayed cardiac constriction is possible after ePTFE pericardial substitution, especially if the membrane is applied to both anterior and diaphragmatic aspects of the heart.
    Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 02/2010; 10(5):813-5. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and an intermediate risk of stroke (CHADS2 score =1), available evidence from clinical trials is inconclusive and the present guidelines for the management of AF indicate that the choice between oral anticoagulant and aspirin in these patients is open. Our goal was to evaluate whether, in patients with AF and only one moderate risk factor for thromboembolism, treatment with an oral anticoagulant is appreciably more beneficial than treatment with an antiplatelet agent. Among 6,517 unselected patients with AF, 1,012 of them (15.5%) had a CHADS2 score of 1 and were liable to treatment with an antiplatelet agent or an anticoagulant. An oral anticoagulant was prescribed for 606 patients (59.9%) and an antiplatelet agent or no antithrombotic treatment for 406 (40.1%). During follow-up (median=793 days, interquartile range=1,332 days), 105 deaths (10.4%) and 19 strokes (1.9%) were recorded. The administration of an anticoagulant was associated with a lower rate of events (relative risk=0.42, 95% confidence interval 0.29-0.60, p<0.0001) than when no anticoagulant was prescribed. Results remained similar after adjustment for age and other confounding factors. In contrast, prescription of an antiplatelet agent was not associated with a lower risk of events. Factors independently associated with an increased risk of events were older age (p<0.0001), concomitant heart failure (p=0.0002), diabetes (p=0.0025), lack of prescription of an anticoagulant (p<0.0001) and permanent AF (p=0.04). Thus, prescription of an anticoagulant is independently associated with a decreased risk of death or stroke among patients with AF and a CHADS2 score =1.
    Thrombosis and Haemostasis 02/2010; 103(4):833-40. · 5.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In atrial fibrillation (AF), the absence of a clear benefit of a rhythm-control strategy over a rate-control strategy seen in recent trials may be due to the fact that many of the usual antiarrhythmic strategy have significant weaknesses. Besides research efforts to improve the efficacy and safety of conventional antiarrhythmic agents, therapies directed ‘upstream’of the electrical aspects of AF, towards the underlying anatomical substrate and atrial remodelling, have been proposed as new pharmacological therapeutic approaches. Potential upstream therapies for AF comprise a variety of agents such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), statins, N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and steroids. On the basis of experimental data, clinical studies have provided information on the potential of upstream therapy for the prevention of AF across a broad spectrum of cardiovascular patient groups. In patients with heart failure or hypertension, data are sufficient to support the use of ACEI or ARB as treatment that may decrease the risk of AF beyond their other beneficial effects. Similarly, it is highly possible that the use of statin in patients with a recognized indication may be associated with a benefit against AF. However, in most clinical settings, the evidence appears to be insufficient to drive changes in therapy management per se, and large-scale, randomized controlled trials with adequately defined endpoints are still needed. The results from these trials may help to understand the complex mechanisms that lead to AF, and may clarify the benefit-to-risk ratio of these new therapeutic approaches.
    Annales De Cardiologie Et D Angeiologie - ANN CARDIOL ANGEIOL. 01/2010; 59.
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    ABSTRACT: Ectopic activity in cardiac muscle within pulmonary veins (PVs) is associated with the onset and the maintenance of atrial fibrillation in humans. The mechanism underlying this ectopic activity is unknown. Here we investigate automatic activity generated by catecholaminergic stimulation in the rat PV. Intracellular microelectrodes were used to record electrical activity in isolated strips of rat PV and left atrium (LA). The resting cardiac muscle membrane potential was lower in PV [-70 +/- 1 (SE) mV, n = 8] than in LA (-85 +/- 1 mV, n = 8). No spontaneous activity was recorded in PV or LA under basal conditions. Norepinephrine (10(-5) M) induced first a hyperpolarization (-8 +/- 1 mV in PV, -3 +/- 1 mV in LA, n = 8 for both) then a slowly developing depolarization (+21 +/- 2 mV after 15 min in PV, +1 +/- 2 mV in LA) of the resting membrane potential. Automatic activity occurred only in PV; it was triggered at approximately -50 mV, and it occurred as repetitive bursts of slow action potentials. The diastolic membrane potential increased during a burst and slowly depolarized between bursts. Automatic activity in the PV was blocked by either atenolol or prazosine, and it could be generated with a mixture of cirazoline and isoprenaline. In both tissues, cirazoline (10(-6) M) induced a depolarization (+37 +/- 2 mV in PV, n = 5; +5 +/- 1 mV in LA, n = 5), and isoprenaline (10(-7) M) evoked a hyperpolarization (-11 +/- 3 mV in PV, n = 7; -3 +/- 1 mV in LA, n = 6). The differences in membrane potential and reaction to adrenergic stimulation lead to automatic electrical activity occurring specifically in cardiac muscle in the PV.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 06/2009; 297(1):H102-8. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF), beta blockers and digoxin reduce the ventricular rate, but controversy exists concerning how these drugs affect prognosis in this setting. This study compared the effects of beta blocker and digoxin on mortality in patients with both AF and HF. In a single-center institution, patients with AF and HF seen between January 2000 and January 2004 were identified and followed until September 2007. Of 1,269 consecutive patients with both AF and HF, 260 were treated with a beta blocker alone, 189 with beta blocker plus digoxin, 402 with digoxin alone, and 418 without beta blocker or digoxin (control group). During a follow-up of 881+/-859 days, 247 patients died. Compared with the control group, treatment with beta blocker was associated with a decreased mortality (relative risk=0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.40 to 0.85, p=0.005 for beta blocker alone and 0.59, 95% confidence interval 0.40 to 0.87, p=0.008 for beta blocker plus digoxin). By contrast, treatment with digoxin alone was not associated with a better survival (relative risk=0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.73 to 1.30, p=NS). Results remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders and similar when we considered, separately, HF with permanent or nonpermanent AF, presence or absence of coronary disease, and patients with decreased or preserved systolic function. In conclusion, in unselected patients with AF and HF, treatments with beta blocker alone or with beta blocker plus digoxin are associated with a similar decrease in the risk of death. Digoxin alone is associated with a worse survival chance, similar to that of patients without any rate control treatment.
    The American journal of cardiology 02/2009; 103(2):248-54. · 3.58 Impact Factor
  • Presse Medicale. 01/2009; 38(4):672-675.
  • Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases - ARCH CARDIOVASC DIS. 01/2009; 102.
  • Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases - ARCH CARDIOVASC DIS. 01/2009; 102.
  • La Presse Médicale 11/2008; 38(4):672-5. · 0.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS), we examine the association between: (1) the content of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) in the aortic valve and the degree of inflammation and remodeling; (2) The proportion of small dense LDL particles in the plasma and the presence of oxLDL in the valve along with hemodynamic progression of valve stenosis. We have examined 102 explanted AS valves. Tissue remodeling, inflammation, and accumulation of oxLDL were determined. A complete plasma lipid profile including the measurement of the relative proportion of small low-density lipoprotein (%LDL(<255A)) was obtained. Valves with higher oxLDL content had a significantly higher density of inflammatory cells, expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and increased tissue remodeling score. The %LDL(<255A) was significantly associated with oxLDL score within the aortic valve. In a subset of 59 patients in whom stenosis progression was measured, the %LDL(<255A) correlated with the annualized peak gradient (r=0.29; P=0.04). Increased proportion of circulating small dense LDL particles is associated with faster progression rate of stenosis and greater accumulation of oxLDL in the aortic valve. These findings suggest that therapeutic interventions aimed at lowering the production of small dense LDL particles in patients with AS might represent a potentially interesting therapeutic avenue.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 01/2008; 28(1):187-93. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Cardiac involvement in sarcoidosis is associated with poor prognosis because of complications, such as conduction disturbance, ventricular tachycardia (VT), and congestive heart failure, sometimes leading to sudden death. Cases of cardiac sarcoidosi sa re ofte nfi r st diagnosed on postmortem examination 1 or in explanted hearts, 2 sudden cardiac death being the initial and sole manifestation of the disease. New imaging methods such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) can diagnose cardiac sarcoidosis. 3-8 However, the optimal treatment for this infiltrative disease has not always been well defined, especiall yw hen ventricular arrhythmias are present. We report on a patient with cardiac sarcoidosis presenting with VT, in whom an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) was placed to prevent cardiac sudden death. 18 F-FDG PET imaging was used to guide medical therapy because of the recurrence of VT. Case report. A symptomatic 48-year-old man
    Journal of Nuclear Cardiology 01/2008; 15(2):282-5. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) has been shown to prevent sudden death but it frequently gives rise to complications. These complications seem to be costly but they do not figure in the economic assessments of AID. From 1989 to 2003, 202 patients (173 men, age 58 +/- 14 years) received consecutively 264 AID in the same centre of implantation. The authors studied the complications of these implantations. The medical indication was secondary (documented spontaneous ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation) in 145 patients (71.8%) and prophylactic in the remaining 57 patients (28.2%). During the 36 month (+/- 35) follow-up, 40.6% patients had an appropriate treatment: 50.3% in the secondary prevention group versus 15.8% in the prophylactic implantation group. The one year, 5 and 15 year survival rates were 99, 88 and 85% respectively. Eighty seven complications were observed resulting in a long term complication in 36.7% of patients. These complications were: inappropriate electric shock, n=24 (27.6%), fractured catheters, n=12 (13.6%), haematomas, n=12 (13.6%), loss of function of the AID, n=10 (11.4%), infection, n=6 (6.8%), pneumothorax, n=7 (8.0%), and others n=16 (18.4%). The cost of these complications was assessed in terms of hospital stay in intensive care (1010.40 euros per day) or in the general cardiology wards (546.70 euros per day). The complications resulted in 502 days of additional hospital stay (5.77 days per complication) with a total cost of 285 655.20 euros (3283.40 euros per complication). The most expensive complications in terms of hospital stay were: infections (24.5 days), fractured catheter (5.75 days), and postoperative haematoma (5.5 days). These results indicate a significant cost of complications which should be indicated in the economic evaluation of AID.
    Archives des maladies du coeur et des vaisseaux 10/2007; 100(9):736-44. · 0.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nonreentrant atrioventricular (AV) nodal tachycardia is a rare form of arrhythmia due to simultaneous anterograde conduction in dual AV pathways, one atrial impulse triggering two ventricular complexes. We report the case of a 74-year-old man referred for incessant palpitations resistant to antiarrhythmic medication, and effort dyspnea. A nonreentrant AV nodal tachycardia is diagnosed with electrophysiological study. A dilated cardiomyopathy with left ventricular dysfunction is found with gated blood pool single-photon emission computed tomography. A radiofrequency catheter ablation of the slow pathway is successfully performed. The patient is reassessed 11 months after ablation. He is asymptomatic and left ventricular function has fully recovered.
    Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 08/2007; 30(7):925-8. · 1.75 Impact Factor