[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The traditional Korean diet is plant-based and rich in antioxidants. Previous studies have investigated the potential health benefits of individual nutrients of Korean foods. However, the cumulative effects of a Korean diet on inflammation remain poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of a plant-based Korean diet.
Nutrition research and practice 06/2014; 8(3):249-56. · 1.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to measure and/or estimate the total antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet.
Eighty-one plant foods that were expected to exhibit rather high antioxidant activities were selected from the Korean diet using the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES V). These foods were categorized into 11 food groups: cereals, potatoes, legumes, nuts, vegetables, kimchies, mushrooms, fruits, fruit juices, sea weeds, and oils. The foods were mixed in the proportions specified in traditional Korean recipes and analyzed. The measured indicators for antioxidant capacities were total phenolics, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC).
Total phenolics were high in the fruit juices, nuts, vegetables, and fruits; and the average DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC values were high in the vegetables, fruits, fruit juices, and nuts. The correlation coefficient between the content of total phenolics of each food and the in vitro antioxidant capacity was relatively high at 0.851. The intake of total phenolics per capita per day in the Republic of Korea was estimated to be 127 mg. The total dietary antioxidant capacity (TDAC) values, which were obtained from the total antioxidant capacity of each food, taking into account the intake of each food, were 20,763, 54,335, and 876.4 µmol of Trolox equivalents using the DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC methods, respectively. The food group that contributed the most to the Korean TDAC was cereals at 39.7%, followed by fruits and vegetables at 27.8% and 13.9%, respectively. The contribution of legumes, nuts, fruit juices, and mushrooms was quite minimal at less than 2% each.
The content of total phenolics and the antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet are significantly correlated and the high contributing food groups are cereals, fruits, and vegetables.
Nutrition research and practice 04/2014; 8(2):183-91. · 1.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract This study was performed to investigate the relationship between dietary factors and asthma in a representative population-based sample of 19,659 men and women, aged 19-64 years, using data from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007-2011. The presence of asthma was based on self-reported physician diagnosis of asthma in the Health Interview Surveys. Food intake was estimated by trained interviewers using a 24-h recall method. The prevalence of asthma in Korean adults was 2.4%. Adults with asthma consumed fewer amounts of kimchi (P=.0444) and fish (P=.0175) but had a higher cereal intake than those without asthma (P=.0056). Multiple logistic regression analysis after controlling for confounding factors showed a significant inverse relationship between kimchi consumption and the prevalence of asthma [odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for subjects consuming 1 to <2 servings (40-79.9 g), 2 to <3 servings (80-119.9 g), and ≥3 servings (≥120 g), relative to those consuming <1 serving (<40 g): 0.726 (0.534-0.987), 0.506 (0.348-0.736), and 0.678 (0.502-0.916), respectively; P for trend=0.0131]. These results warrant future studies to explore the mechanisms responsible for the association between kimchi consumption and asthma.
Journal of medicinal food 01/2014; 17(1):172-8. · 1.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the associations of behavioural problems with dietary patterns and weight status in young children.
We assessed poor social skills and behavioural problems with a seventy-six-item Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scale (PKBS) and found three dietary patterns ('Korean healthy', 'animal foods' and 'sweets') in food/food group intake data assessed by an FFQ and analysed using factor analysis. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association of diet and weight status with behaviour.
Pre-schools in the metropolitan areas of Korea.
A total of 1458 children (mean age 5·2 (sd 0·9) years) from the Practical Approach for Better Maternal and Child Nutrition and Health Study conducted from 2001 to 2005.
The 'Korean healthy' pattern showed a significant inverse association with poor social skills in the second highest quartile group (OR = 0·42; 95 % CI 0·21, 0·82) compared with the lowest quartile group for boys. For girls, the 'sweets' pattern was associated with a greater risk of poor social skills (OR = 3·41; 95 % CI 1·29, 9·01 at Q4 v. Q1) and problem behaviours (OR = 2·80; 95 % CI 1·05, 7·43 at Q4 v. Q1). Regarding weight status, both underweight and overweight boys had a higher risk of poor social skills than normal-weight boys.
Dietary patterns and weight status are important indicators for the behaviour of young children. Healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns, underweight and overweight status, and gender differences should thus be considered for further studies.
Public Health Nutrition 11/2013; · 2.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among the current status of calcium intake from milk and milk products, physical growth and bone mineral density in 664 male and female middle school and high school students aged 15-17 years. In the study, the current status of calcium intake from milk and milk products was analyzed, and the height, body composition, and bone mineral density of the right heel bone (calcaneus) were measured. The daily calcium intake of milk and milk products was calculated as the 'dairy equivalent of calcium', which is the calcium content in 200 mL of white milk. The cutoffs of tertiles of the dairy equivalent of calcium were calculated and then the subjects were categorized into 3 groups according to the tertiles, Q1 group (lower intake group), Q2 group (middle intake group) and Q3 group (upper intake group). The daily calcium intake of milk and milk products in Q1, Q2 and Q3 groups was 16.2 mg, 99.7 mg, and 284.0 mg, respectively, and the ratio of milk and milk product consumption to the daily total calcium intake was 5.4%, 27.4%, and 49.7%, respectively. The ratio of total calcium intake to the daily recommended intake in study subjects was 30.5% in Q1, 42.3% in Q2, and 60.7% in Q3, with significant differences (P < 0.05). Height, body weight, BMI, and % of body fat in three tertile groups (Q1, Q2 and Q3) were not significantly different. However, the T scores for bone mineral density in female students in three tertile groups (Q1, Q2 and Q3) was significantly different (P < 0.05). The study showed that the intake of milk and milk products in adolescents, particularly in girls, can improve the bone mineral density without increasing body weight, and thus confirmed that milk intake is important in adolescence.
Nutrition research and practice 08/2013; 7(4):309-14. · 1.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of magnetized water supplementation on blood glucose, DNA damage, antioxidant status, and lipid profiles in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. There were three groups of 4-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats used in the study: control group (normal control group without diabetes); diabetes group (STZ-induced diabetes control); and magnetized water group (magnetized water supplemented after the induction of diabetes using STZ). Before initiating the study, diabetes was confirmed by measuring fasting blood glucose (FBS > 200 dl), and the magnetized water group received magnetized water for 8 weeks instead of general water. After 8 weeks, rats were sacrificed to measure the fasting blood glucose, insulin concentration, glycated hemoglobin level, degree of DNA damage, antioxidant status, and lipid profiles. From the fourth week of magnetized water supplementation, blood glucose was decreased in the magnetized water group compared to the diabetes group, and such effect continued to the 8th week. The glycated hemoglobin content in the blood was increased in the diabetes group compared to the control group, but decreased significantly in the magnetized water group. However, decreased plasma insulin level due to induced diabetes was not increased by magnetized water supplementation. Increased blood and liver DNA damages in diabetes rats did significantly decrease after the administration of magnetized water. In addition, antioxidant enzyme activities and plasma lipid profiles were not different among the three groups. In conclusion, the supplementation of magnetized water not only decreased the blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels but also reduced blood and liver DNA damages in STZ-induced diabetic rats. From the above results, it is suggested that the long-term intake of the magnetized water over 8 weeks may be beneficial in both prevention and treatment of complications in diabetic patients.
Nutrition research and practice 02/2013; 7(1):34-42. · 1.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This pilot study was performed to produce data of the Children's Dietary Life Safety (CDLS) Index which is required by the Special Act on Safety Management of Children's Dietary Life and to evaluate the CDLS Index for 7 metropolitan cities and 9 provinces in Korea. To calculate the CDLS Index score, data regarding the evaluation indicators in the children's food safety domain and children's nutrition safety domain were collected from the local governments in 2009. For data regarding the indicators in the children's perception & practice domain, a survey was conducted on 2,400 5th grade children selected by stratified sampling in 16 local areas. Relative scores of indicators in each domain were calculated using the data provided by local governments and the survey, the weights are applied on relative scores, and then the CDLS Index scores of local governments were produced by adding scores of the 3 domains. The national average scores of the food safety domain, the nutrition safety domain and the perception and practice domain were 23.74 (14.67-26.50 on a 40-point scale), 16.65 (12.25-19.60 on a 40-point scale), and 14.88 (14.16-15.30 on a 20-point scale), respectively. The national average score of the CDLS Index which was produced by adding the scores of the three domains was 55.27 ranging 46.44-58.94 among local governments. The CDLS Index scores produced in this study may provide the motivation for comparing relative accomplishment and for actively achieving the goals through establishment of the target value by local governments. Also, it can be used as useful data for the establishment and improvement of children's dietary life safety policy at the national level.
Nutrition research and practice 12/2012; 6(6):542-50. · 1.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was performed to investigate the differences in food choice, nutrition labeling perceptions, and prevalence of obesity due to meal skipping in Korean elementary school children. A national survey was performed in 2010 to collect data on food intake frequency, understanding of nutrition labeling, and body mass index from 2,335 fifth grade students in 118 elementary schools selected from 16 metropolitan local governments by stratified cluster sampling. The data were analyzed using the SAS 9.1 and SUDAAN 10.0 packages. Students who consumed three meals for 6-7 days during the past week were classified into the regular meal eating (RM) group (n = 1,476) and those who did not were placed into the meal skipping (MS) group (n = 859). The daily intake frequency of fruits, vegetables, kimchi, and milk was significantly lower in the MS group compared to that in the RM group (P < 0.001), whereas the daily intake frequency of soft drinks and instant noodles (ramyeon) was significantly higher in the MS group than that in the RM group (P < 0.05). The MS group demonstrated a significantly lower degree of understanding with regard to nutrition labeling and high calorie foods containing low nutritional value than that in the RM group. The distribution of obesity based on the percentile criteria using the Korean growth chart was different between the MS and RM groups. The MS group (8.97%) had a higher percentage of obese subjects than that in the RM group (5.38%). In conclusion, meal skipping was related to poor food choice, low perception of nutrition labeling, and a high prevalence of obesity in Korean fifth grade children.
Nutrition research and practice 08/2012; 6(4):328-33. · 1.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High consumption of fruits and vegetables has been suggested to provide some protection to smokers who are exposed to an increased risk of numerous cancers and other degenerative diseases. Carrot is the most important source of dietary β-carotene. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether carrot juice supplementation to smokers can protect against lymphocyte DNA damage and to compare the effect of supplementation of capsules containing purified β-carotene or a placebo (simple lactose). The study was conducted in a randomized and placebo-controlled design. After a depletion period of 14 days, 48 smokers were supplemented with either carrot juice (n = 18), purified β-carotene (n = 16) or placebo (n = 14). Each group was supplemented for 8 weeks with approximately 20.49 mg of β-carotene/day and 1.2 mg of vitamin C/day, as carrot juice (300 ml/day) or purified β-carotene (20.49 mg of β-carotene, 1 capsule/day). Lymphocyte DNA damage was determined using the COMET assay under alkaline conditions and damage was quantified by measuring tail moment (TM), tail length (TL), and% DNA in the tail. Lymphocyte DNA damage was significantly decreased in the carrot juice group in all three measurements. The group that received purified β-carotene also showed a significant decrease in lymphocyte DNA damage in all three measurements. However, no significant changes in DNA damage was observed for the placebo group except TM (P = 0.016). Erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme was not significantly changed after supplementation. Similarly plasma lipid profiles were not different after carrot juice, β-carotene and placebo supplementation. These results suggest that while the placebo group failed to show any protective effect, carrot juice containing beta-carotene or purified β-carotene itself had great antioxidative potential in preventing damage to lymphocyte DNA in smokers.
Nutrition research and practice 12/2011; 5(6):540-7. · 1.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., GU) has demonstrated significant in vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties. In this study, it was tested that a daily regimen of supplementation with water extract of GU would
ameliorate oxidative stress and whether effects were modulated by the glutathion-S-transferase (GST) polymorphisms. Forty healthy male smokers aged 20–60 were divided evenly into 2 groups and given either
260 mL of GU extracted with hot water or 260 mL of oligosaccharide based placebo every day for 8 weeks without any change
of usual food intake, and blood samples were drawn before and after the intervention. Eight weeks of GU supplementation significantly
decreased plasma conjugated dienes (a maker for lipid peroxidation) in GSTM1 positive subjects, but not in the GSTM1 null
genotype group. Our finding suggests that consumption of licorice water extract might be effectively decreasing lipid peroxidation
in the subgroup of smokers who have GSTM1 gene.
-lipid peroxidation-glutathion-S-transferase polymorphism
Food science and biotechnology 04/2010; 19(2):511-516. · 0.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of dietary supplements has been increasing rapidly in Korea over the last decade. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between the pattern of dietary supplement use and the sociodemographic/lifestyle characteristics of Korean consumers.
Participants were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire on their sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, perceived health status, and regular dietary supplement use.
A total of 697 men and 832 women completed the questionnaire. Of the respondents, 44.3% of the men and 53.2% of the women used some kind of dietary supplement regularly. Dietary supplement users were more likely to be women (P < 0.001), to be older than 50 years (P < 0.001), to have a higher household income (P = 0.003), to engage in moderate or vigorous physical activity (P < 0.032), to perceive themselves as healthy (P = 0.026), and to have received a diagnosis of a chronic disease (P < 0.001). In addition, the type of dietary supplements used varied with respect to sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Among dietary supplement users, men preferred ginseng, and older respondents were more likely to use carbohydrate supplements and less likely to use lipid supplements. Those who had a lower BMI, were ex-smokers, or were nondrinkers preferred either vitamins or minerals. Those who were highly physical active or were nondrinkers tended to prefer either vitamin/mineral complexes or carbohydrate supplements.
The use of dietary supplements was related to sociodemographic and lifestyle factors in a Korean population.
Journal of Epidemiology 01/2010; 20(3):197-203. · 2.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are some evidences that the increased oxidative stress and thus increased oxidizability of lipoproteins and DNA can contribute to the development of certain human diseases, such as cardiovascular disease. To confirm the association of DNA damage with cardiovascular disease, we investigated susceptibility of DNA to oxidation in lymphocytes and oxidative stress related parameters in blood of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Subjects were consisted of 42 patients (27 men, 15 women) with documented CAD and 49 apparently healthy subjects (33 men, 16 women) as controls. Cellular DNA damage induced by 100 microM H(2)O(2) was measured using Comet assay and quantified by TL. There were no differences in age (61.4 +/- 1.7 years vs 62.0 +/- 2.2 years) between the two groups. All the findings were shown to be independent of either sex or smoking habit. The patients showed significantly higher TL (87.3 +/- 1.6 microm) compared to the control (79.3 +/- 1.7 microm, p<0.01). Plasma TRAP, vitamin C, gamma-tocopherol, and alpha-carotene levels in patients group were lower than those of control groups, while erythrocytic catalase activity increased in patients group. In conclusion, we observed that reduced overall antioxidant status was closely connected to higher susceptibility of DNA damage in CAD patients.
Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 11/2009; 45(3):341-6. · 2.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chlorella vulgaris is a popular food supplement in Asia and is currently marketed as a nutritional supplement. However, available scientific studies do not support its effectiveness for preventing or treating any disease in humans. Because Chlorella contains numerous nutrients, including antioxidants, it is thought to exert antioxidative functions by scavenging free radicals created by various environmental factors such as smoking. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether 6 wk of Chlorella supplementation to smokers is protective against oxidative damage in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.
Fifty-two smokers, aged 20-65 y, were given 6.3g of Chlorella or placebo every day for 6 wk. Blood samples were drawn at the beginning and after the supplementation. Plasma antioxidant vitamin levels and lipid peroxidation levels were measured. As a marker of oxidative stress, lymphocyte DNA damage was measured.
Chlorella supplementation increased plasma vitamin C (44.4%), alpha-tocopherol (15.7%), and erythrocyte catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. Although 6 wk of Chlorella supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in lymphocyte DNA damage, as measured by comet assay, placebo supplementation also decreased the measured amount of lymphocyte DNA damage.
Chlorella supplementation resulted in the conservation of plasma antioxidant nutrient status and improvement in erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities in subjects. Therefore, our results are supportive of an antioxidant role for Chlorella and indicate that Chlorella is an important whole-food supplement that should be included as a key component of a healthy diet.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a placebo-controlled double-blinded study, the effect of 8 weeks of grape juice was compared to the effect of isocaloric placebo juice. Volunteers with a systolic blood pressure > 130 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg were recruited. A total of 40 healthy subjects were randomized to receive isocaloric juices for 8 weeks. Twenty-one subjects were instructed to consume 5.5 mL/kg daily of grape juice (GJ), and 19 subjects consumed placebo juice (PJ). Plasma antioxidant vitamin C, total radical trapping antioxidant capacity, blood pressure, and lymphocyte DNA damage were assessed pre- and postsupplementation. Plasma total radical-trapping antioxidant potential showed an increase at the level of 1.31 +/- 0.01 (postsupplementation) versus 1.33 +/- 0.01 (presupplementation) (P < 0.1). Grape juice consumption resulted in a 26% decrease in lymphocyte DNA (both hydrogen peroxide treated or spontaneous) in the grape juice group, while no difference was found in the PJ group. Consuming moderate amounts of daily grape juice may favorably affect antioxidant defense systems and lymphocyte DNA damage in hypertensive individuals.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 08/2009; 1171:385-90. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mutagenic activity of XAD-2 adsorbates and water extracts recovered from nine locations of the Kumho River was tested on S. typhimurium TA98 strain to identify the source of the mutagenicity. A sampling site, receiving effluents from the textile industrial complex located in Daegu City, showed extraordinarily high mutagenic activity, especially in the presence of S9 mixture, at all sampling time in both XAD-2 adsorbates and dichloromethane extracts. This indicated the existence of the frame-shift mutagens in the Kumho River, same type of mutagens detected in previous studies by other researchers in the Nakdong River into which the Kumho River discharges. The fractionation study showed that the mutagenic chemicals in the river water are mid-polar. Furthermore, mean tail length obtained by single cell gel electrophoresis assay (Comet assay) showed consistent dose-dependent DNA damage, indicating that the chemicals in the river water not only act as frame-shift mutagens but also break human lymphocytes DNA strain. Chemical identification of the mutagens should be required.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 08/2008; 142(1-3):289-96. · 1.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of isoflavone against hypertension, via the mitigation of oxidative stress and prevention of nitric oxide (NO, a potent vasodilator) reduction, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The 8 wk-old male SHR were divided into two groups, and fed a casein-based high fat diet (120 g fat, 1 g cholesterol/kg diet) for 30 d, either with or without 10 g of soy powder (containing 31.2% of isoflavones)/kg. During the 30-d study period, tail systolic blood pressures (BP) in the control SHR group increased, from 162.4 +/- 2.3 to 177.9 +/- 5.4 mmHg (p<0.05), while the isoflavone-supplemented group benefited from a clear antihypertensive effect (160.1 +/- 1.8 to 160.2 +/- 4.9 mmHg). The serum NO and total radical trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP) were elevated in the isoflavone group. The isoflavone group also experienced a significant decrease in oxidative DNA damage in leukocytes, using comet assay. DNA damage correlated positively with incremental BP during the study, and systolic BP at the end of the study (p<0.01). Our results indicate that soy isoflavone has an antihypertensive effect, possibly through the amelioration of oxidative stress, and the augmentation of NO production, in SHR.
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 09/2005; 51(4):254-9. · 0.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of factors including dietary habits, lifestyle, anthropometric characteristics, plasma lipid profiles, and antioxidants on DNA damage among the Korean population.
Blood samples were collected from 109 healthy Korean volunteers, aged 19-28 years, of whom 34% were smokers. Epidemiological information was collected by personal interviews, and anthropometric characteristics were measured directly. Oxidative DNA damage was quantified using the Comet assay; tail length (TL) and tail moment (TM) were measured.
Statistically significant (p < 0.05) positive correlations were observed between DNA damage (TM or TL) and smoking habits expressed as cigarettes smoked per day and number of packs smoked over time (r = 0.332 and 0.370, respectively, for TM; r = 0.266 and 0.304 for TL, respectively). There were also significant and positive correlations between DNA damage parameters and waist-hip ratio (r = 0.352 for TM and r = 0.226 for TL), but this significance disappeared after data were adjusted to account for smoking effects. Higher plasma triglyceride levels were associated with increased damage to DNA (r = 0.234 for TM and r = 0.271 for TL).
Our results indicate that cigarette smoking and high plasma triglyceride levels significantly increase DNA damage to peripheral lymphocytes in a sample of Koreans.
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 02/2004; 48(1):36-42. · 2.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many of the flavonoids found in grapes and grape products such as juice or wine have been known to exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, platelet inhibitory and arterial relaxing effects either in vitro, in animal studies and in human trials. This study was designed to test the effect of Concord grape juice consumption on altering blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Forty subjects were given 5.5 ml/kg body weight/day of either Concord grape juice (CGJ) or a calorie-matched placebo drink every day for 8 weeks. Blood pressure (BP) was measured on weeks 0, 4 and 8. Compared to baseline, in the CGJ group systolic BP was reduced on average by 7.2 mm Hg (p = 0.005) and diastolic BP was reduced on average by 6.2 mm Hg (p = 0.001) at the end of 8 weeks. Comparable changes in the group getting the placebo product were -3.5 mm Hg (NS) and -3.2 mm Hg (p = 0.05) Consuming Concord grape juice, which is high in polyphenolic compounds, may favorably affect BP in hypertensive individuals.