Paul O'Halloran

La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

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Publications (16)32.79 Total impact

  • Hannah Macdougall · Paul O'Halloran · Nora Shields · Emma Sherry ·
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    ABSTRACT: This systematic review included 12 studies that compared the well-being of Para and Olympic sport athletes. Meta-analyses revealed that Para athletes, compared with Olympic sport athletes, had lower levels of self-acceptance, indicated by athletic identity, d = 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.77, 0.16], and body-image perceptions, d = 0.33, 95% CI [0.59, 0.07], and differed from Olympic sport athletes in terms of their motivation, indicated by a greater mastery-oriented climate, d = 0.74, 95% CI [0.46, 1.03]. Given an inability to pool the remaining data for meta-analysis, individual standardized mean differences were calculated for other dimensions of psychological and subjective well-being. The results have implications for professionals and coaches aiming to facilitate the well-being needs of athletes under their care. Future research would benefit from incorporating established models of well-being based on theoretical rationale combined with rigorous study designs.
    Adapted physical activity quarterly: APAQ 07/2015; 32(3):256-76. DOI:10.1123/APAQ.2014-0168 · 1.32 Impact Factor
  • Melissa Moore · Jeni Warburton · Paul D O'Halloran · Nora Shields · Michael Kingsley ·
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the characteristics and effectiveness of community-based interventions designed to increase physical activity participation in older adults (aged 65 years or more) living in rural or regional areas. Relevant peer-reviewed literature was obtained, using four primary electronic search engines, in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis statement. The initial search identified 4,690 articles. After removal of duplicates and excluded articles, seven articles were included in the review. Few consistencies existed between intervention types, duration, outcome measures, and follow-up. Results provide some evidence to support the effectiveness of community-based interventions that include low- to moderate-intensity exercise to increase physical activity, physical function, and psychological state. However, without more rigorous studies it is difficult to identify the most critical characteristics of community-based interventions for older adults in rural and regional settings.
    Journal of Aging and Physical Activity 05/2015; DOI:10.1123/japa.2014-0218 · 1.97 Impact Factor
  • Jason Holden · Megan Davidson · Paul O'Halloran ·
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    ABSTRACT: Timely resumption of usual activities is integral to successful functional outcomes in individuals with low back pain (LBP).Little is known about how physiotherapists motivate their patients achieve this. This study examined physiotherapists’ knowledge, reported usage and training in a set of 12 motivational strategies. The results of an online cross sectional survey of 170 Australian physiotherapists were compared descriptively, and potential associations between therapist training and strategy use, confidence and perceived effectiveness analysed. Participants considered it extremely important to motivate individuals with LBP to return to usual activities and most commonly reported managing this aspect of treatment exclusively. Active goal setting was the most recognised motivational strategy and transtheoretical based counselling the least recognised. Provision of verbal information and praise/encouragement were reported as the most frequently used strategies. The most common reasons for not using a familiar motivational strategy were time constraints and lack of training. Training in active goal setting was associated with greater use, confidence and perceived effectiveness and was most commonly perceived as moderately effective. Cognitive behavioural therapy was well recognised and training associated with greater use and confidence but not perceived effectiveness. Motivational interviewing was known to approximately half of respondents, consistent with its infancy in LBP and training was not associated with use, confidence or perceived effectiveness. Further research into clearly defined, time efficient and physiotherapy specific motivational interventions for individuals ambivalent to returning to usual activities following an episode of low back pain, may help address the issues identified by the current survey.
    Manual Therapy 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.math.2015.04.005 · 1.71 Impact Factor
  • Katie L Buckley · Paul D O'Halloran · Jennifer M Oates ·
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the occupational voice use and vocal health of elite football coaches. This pilot study explored coaches' voice use patterns and vocal demands across workplace environments. Each coach's experiences of voice symptoms and voice problems were also investigated. Twelve Australian professional football coaches participated in a mixed-methods data collection approach. Data were collected through acoustic voice measurement (Ambulatory Phonation Monitor), semistructured interviews, and a voice symptom questionnaire (Voice Capabilities Questionnaire). Acoustic measures suggested heavy vocal loads for coaches during player training. All participants reported experiencing voice symptoms. They also suggested that the structure of their working week, workplace tasks, and vocal demands impacted on their voices. Despite this, participants reported little previous reflection or awareness of what impacted on their voices. Coaches typically did not consider how to support their voices during daily work and discussed experiencing voice symptoms as an inevitable part of their jobs. This study demonstrates that occupational vocal demands may negatively impact on sports coaches' vocal health. This is particularly important, considering coaches' heavy vocal loads across coaching tasks and reported negative occupational vocal health experience. Furthermore, coaches' limited insight into voice use and vocal health management may impact on their vocal performance and health. Given the exploratory nature of this study, further research into coaches' occupational vocal health is warranted. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of voice: official journal of the Voice Foundation 02/2015; 29(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jvoice.2014.09.017 · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to determine if motivational interviewing leads to increased physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness or functional exercise capacity in people with chronic health conditions. Data sources: Seven electronic databases (MEDLINE, PsychINFO, EMBASE, AMED, CINHAL, SPORTDiscus and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials) were searched from inception until January 2014. Trial selection: Two reviewers independently examined publications for inclusion. Trials were included if participants were adults (>18 years), had a chronic health condition, used motivational interviewing as the intervention and examined physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness or functional exercise capacity. Data extraction: Two reviewers independently extracted data. Risk of bias within trials was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database Scale. Data synthesis: Meta-analyses were conducted with standardized mean differences and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach was used to evaluate the quality of the evidence. Results: Eleven publications (of ten trials) were included. There was moderate level evidence that motivational interviewing had a small effect in increasing physical activity levels in people with chronic health conditions relative to comparison groups (standardized mean differences = 0.19, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.32, p = 0.004). Sensitivity analysis based on trials that confirmed treatment fidelity produced a larger effect. No conclusive evidence was observed for cardiorespiratory fitness or functional exercise capacity. Conclusion: The addition of motivational interviewing to usual care may lead to modest improvements in physical activity for people with chronic health conditions.
    Clinical Rehabilitation 06/2014; 28(12). DOI:10.1177/0269215514536210 · 2.24 Impact Factor
  • J. Holden · M. Davidson · P. D. O'Halloran ·
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To systematically review the evidence for health coaching for patients with low back pain and describe the diversity of health coach training and interventions. Methods: Electronic databases Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, AMED and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched to 24 June 2013 using individually devised strategies. Randomised or quasi randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of health coaching for adults with low back pain of any duration were considered. The overall quality of the body of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Treatment effects were presented as the difference in mean scores with 95% confidence intervals and standardised mean difference at follow-up between health coaching and control groups. Health coaching interventions were compared narratively by their theoretical principles and the training and assessment of heath coaches. Results: Five publications describing three RCTs and one cluster RCT met the criteria for review. A rating of very low was assigned to the body of evidence using the GRADE approach. One RCT found significant improvements in lifting capacity and exercise compliance in favour of the health coaching group at both follow-up points with a large and moderate standardised mean difference. All included studies based health coaching interventions on the transtheoretical model of change however, the content of counselling programmes varied between studies and measures of treatment fidelity were inconclusive. Discussion: Variability in health coaching interventions and a lack of assessment of treatment fidelity in addition to the very low rating of the overall body of evidence identified in the current review renders any estimates of the effect of health coaching on low back pain uncertain. Well-designed RCTs of patients with sub-acute low back pain are required that incorporate clearly described protocols for health coaching interventions and include standardised measures of treatment fidelity.
    International Journal of Clinical Practice 04/2014; 68(8). DOI:10.1111/ijcp.12444 · 2.57 Impact Factor
  • Ross A Iles · Nicholas F Taylor · Megan Davidson · Paul O'Halloran ·
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    ABSTRACT: A health coaching intervention in addition to usual physiotherapy care increased recovery expectation and activity in people with non-chronic NSLBP and low recovery expectation. We aimed to fully describe the coaching intervention to allow replication and enable a deeper understanding of the mechanisms behind health coaching in this setting.METHODS: A qualitative analysis was conducted using notes taken by the coach during the health coaching intervention. Two researchers independently applied open coding and content analysis, using the factors of low recovery expectation identified in a previous qualitative investigation as a framework.RESULTS: For the majority of participants coaching rapidly progressed to goal setting and action planning, with less time spent on increasing the importance and confidence to return to activity. The factors of the person, progression, pain, performance and treatment were addressed across all phases of the coaching intervention. This effective health coaching intervention for people with non-chronic NSLBP and low recovery expectation concentrated on goal setting and action planning and addressed the essential factors of recovery expectations. This study suggests that coaching interventions are likely to be different in this population compared to similar interventions in chronic conditions due to pre-existing levels of readiness to change.
    Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation 07/2013; 27(1). DOI:10.3233/BMR-130424 · 0.71 Impact Factor
  • Bradley J Wright · Paul D O'Halloran ·
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    ABSTRACT: Performance enhancement techniques can improve self-efficacy (SE) and task performance. The focus of this study was to determine which techniques could best achieve this with three novel tasks. Participants (n = 98) were counterbalanced across tasks and conditions (48 participants assigned to each condition in each task) and completed two trials of putting (imagery vs. no imagery), throwing (easy vs. difficult), and kicking (verbal feedback vs. no feedback) tasks, and SE and performance scores were recorded. The results revealed that the auditory feedback condition had the greatest impact as it significantly explained both SE and performance scores, with a greater effect recorded for SE scores. Use of imagery or allocation to the easy-to-score condition did not improve performance or SE scores more than did the control conditions. These findings were unexpected as successful past performance is often cited as the main determinant of SE change. Further empirical investigation is required to determine if these findings are repeatable and if they generalize to sporting settings.
    Research quarterly for exercise and sport 06/2013; 84(2):139-46. DOI:10.1080/02701367.2013.784842 · 1.57 Impact Factor
  • Ross A Iles · Nicholas F Taylor · Megan Davidson · Paul D O'Halloran ·
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    ABSTRACT: Low recovery expectations have been identified as a strong and consistent predictor of poor outcome in non-chronic non-specific low back pain (NSLBP). The aim of this study was to explore how people determine their own recovery expectation during an episode of non-chronic NSLBP. In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of people with non-chronic NSLBP and low recovery expectations. Interviews were audio--recorded and transcribed verbatim. Two researchers independently applied open coding, followed by axial coding to allow themes to emerge from the data using a constant comparison method. The central theme of the person and 4 subthemes of pain, progress, performance, and treatment emerged from the data. The formation of recovery expectations was dependent on the person's unique apprasial of their pain, how the condition had progressed, the limitation of their performance of activities, and the impact of different aspects of treatment. Recovery expectation is a person's appraisal of several factors to determine when they are likely to return to their usual activities during an episode of non-chronic NSLBP. Health professionals should explore the person's perception of these factors as part of a tailored intervention to prevent non-chronic NSLBP progressing to chronic NSLBP.
    Journal of rehabilitation medicine: official journal of the UEMS European Board of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 08/2012; 44(9):781-7. DOI:10.2340/16501977-1019 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    Ross Iles · Nicholas F Taylor · Megan Davidson · Paul O'Halloran ·
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    ABSTRACT: Does the addition of telephone coaching to usual physiotherapy care improve activity for people with non-chronic low back pain and low to moderate recovery expectations? Randomised trial with concealed allocation and intention-to-treat analysis. People attending the physiotherapy department of a public hospital for treatment within eight weeks of onset of non-specific low back pain. Eligible participants had low to moderate recovery expectations, defined as a response of 7 or less to the question 'How certain are you that you will return to all of your usual activities one month from today?' on a scale from 0 (not certain at all) to 10 (completely certain). Five sessions of telephone coaching by a physiotherapist trained in health coaching techniques in addition to usual physiotherapy compared to usual physiotherapy alone. The Patient Specific Functional Scale, Oswestry Disability Index, Pain Self Efficacy Questionnaire, and recovery expectation were measured at baseline, 4, and 12 weeks. 30 participants were recruited, with 26 completing all measures at 12 weeks. There were no significant differences between groups at 4 weeks. After 12 weeks the coaching group improved significantly more than the control group on two 10-point scales: the Patient Specific Functional Scale (mean difference 3.0 points, 95% CI 0.7 to 5.4) and recovery expectation (mean difference 3.4 points, 95% CI 1.1 to 5.7). Estimates of effect sizes were moderate to large in favour of the intervention. The addition of telephone health coaching to usual physiotherapy care for people with non-chronic non-specific low back pain led to clinically important improvements in activity and recovery expectation. ACTRN12607000458437.
    Journal of physiotherapy 12/2011; 57(4):231-8. DOI:10.1016/S1836-9553(11)70053-4 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Psychoeducation is a recommended component of cardiac rehabilitation, but to date, evidence from high quality trials examining behavior change has not been synthesized. The primary aim of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of psychoeducation on behavior change in adults with coronary artery disease participating in cardiac rehabilitation; and to identify if changes in health behavior had an effect on modifiable physiological risk factors. A search of electronic databases was conducted for randomized controlled trials involving adults with a primary diagnosis of myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass graft surgery, percutaneous coronary intervention, stable angina, or coronary artery disease defined by angiography. Trials comparing psychoeducational programs to exercise only, standard cardiac rehabilitation or medical care were included. Primary outcomes were smoking status, physical activity, dietary habits, supplemental oxygen, or medication use. Included trials were assessed for quality with the PEDro scale, and data synthesized descriptively or with meta-analysis. Six randomized controlled trials and 1 quasiexperimental trial were included, a total of 536 participants. A meta-analysis from 213 participants showed psychoeducational interventions produced a significant positive effect on physical activity levels over the medium term (6-12 months) when compared with exercise and risk factor education, (δ = .62, 95% CI 0.3-0.94). However, there was limited positive evidence for change in smoking and dietary behavior. No effect was found on physiological risk factors. Psychoeducational interventions produce a significant positive effect on physical activity levels and potentially on dietary habits and smoking. Strategies such as goal setting, problem solving, self-monitoring, and role modeling appear to be influential in this change.
    Journal of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation and prevention 07/2011; 31(5):273-81. DOI:10.1097/HCR.0b013e318220a7c9 · 1.58 Impact Factor
  • K Buckley · P O'Halloran · J Oates ·
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    ABSTRACT: Background While voice is integral to sports coaching, currently there is a dearth of research considering coaches' occupational vocal health. Objective To investigate football coaches' occupational voice use and vocal health (including the role of voice in coaching and the identification and management of workplace risk factors). Design A mixed-methodological approach (interviews, a questionnaire and acoustic voice measurement) using descriptive statistics and thematic analyses. Setting On-site at three Australian Football League clubs and one Australian Super 14's Rugby Union club. Participants 12 male coaches volunteered to participate. Inclusion criteria required participants to be employed full time as elite level football coaches. Results Participants perceived their voices as crucial for the frequent verbal communication required while coaching. Acoustic measurements revealed that, across work contexts, participants engaged in heavy vocal loads. Coaches also identified various aspects of their physical and organisational environments that impacted negatively on their voices. These vocal demands appear to be associated with negative health consequences. All participants reported experiencing voice symptoms (such as vocal fatigue and hoarseness) at least some of the time while coaching. Coaches suggested several strategies that reduced these symptoms, but were generally unaware of why these assisted their voices. Furthermore, coaches did not actively contemplate how to address risk factors or promote positive vocal health experiences at work. Conclusion This study demonstrates the critical reliance coaches have on their voices. It also suggests that the nature of vocal demands and workplace environments may negatively impact on coaches' vocal health. While participants demonstrated some insight into their voice use, this did not necessarily translate to awareness of vocal health or management of risk factors. A greater understanding of risk factors and their management is required to better support the occupational vocal health of coaches.
    British Journal of Sports Medicine 04/2011; 45(4):337-8. DOI:10.1136/bjsm.2011.084038.78 · 5.03 Impact Factor
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    Shane McIver · Michael McGartland · Paul O'Halloran ·
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    ABSTRACT: As part of a larger mixed-methods study, data from 20 personal journals were analyzed to examine the experience of a 12-week yoga treatment program for binge eating among a sample of 25 women who were obese. Qualitative analysis revealed a positive shift experienced by the women during the program, summarized by a general structural description: disconnection versus connection. Women's comments suggested that the program appeared to encourage a healthy reconnection to food, as well as the development of physical self-empowerment, through cultivating present-moment awareness. Specifically, women perceived an overall reduction in the quantity of food they consumed, decreased eating speed, and an improvement in food choices throughout the program. The women also reported feeling more connected to and positive about their physical well-being. These evolving outcomes were summarized through two major themes: the way their physicality changed, and the way their food consumption changed over time. Findings provide insights relevant to therapeutic processes that might occur within eating disorder interventions that draw on meditation-based approaches.
    Qualitative Health Research 10/2009; 19(9):1234-45. DOI:10.1177/1049732309343954 · 2.19 Impact Factor
  • Shane McIver · Paul O'Halloran · Michael McGartland ·
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the efficacy of a 12-week yoga program aimed at reducing binge eating severity. A randomised trial was undertaken assigning participants to yoga (n=45) or wait-list control (n=45) groups. Of these, 25 in each group were analysed. A community-based sample of women between 25 and 63 years of age who identified with diagnostic criteria for binge eating disorder (BED) and a BMI>25 were recruited for the study. Primary outcomes included the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Secondary outcomes comprised measures for BMI, hips and waist. For the yoga group, self-reported reductions in binge eating and increases in physical activity were statistically significant. Small yet statistically significant reductions for BMI, hips and waist measurement were obtained. The wait-list control group did not improve significantly on any measures. In conjunction with formal weekly sessions, home-based yoga programs are potentially efficacious for the treatment of binge eating.
    Complementary therapies in medicine 08/2009; 17(4):196-202. DOI:10.1016/j.ctim.2009.05.002 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    Ross A Iles · Megan Davidson · Nicholas F Taylor · Paul O'Halloran ·
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the current review was to determine the predictive strength of low recovery expectations for activity limitation outcomes in people with non-chronic NSLBP. A systematic review of prognostic studies was performed. Included studies took baseline measures in the non-chronic phase of NSLBP, included at least one baseline measure of recovery expectation, defined as a prediction or judgement made by the person with NSLBP regarding any aspect of prognosis, and studied a sample with at least 75% of participants with NSLBP. Recovery expectations measured using a time-based, specific single-item tool produced a strong prediction of work outcome. Recovery expectations measured within 3 weeks of NSLBP onset provide a strong prediction of outcome. It is not clear whether predictive strength of recovery expectations is affected by the length of time between the expectation measure and outcome measure. Recovery expectations when measured using a specific, time-based measure within the first 3 weeks of NSLBP can identify people at risk of poor outcome.
    Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation 02/2009; 19(1):25-40. DOI:10.1007/s10926-008-9161-0 · 2.80 Impact Factor
  • Shane McIver · Paul O'Halloran · Michael McGartland ·

    Alternative therapies in health and medicine 03/2004; 10(2):22-3. · 1.24 Impact Factor