[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of magnetized water supplementation on blood glucose, DNA damage, antioxidant status, and lipid profiles in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. There were three groups of 4-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats used in the study: control group (normal control group without diabetes); diabetes group (STZ-induced diabetes control); and magnetized water group (magnetized water supplemented after the induction of diabetes using STZ). Before initiating the study, diabetes was confirmed by measuring fasting blood glucose (FBS > 200 dl), and the magnetized water group received magnetized water for 8 weeks instead of general water. After 8 weeks, rats were sacrificed to measure the fasting blood glucose, insulin concentration, glycated hemoglobin level, degree of DNA damage, antioxidant status, and lipid profiles. From the fourth week of magnetized water supplementation, blood glucose was decreased in the magnetized water group compared to the diabetes group, and such effect continued to the 8th week. The glycated hemoglobin content in the blood was increased in the diabetes group compared to the control group, but decreased significantly in the magnetized water group. However, decreased plasma insulin level due to induced diabetes was not increased by magnetized water supplementation. Increased blood and liver DNA damages in diabetes rats did significantly decrease after the administration of magnetized water. In addition, antioxidant enzyme activities and plasma lipid profiles were not different among the three groups. In conclusion, the supplementation of magnetized water not only decreased the blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels but also reduced blood and liver DNA damages in STZ-induced diabetic rats. From the above results, it is suggested that the long-term intake of the magnetized water over 8 weeks may be beneficial in both prevention and treatment of complications in diabetic patients.
Nutrition research and practice 02/2013; 7(1):34-42. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High consumption of fruits and vegetables has been suggested to provide some protection to smokers who are exposed to an increased risk of numerous cancers and other degenerative diseases. Carrot is the most important source of dietary β-carotene. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether carrot juice supplementation to smokers can protect against lymphocyte DNA damage and to compare the effect of supplementation of capsules containing purified β-carotene or a placebo (simple lactose). The study was conducted in a randomized and placebo-controlled design. After a depletion period of 14 days, 48 smokers were supplemented with either carrot juice (n = 18), purified β-carotene (n = 16) or placebo (n = 14). Each group was supplemented for 8 weeks with approximately 20.49 mg of β-carotene/day and 1.2 mg of vitamin C/day, as carrot juice (300 ml/day) or purified β-carotene (20.49 mg of β-carotene, 1 capsule/day). Lymphocyte DNA damage was determined using the COMET assay under alkaline conditions and damage was quantified by measuring tail moment (TM), tail length (TL), and% DNA in the tail. Lymphocyte DNA damage was significantly decreased in the carrot juice group in all three measurements. The group that received purified β-carotene also showed a significant decrease in lymphocyte DNA damage in all three measurements. However, no significant changes in DNA damage was observed for the placebo group except TM (P = 0.016). Erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme was not significantly changed after supplementation. Similarly plasma lipid profiles were not different after carrot juice, β-carotene and placebo supplementation. These results suggest that while the placebo group failed to show any protective effect, carrot juice containing beta-carotene or purified β-carotene itself had great antioxidative potential in preventing damage to lymphocyte DNA in smokers.
Nutrition research and practice 12/2011; 5(6):540-7. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are some evidences that the increased oxidative stress and thus increased oxidizability of lipoproteins and DNA can contribute to the development of certain human diseases, such as cardiovascular disease. To confirm the association of DNA damage with cardiovascular disease, we investigated susceptibility of DNA to oxidation in lymphocytes and oxidative stress related parameters in blood of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Subjects were consisted of 42 patients (27 men, 15 women) with documented CAD and 49 apparently healthy subjects (33 men, 16 women) as controls. Cellular DNA damage induced by 100 microM H(2)O(2) was measured using Comet assay and quantified by TL. There were no differences in age (61.4 +/- 1.7 years vs 62.0 +/- 2.2 years) between the two groups. All the findings were shown to be independent of either sex or smoking habit. The patients showed significantly higher TL (87.3 +/- 1.6 microm) compared to the control (79.3 +/- 1.7 microm, p<0.01). Plasma TRAP, vitamin C, gamma-tocopherol, and alpha-carotene levels in patients group were lower than those of control groups, while erythrocytic catalase activity increased in patients group. In conclusion, we observed that reduced overall antioxidant status was closely connected to higher susceptibility of DNA damage in CAD patients.
Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 11/2009; 45(3):341-6. · 2.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chlorella vulgaris is a popular food supplement in Asia and is currently marketed as a nutritional supplement. However, available scientific studies do not support its effectiveness for preventing or treating any disease in humans. Because Chlorella contains numerous nutrients, including antioxidants, it is thought to exert antioxidative functions by scavenging free radicals created by various environmental factors such as smoking. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether 6 wk of Chlorella supplementation to smokers is protective against oxidative damage in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.
Fifty-two smokers, aged 20-65 y, were given 6.3g of Chlorella or placebo every day for 6 wk. Blood samples were drawn at the beginning and after the supplementation. Plasma antioxidant vitamin levels and lipid peroxidation levels were measured. As a marker of oxidative stress, lymphocyte DNA damage was measured.
Chlorella supplementation increased plasma vitamin C (44.4%), alpha-tocopherol (15.7%), and erythrocyte catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. Although 6 wk of Chlorella supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in lymphocyte DNA damage, as measured by comet assay, placebo supplementation also decreased the measured amount of lymphocyte DNA damage.
Chlorella supplementation resulted in the conservation of plasma antioxidant nutrient status and improvement in erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities in subjects. Therefore, our results are supportive of an antioxidant role for Chlorella and indicate that Chlorella is an important whole-food supplement that should be included as a key component of a healthy diet.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a placebo-controlled double-blinded study, the effect of 8 weeks of grape juice was compared to the effect of isocaloric placebo juice. Volunteers with a systolic blood pressure > 130 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg were recruited. A total of 40 healthy subjects were randomized to receive isocaloric juices for 8 weeks. Twenty-one subjects were instructed to consume 5.5 mL/kg daily of grape juice (GJ), and 19 subjects consumed placebo juice (PJ). Plasma antioxidant vitamin C, total radical trapping antioxidant capacity, blood pressure, and lymphocyte DNA damage were assessed pre- and postsupplementation. Plasma total radical-trapping antioxidant potential showed an increase at the level of 1.31 +/- 0.01 (postsupplementation) versus 1.33 +/- 0.01 (presupplementation) (P < 0.1). Grape juice consumption resulted in a 26% decrease in lymphocyte DNA (both hydrogen peroxide treated or spontaneous) in the grape juice group, while no difference was found in the PJ group. Consuming moderate amounts of daily grape juice may favorably affect antioxidant defense systems and lymphocyte DNA damage in hypertensive individuals.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 08/2009; 1171:385-90. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mutagenic activity of XAD-2 adsorbates and water extracts recovered from nine locations of the Kumho River was tested on S. typhimurium TA98 strain to identify the source of the mutagenicity. A sampling site, receiving effluents from the textile industrial complex located in Daegu City, showed extraordinarily high mutagenic activity, especially in the presence of S9 mixture, at all sampling time in both XAD-2 adsorbates and dichloromethane extracts. This indicated the existence of the frame-shift mutagens in the Kumho River, same type of mutagens detected in previous studies by other researchers in the Nakdong River into which the Kumho River discharges. The fractionation study showed that the mutagenic chemicals in the river water are mid-polar. Furthermore, mean tail length obtained by single cell gel electrophoresis assay (Comet assay) showed consistent dose-dependent DNA damage, indicating that the chemicals in the river water not only act as frame-shift mutagens but also break human lymphocytes DNA strain. Chemical identification of the mutagens should be required.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 08/2008; 142(1-3):289-96. · 1.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of isoflavone against hypertension, via the mitigation of oxidative stress and prevention of nitric oxide (NO, a potent vasodilator) reduction, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The 8 wk-old male SHR were divided into two groups, and fed a casein-based high fat diet (120 g fat, 1 g cholesterol/kg diet) for 30 d, either with or without 10 g of soy powder (containing 31.2% of isoflavones)/kg. During the 30-d study period, tail systolic blood pressures (BP) in the control SHR group increased, from 162.4 +/- 2.3 to 177.9 +/- 5.4 mmHg (p<0.05), while the isoflavone-supplemented group benefited from a clear antihypertensive effect (160.1 +/- 1.8 to 160.2 +/- 4.9 mmHg). The serum NO and total radical trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP) were elevated in the isoflavone group. The isoflavone group also experienced a significant decrease in oxidative DNA damage in leukocytes, using comet assay. DNA damage correlated positively with incremental BP during the study, and systolic BP at the end of the study (p<0.01). Our results indicate that soy isoflavone has an antihypertensive effect, possibly through the amelioration of oxidative stress, and the augmentation of NO production, in SHR.
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 09/2005; 51(4):254-9. · 0.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of factors including dietary habits, lifestyle, anthropometric characteristics, plasma lipid profiles, and antioxidants on DNA damage among the Korean population.
Blood samples were collected from 109 healthy Korean volunteers, aged 19-28 years, of whom 34% were smokers. Epidemiological information was collected by personal interviews, and anthropometric characteristics were measured directly. Oxidative DNA damage was quantified using the Comet assay; tail length (TL) and tail moment (TM) were measured.
Statistically significant (p < 0.05) positive correlations were observed between DNA damage (TM or TL) and smoking habits expressed as cigarettes smoked per day and number of packs smoked over time (r = 0.332 and 0.370, respectively, for TM; r = 0.266 and 0.304 for TL, respectively). There were also significant and positive correlations between DNA damage parameters and waist-hip ratio (r = 0.352 for TM and r = 0.226 for TL), but this significance disappeared after data were adjusted to account for smoking effects. Higher plasma triglyceride levels were associated with increased damage to DNA (r = 0.234 for TM and r = 0.271 for TL).
Our results indicate that cigarette smoking and high plasma triglyceride levels significantly increase DNA damage to peripheral lymphocytes in a sample of Koreans.
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 02/2004; 48(1):36-42. · 1.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) is claimed to have beneficial properties for human health, such as anti-bacterial, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The antioxidant effects of the mushroom may be partly explained by protection of cell components against free radicals. We evaluated the effect of aqueous Chaga mushroom extracts for their potential for protecting against oxidative damage to DNA in human lymphocytes. Cells were pretreated with various concentrations (10, 50, 100 and 500 microg/mL) of the extract for 1 h at 37 degrees C. Cells were then treated with 100 microM of H2O2 for 5 min as an oxidative stress. Evaluation of oxidative damage was performed using single-cell gel electrophoresis for DNA fragmentation (Comet assay). Using image analysis, the degree of DNA damage was evaluated as the DNA tail moment. Cells pretreated with Chaga extract showed over 40% reduction in DNA fragmentation compared with the positive control (100 micromol H2O2 treatment). Thus, Chaga mushroom treatment affords cellular protection against endogenous DNA damage produced by H2O2.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Smoking increases indices of free radical-mediated damage of DNA which are potential underlying processes in the pathogenesis of many diseases. In this study, we evaluated whether 8 weeks of green vegetable drink (Angelica keiskei based juice) supplementation to smokers can be protective against lymphocytic DNA damage. Twenty smokers were given 240 ml of commercially available green vegetable drink every day for 8 weeks. The DNA damage was determined using single cell gel electrophoresis (COMET assay) and the damage was quantified by measuring tail length (TL), tail moment (TM), and percent DNA in tail. Eight weeks of green vegetable drink consumption resulted in a significant in lymphocytes DNA damage in all three measurements; TL, TM and % DNA in tail. These results support the hypothesis that green vegetable drink exerts a cancer-protective effect via a decrease in oxidative damage to DNA in humans.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many of the flavonoids found in grapes and grape products such as juice or wine have been known to exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, platelet inhibitory and arterial relaxing effects either in vitro, in animal studies and in human trials. This study was designed to test the effect of Concord grape juice consumption on altering blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Forty subjects were given 5.5 ml/kg body weight/day of either Concord grape juice (CGJ) or a calorie-matched placebo drink every day for 8 weeks. Blood pressure (BP) was measured on weeks 0, 4 and 8. Compared to baseline, in the CGJ group systolic BP was reduced on average by 7.2 mm Hg (p = 0.005) and diastolic BP was reduced on average by 6.2 mm Hg (p = 0.001) at the end of 8 weeks. Comparable changes in the group getting the placebo product were -3.5 mm Hg (NS) and -3.2 mm Hg (p = 0.05) Consuming Concord grape juice, which is high in polyphenolic compounds, may favorably affect BP in hypertensive individuals.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Grape contains flavonoids with antioxidant properties which are believed to be protective against various types of cancer. This antioxidative protection is possibly provided by the effective scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus defending cellular DNA from oxidative damage and potential mutations. This study of healthy adults tested whether a daily regimen of grape juice supplementation could reduce cellular DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes and reduce the amount of free radicals released. Sixty-seven healthy volunteers (16 women and 51 men) aged 19-57 years were given 480 ml of grape juice daily for 8 weeks in addition to their normal diet, and blood samples were drawn before and after the intervention. The DNA damage was determined by using the single cell gel (comet) assay with alkaline electrophoresis and was quantified by measuring tail length (TL). Levels of free radicals were determined by reading the lucigenin-perborate ROS generating source, using the Ultra-Weak Chemiluminescence Analyzer System. Grape juice consumption resulted in a significant decrease in lymphocyte DNA damage expressed by TL (before supplementation: 88.75 +/- 1.55 microm versus after supplementation: 70.25 +/- 1.31 microm; P=0.000 by paired t-test). Additionally, grape juice consumption for 8 weeks reduced the ROS/photon count by 15%, compared to the beginning of the study. The preventive effect of grape juice against DNA damage was simultaneously shown in both sexes. These results indicate that the consumption of grape juice may increase plasma antioxidant capacity, resulting in reduced DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes achieved at least partially by a reduced release of ROS. Our findings support the hypothesis that polyphenolic compounds contained in grape juice exert cancer-protective effects on lymphocytes, limiting oxidative DNA damage possibly via a decrease in free radical levels.
Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 09/2003; 529(1-2):77-86. · 3.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clusterin is a 75-80 kDa heterodimeric glycoprotein, that is produced in most tissues but which exact biological role is still not clear. Particularly, its role in protection or promotion of apoptosis is heavily disputed, since data supporting both views have been reported in several independent studies. To clarify this issue, and also to determine whether clusterin expression itself might be affected by apoptosis, in the present study, rat thymocytes were treated with dexamethasone, -a synthetic glucocorticoid that elicits apoptosis in thymocytes-, and clusterin mRNA expression was analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR before and after induction of apoptosis. Interestingly, neither the treatment with dexamethasone in vitro nor triggering of apoptosis in vivo up- regulated clusterin expression, opposing the view that clusterin is involved in apoptotic processes. On the other hand, a new clusterin mRNA isoform was detected and isolated, whose expression was restricted to freshly isolated thymocytes. This novel isoform lacks the post-translational proteolytic cleavage site and is therefore predicted to encode a monomeric protein. The biological function under normal circumstances, however, will need further investigations for clarification. While apoptosis could not modulate clusterin expression, activation of thymocytes with concanavalin A and interleukin-2 resulted in up-regulation of clusterin mRNA level, indicating that clusterin expression is rather under the control of cell activation-mediated rather than apoptosis-induced signals.
Cell Research 03/2003; 13(1):49-58. · 10.53 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., GU) has demonstrated significant in vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties. In this study, it was tested that a daily regimen of supplementation with water extract of GU would
ameliorate oxidative stress and whether effects were modulated by the glutathion-S-transferase (GST) polymorphisms. Forty healthy male smokers aged 20–60 were divided evenly into 2 groups and given either
260 mL of GU extracted with hot water or 260 mL of oligosaccharide based placebo every day for 8 weeks without any change
of usual food intake, and blood samples were drawn before and after the intervention. Eight weeks of GU supplementation significantly
decreased plasma conjugated dienes (a maker for lipid peroxidation) in GSTM1 positive subjects, but not in the GSTM1 null
genotype group. Our finding suggests that consumption of licorice water extract might be effectively decreasing lipid peroxidation
in the subgroup of smokers who have GSTM1 gene.
-lipid peroxidation-glutathion-S-transferase polymorphism
Food science and biotechnology 19(2):511-516. · 0.70 Impact Factor