[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As a multifactorial disease, the underlying causes of schizophrenia require analysis by multiplex methods such as proteomics to allow identification of whole protein networks. Previous post-mortem proteomic studies on brain tissues from schizophrenia patients have demonstrated changes in activation of glycolytic and energy metabolism pathways. However, it is not known whether these changes occur in neurons or in glial cells. To address this question, we treated neuronal, astrocyte and oligodendrocyte cell lines with the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 and measured the levels of six glycolytic enzymes by Western blot analysis. MK-801 acts on the glutamatergic system and has been proposed as a pharmacological means of modeling schizophrenia. Treatment with MK-801 resulted in significant changes in the levels of glycolytic enzymes in all cell types. Most of the differences were found in oligodendrocytes, which had altered levels of hexokinase 1 (HK1), enolase 2 (ENO2), phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1) after acute MK-801 treatment (8 hours), and HK1, ENO2, PGK and triosphosphate isomerase (TPI) following long term treatment (72 hours). Addition of the antipsychotic clozapine to the cultures resulted in counter-regulatory effects to the MK-801 treatment by normalizing the levels of ENO2 and PGK in both the acute and long term cultures. In astrocytes, MK-801 affected only aldolase C (ALDOC) under both acute conditions and HK1 and ALDOC following long term treatment, and TPI was the only enzyme affected under long term conditions in the neuronal cells. In conclusion, MK-801 affects glycolysis in oligodendrocytes to a larger extent than neuronal cells and this may be modulated by antipsychotic treatment. Although cell culture studies do not necessarily reflect the in vivo pathophysiology and drug effects within the brain, these results suggest that neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes are affected differently in schizophrenia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2) is a central nervous system protein involved in neuronal development, axonal and neuronal growth, cell migration, and protein trafficking. Recent studies have linked perturbations in CRMP2 function to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, neuropathic pain and Batten disease, and to psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Like most proteins, CRMP2 functions though interactions with a molecular network of proteins and other molecules.
Here, we have attempted to identify additional proteins of the CRMP2 interactome to provide further leads about its roles in neurological functions. We used a combined co-immunoprecipitation and shotgun proteomic approach in order to identify CRMP2 protein partners.
We identified 78 CRMP2 protein partners not previously reported in public protein interaction databases. These were involved in 7 biological processes, which included cell signaling, growth, metabolism, trafficking and immune function, according to Gene Ontology classifications. Furthermore, 32 different molecular functions were found to be associated with these proteins, such as RNA binding, ribosomal functions, transporter activity, receptor activity, serine/threonine phosphatase activity, cell adhesion, cytoskeletal protein binding and catalytic activity. In silico pathway interactome construction revealed a highly connected network with the most overrepresented functions corresponding to semaphorin interactions, along with axon guidance and WNT5A-signalling.
Taken together, these findings suggest that the CRMP2 pathway is critical for regulating neuronal and synaptic architecture. Further studies along these lines might uncover novel biomarkers and drug targets for use in drug discovery. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psychotropic medications target glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), but the functional integration with other factors relevant for drug efficacy is poorly understood. We discovered that the suggested psychiatric risk factor FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP51) increases phosphorylation of GSK3β at serine 9 (pGSK3β(S9)). FKBP51 associates with GSK3β mainly through its FK1 domain; furthermore, it also changes GSK3β's heterocomplex assembly by associating with the phosphatase PP2A and the kinase cyclin-dependent kinase 5. FKBP51 acts through GSK3β on the downstream targets Tau, β-catenin and T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancing factor (TCF/LEF). Lithium and the antidepressant (AD) paroxetine (PAR) functionally synergize with FKBP51, as revealed by reporter gene and protein association analyses. Deletion of FKBP51 blunted the PAR- or lithium-induced increase in pGSK3β(S9) in cells and mice and attenuated the behavioral effects of lithium treatment. Clinical improvement in depressive patients was predicted by baseline GSK3β pathway activity and by pGSK3β(S9) reactivity to ex vivo treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear lymphocytes with lithium or PAR. In sum, FKBP51-directed GSK3β activity contributes to the action of psychotropic medications. Components of the FKBP51-GSK3β pathway may be useful as biomarkers predicting AD response and as targets for the development of novel ADs.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 7 April 2015; doi:10.1038/mp.2015.38.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neddylation is a ubiquitylation-like pathway that controls cell cycle and proliferation by covalently conjugating Nedd8 to specific targets. However, its role in neurons, nonreplicating postmitotic cells, remains unexplored. Here we report that Nedd8 conjugation increased during postnatal brain development and is active in mature synapses, where many proteins are neddylated. We show that neddylation controls spine development during neuronal maturation and spine stability in mature neurons. We found that neddylated PSD-95 was present in spines and that neddylation on Lys202 of PSD-95 is required for the proactive role of the scaffolding protein in spine maturation and synaptic transmission. Finally, we developed Nae1(CamKIIα-CreERT2) mice, in which neddylation is conditionally ablated in adult excitatory forebrain neurons. These mice showed synaptic loss, impaired neurotransmission and severe cognitive deficits. In summary, our results establish neddylation as an active post-translational modification in the synapse regulating the maturation, stability and function of dendritic spines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stress-induced psychiatric disorders, such as depression, have recently been linked to changes in glutamate transmission in the central nervous system. Glutamate signaling is mediated by a range of receptors, including metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). In particular, mGluR subtype 5 (mGluR5) is highly implicated in stress-induced psychopathology. The major scaffold protein Homer1 critically interacts with mGluR5 and has also been linked to several psychopathologies. Yet, the specific role of Homer1 in this context remains poorly understood. We used chronic social defeat stress as an established animal model of depression and investigated changes in transcription of Homer1a and Homer1b/c isoforms and functional coupling of Homer1 to mGluR5. Next, we investigated the consequences of Homer1 deletion, overexpression of Homer1a and chronic administration of the mGluR5 inverse agonist CTEP on the effects of chronic stress. In mice exposed to chronic stress, Homer1b/c, but not Homer1a, mRNA was upregulated, and accordingly, Homer1/mGluR5 coupling was disrupted. We found a marked hyperactivity behavior as well as a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in chronically stressed Homer1 KO mice. Chronic administration of the selective and orally bioavailable mGluR5 inverse agonist, CTEP, was able to recover behavioral alterations induced by chronic stress, while overexpression of Homer1a in the hippocampus led to an increased vulnerability to chronic stress, reflected in an increased physiological response to stress as well as enhanced depression-like behavior. Overall, our results implicate the glutamatergic system in the emergence of stress-induced psychiatric disorders, and support the Homer1/mGluR5 complex as a target for the development of novel antidepressant agents.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 20 November 2014. doi:10.1038/npp.2014.308.
Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 11/2014; 40(5). DOI:10.1038/npp.2014.308 · 7.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clozapine displays stronger systemic metabolic side effects than haloperidol and it has been hypothesized that therapeutic antipsychotic and adverse metabolic effects of these drugs are related. Considering that cerebral disconnectivity through oligodendrocyte dysfunction has been implicated in schizophrenia, it is important to determine the effect of these drugs on oligodendrocyte energy metabolism and myelin lipid production. Effects of clozapine and haloperidol on glucose and myelin lipid metabolism were evaluated and compared in cultured OLN-93 oligodendrocytes. First, glycolytic activity was assessed by measurement of extra- and intracellular glucose and lactate levels. Next, the expression of glucose (GLUT) and monocarboxylate (MCT) transporters was determined after 6 and 24 h. And finally mitochondrial respiration, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, free fatty acids, and expression of the myelin lipid galactocerebroside were analyzed. Both drugs altered oligodendrocyte glucose metabolism, but in opposite directions. Clozapine improved the glucose uptake, production and release of lactate, without altering GLUT and MCT. In contrast, haloperidol led to higher extracellular levels of glucose and lower levels of lactate, suggesting reduced glycolysis. Antipsychotics did not alter significantly the number of functionally intact mitochondria, but clozapine enhanced the efficacy of oxidative phosphorylation and expression of galactocerebroside. Our findings support the superior impact of clozapine on white matter integrity in schizophrenia as previously observed, suggesting that this drug improves the energy supply and myelin lipid synthesis in oligodendrocytes. Characterizing the underlying signal transduction pathways may pave the way for novel oligodendrocyte-directed schizophrenia therapies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, has fast-acting antidepressant activities and is used for major depressive disorder (MDD) patients who show treatment resistance towards drugs of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) type. In order to better understand Ketamine's mode of action, a prerequisite for improved drug development efforts, a detailed understanding of the molecular events elicited by the drug is mandatory. In the present study we have carried out a time-dependent hippocampal metabolite profiling analysis of mice treated with Ketamine. After a single injection of Ketamine, our metabolomics data indicate time-dependent metabolite level alterations starting already after 2 h reflecting the fast antidepressant effect of the drug. In silico pathway analyses revealed that several hippocampal pathways including glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway and citrate cycle are affected, apparent by changes not only in metabolite levels but also connected metabolite level ratios. The results show that a single injection of Ketamine has an impact on the major energy metabolism pathways. Furthermore, seven of the identified metabolites qualify as biomarkers for the Ketamine drug response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fluoxetine is the only psychopharmacological agent approved for depression by the US Food and Drug Administration for children and is commonly used therapeutically in a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders. Therapeutic response shows high individual variability, and severe side effects have been observed. In the current study we set out to identify biomarkers of response to fluoxetine as well as biomarkers that correlate with impulsivity, a measure of reward delay behavior and potential side effect of the drug, in juvenile male rhesus monkeys. The study group was also genotyped for polymorphisms of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), a gene that has been associated with psychiatric disorders. We used peripheral metabolite profiling of blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from animals treated daily with fluoxetine or vehicle for one year. Fluoxetine response metabolite profiles and metabolite/reward delay behavior associations were evaluated using multivariate analysis. Our analyses identified a set of plasma and CSF metabolites that distinguish fluoxetine- from vehicle-treated animals and metabolites that correlate with impulsivity. Some metabolites displayed an interaction between fluoxetine and MAOA genotype. The identified metabolite biomarkers belong to pathways that have important functions in central nervous system physiology. Biomarkers of response to fluoxetine in the normally functioning brain of juvenile nonhuman primates may aid in finding predictors of response to treatment in young psychiatric populations and in progress toward the realization of a precision medicine approach in the area of neurodevelopmental disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No comprehensive metabolic profile of trait anxiety is to date available. To identify metabolic biosignatures for different anxiety states, we compared mice selectively inbred for ∼40 generations for high (HAB), normal (NAB) or low (LAB) anxiety-related behavior. Using a mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolomics approach, we quantified the levels of 257 unique metabolites in the cingulate cortex and plasma of HAB, NAB and LAB mice. We then pinpointed affected molecular systems in anxiety-related behavior by an in silico pathway and network prediction analysis followed by validation of in silico predicted alterations with molecular assays. We found distinct metabolic profiles for different trait anxiety states and detected metabolites with altered levels both in cingulate cortex and plasma. Metabolomics data revealed common candidate biomarkers in cingulate cortex and plasma for anxiety traits and in silico pathway analysis implicated amino acid metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, oxidative stress and apoptosis in the regulation of anxiety-related behavior. We report characteristic biosignatures for trait anxiety states and provide a network map of pathways involved in anxiety-related behavior. Pharmacological targeting of these pathways will enable a mechanism-based approach for identifying novel therapeutic targets for anxiety disorders.
Journal of Psychiatric Research 11/2014; 58. DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.07.019 · 4.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Abnormal structural/functional connectivity has been proposed to underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, the biochemical basis of abnormal connectivity remains undefined. Methods: We undertook a shotgun lipidomic analysis of over 700 lipids across 26 lipid subclasses in the frontal cortex of schizophrenia subjects and hippocampus of G72/G30 transgenic mice. Results: We demonstrate that glycosphingolipids and choline plasmalogens, structural lipid pools in myelin, are significantly elevated in the frontal cortex obtained from patients suffering from schizophrenia and the hippocampus of G72/G30 transgenic mice. Conclusions: Our data suggest that structural lipid alterations in oligodendrocyte glycosynapses are responsible for dysconnectivity in schizophrenia and that increased expression of G72 protein may play a role in the development of abnormal glycosynapses.
Schizophrenia Research 09/2014; 159(2-3). DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2014.08.029 · 4.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here we report the downregulation of S100B in the nuclear proteome of the corpus callosum from nine schizophrenia patients compared to seven mentally healthy controls. Our data have been obtained primarily by mass spectrometry and later confirmed by Western blot. This is an intriguing finding coming from a brain region which is essentially composed by white matter, considering the potential role of S100B in the control of oligodendrocyte maturation. This data reinforce the importance of oligodendrocytes in schizophrenia, shedding more light to its pathobiology.
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 02/2014; 264(4). DOI:10.1007/s00406-014-0490-z · 3.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the leading causes of global disability. It is a risk factor for noncompliance with medical treatment, with about 40% of patients not responding to currently used antidepressant drugs. The identification and clinical implementation of biomarkers that can indicate the likelihood of treatment response are needed in order to predict which patients will benefit from an antidepressant drug. While analyzing the blood plasma proteome collected from MDD patients before the initiation of antidepressant medication, we observed different fibrinogen alpha (FGA) levels between drug responders and nonresponders. These results were replicated in a second set of patients. Our findings lend further support to a recently identified association between MDD and fibrinogen levels from a large-scale study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myelination of the central nervous system is performed by oligodendrocytes, which have been implicated in brain disorders such as multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia. We have used the human oligodendroglial cell line MO3.13 to establish an oligodendrocyte reference proteome database. Proteins were pre-fractionationated by SDS-PAGE and after in-gel digestion subjected to nano-flow liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS) analysis. Approximately 11,600 unique peptides were identified and, after stringent filtering, resulted in 2,290 proteins representing 9 distinct biological processes and various molecular classes and functions. Oligodendrocyte-specific proteins such as MBP and CNP as well as proteins involved in multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia were also identified and are discussed. Proteins of this dataset have also been classified according to their chromosomal origin for providing useful data to the chromosome-centric human proteome project (C-HPP). Given the importance of oligodendrocytes in the etiology of demyelinating and oligodendrogial disorders, the MO3.13 proteome database will provide a valuable resource. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000263. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Defining the proteomes encoded by each chromosome and characterizing proteins related to human illnesses are among the goals of the Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP) and the Biology and Disease-driven HPP. Following these objectives, we investigated the proteomes of the human anterior temporal lobe (ATL) and corpus callosum (CC) collected postmortem from eight subjects. Using a label-free GeLC-MS/MS approach, we identified 2,454 proteins in the ATL and 1,887 in the CC through roughly 7,500 and 5,500 peptides respectively. Considering that the ATL is a gray matter region while the CC is a white matter, they presented proteomes specific to their functions. Besides, 38 proteins were found to be differentially expressed between the two regions. Furthermore, the proteome datasets were classified according to their chromosomal origin and five proteins were evidenced at MS level for the first time. We identified 70 proteins of the chromosome 15 - one of them for the first time by MS - which were submitted to an in silico pathway analysis. These revealed branch point proteins associated to Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes and dyskeratosis congenital, which are chromosome 15 associated diseases. Data presented here can be a useful for brain disorders studies as well as for contributing to the C-HPP initiative. Our data are publicly available as resource data to C-HPP participant groups at http://yoda.iq.ufrj.br/Daniel/chpp2013. Additionally, the mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000547 for the corpus callosum and PXD000548 for the anterior temporal lobe.
Journal of Proteome Research 11/2013; 13(1). DOI:10.1021/pr4009157 · 5.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Significant progress in elucidating the genetic etiology of anxiety and depression has been made during the last decade through a combination of human and animal studies. In this study, we aimed to discover genetic loci linked with anxiety as well as depression in order to reveal new candidate genes. Therefore, we initially tested the behavioral sensitivity of 543 F2 animals derived from an intercross of C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ mice in paradigms for anxiety and depression. Next, all animals were genotyped with 269 microsatellite markers with a mean distance of 5.56 cM. Finally, a Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) analysis was carried out, followed by selection of candidate genes. The QTL analysis revealed several new QTL on chromosome 5 with a common core interval of 19 Mb. We further narrowed this interval by comparative genomics to a region of 15 Mb. A database search and gene prioritization revealed Enoph1 as the most significant candidate gene on the prioritization list for anxiety and also for depression fulfilling our selection criteria. The Enoph1 gene, which is involved in polyamine biosynthesis, is differently expressed in parental strains, which have different brain spermidine levels and show distinct anxiety and depression-related phenotype. Our result suggests a significant role in polyamines in anxiety and depression-related behaviors. Enoph1, an enzyme of the methionine salvage pathway involved in polyamine biosynthesis, was identified by QTL analysis as a candidate gene contributing to stress-sensitivity in a F2 population of mice derived from C57BL/6J × C3H/HeJ intercrosses. The parental strains express two different protein variants of Enoph1, show different Enoph1 expression levels, and have different brain spermidine levels. These findings suggest that Enoph1 modulates stress sensitivity in these strains.
Journal of Neurochemistry 11/2013; DOI:10.1111/jnc.12517 · 4.24 Impact Factor