Chong-Yong Lee

University of Oxford, Oxford, ENG, United Kingdom

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Publications (17)46.61 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The water insoluble complex Rb4[Ru(II)(bpy)3]5[{Ru(III)4O4(OH)2(H2O)4}(γ-SiW10O36)2], ([Ru(II)bpy]5[Ru(III)4POM]), was synthesized from Rb8K2[{Ru(IV)4O4(OH)2(H2O)4}(γ-SiW10O36)2] and used for electrocatalytic water oxidation under both thin- and thick-film electrode conditions. Results demonstrate that the [Ru(II)bpy]5[Ru(III)4POM] modified electrode enables efficient water oxidation to be achieved at neutral pH using thin-film conditions, with [Ru(bpy)3](3+)([Ru(III)bpy]) acting as the electron transfer mediator and [Ru(V)4POM] as the species releasing O2. The rotating ring disc electrode (RRDE) method was used to quantitatively determine the turnover frequency (TOF) of the catalyst, and a value of 0.35 s(-1) was obtained at a low overpotential of 0.49 V (1.10 V vs Ag/AgCl) at pH 7.0. The postulated mechanism for the mediator enhanced catalytic water process in a pH 7 buffer containing 0.1 M LiClO4 as an additional electrolyte includes the following reactions (ion transfer for maintaining charge neutrality is omitted for simplicity): [Ru(II)bpy]5[Ru(III)4POM] → [Ru(III)bpy]5[Ru(V)4POM] + 13 e(-) and [Ru(III)bpy]5[Ru(V)4POM] + 2H2O → [Ru(III)bpy]5[Ru(IV)4POM] + O2 + 4H(+). The voltammetry of related water insoluble [Ru(II)bpy]2[S2M18O62] (M = W and Mo) and [Fe(II)Phen]x[Ru(III)4POM] materials has also been studied, and the lack of electrocatalytic water oxidation in these cases supports the hypothesis that [Ru(III)bpy] is the electron transfer mediator and [Ru(V)4POM] is the species responsible for oxygen evolution.
    Inorganic chemistry. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The electrochemistry of the water oxidation catalyst, Rb(8)K(2)[{Ru(4)O(4)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(4)}(γ-SiW(10)O(36))(2)] (Rb(8)K(2)-1(0)) has been studied in the presence and absence of potassium cations in both hydrochloric and sulfuric acid solutions by transient direct current (dc) cyclic voltammetry, a steady state dc method in the rotating disk configuration and the kinetically sensitive technique of Fourier transformed large-amplitude alternating current (ac) voltammetry. In acidic media, the presence of potassium ions affects the kinetics (apparent rate of electron transfer) and thermodynamics (reversible potentials) of the eight processes (A'/A to H/H') that are readily detected under dc voltammetric conditions. The six most positive processes (A'/A to F/F'), each involve a one electron ruthenium based charge transfer step (A'/A, B'/B are Ru(IV/V) oxidation and C/C' to F/F' are Ru(IV/III) reduction). The apparent rate of electron transfer of the ruthenium centers in sulfuric acid is higher than in hydrochloric acid. The addition of potassium cations increases the apparent rates and gives rise to a small shift of reversible potential. Simulations of the Fourier transformed ac voltammetry method show that the B'/B, E/E', and F/F' processes are quasi-reversible, while the others are close to reversible. A third Ru(IV/V) oxidation process is observed just prior to the positive potential limit via dc methods. Importantly, the ability of the higher harmonic components of the ac method to discriminate against the irreversible background solvent process allows this (process I) as well as an additional fourth reversible ruthenium based process (J) to be readily identified. The steady-state rotating disk electrode (RDE) method confirmed that all four Ru-centers in Rb(8)K(2)-1(0) are in oxidation state IV. The dc and ac data indicate that reversible potentials of the four ruthenium centers are evenly spaced, which may be relevant to understanding of the water oxidation electrocatalysis. A profound effect of the potassium cation is observed for the one-electron transfer process (G/G') assigned to Ru(III/II) reduction and the multiple electron transfer reduction process (H/H') that arise from the tungstate polyoxometalate framework. A significant shift of E°' to a more positive potential value for process H/H' was observed on removal of K(+) (∼100 mV in H(2)SO(4) and ∼50 mV in HCl).
    Inorganic Chemistry 10/2012; · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A detailed analysis of the cooperative two-electron transfer of surface-confined cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) in contact with pH 6.0 phosphate buffer solution has been undertaken. This investigation is prompted by the prospect of achieving a richer understanding of this biologically important system via the employment of kinetically sensitive, but background devoid, higher harmonic components available in the large-amplitude Fourier transform ac voltammetric method. Data obtained from the conventional dc cyclic voltammetric method are also provided for comparison. Theoretical considerations based on both ac and dc approaches are presented for cases where reversible or quasi-reversible cooperative two-electron transfer involves variation in the separation of their reversible potentials, including potential inversion (as described previously for solution phase studies), and reversibility of the electrode processes. Comparison is also made with respect to the case of a simultaneous two-electron transfer process that is unlikely to occur in the physiological situation. Theoretical analysis confirms that the ac higher harmonic components provide greater sensitivity to the various mechanistic nuances that can arise in two-electron surface-confined processes. Experimentally, the ac perturbation with amplitude and frequency of 200 mV and 3.88 Hz, respectively, was employed to detect the electron transfer when CcP is confined to the surface of a graphite electrode. Simulations based on cooperative two-electron transfer with the employment of reversible potentials of 0.745 ± 0.010 V, heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants of between 3 and 10 s(-1) and charge transfer coefficients of 0.5 for both processes fitted experimental data for the fifth to eighth ac harmonics. Imperfections in theory-experiment comparison are consistent with kinetic and thermodynamic dispersion and other nonidealities not included in the theory used to model the voltammetry of surface-confined CcP.
    Langmuir 05/2012; 28(25):9864-77. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As in many scientific disciplines, modern chemistry involves a mix of experimentation and computer-supported theory. Historically, these skills have been provided by different groups, and range from traditional 'wet' laboratory science to advanced numerical simulation. Increasingly, progress is made by global collaborations, in which new theory may be developed in one part of the world and applied and tested in the laboratory elsewhere. e-Science, or cyber-infrastructure, underpins such collaborations by providing a unified platform for accessing scientific instruments, computers and data archives, and collaboration tools. In this paper we discuss the application of advanced e-Science software tools to electrochemistry research performed in three different laboratories--two at Monash University in Australia and one at the University of Oxford in the UK. We show that software tools that were originally developed for a range of application domains can be applied to electrochemical problems, in particular Fourier voltammetry. Moreover, we show that, by replacing ad-hoc manual processes with e-Science tools, we obtain more accurate solutions automatically.
    Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society A Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences 08/2011; 369(1949):3336-52. · 2.89 Impact Factor
  • Chong-Yong Lee, Alan M Bond
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    ABSTRACT: Advances in basic knowledge relevant to the pseudocapacitive and electrocatalytic properties of RuO(2) materials require a detailed understanding of the redox chemistry that occurs at the electrode interface. Although several redox processes have been identified via dc cyclic voltammograms derived from surface-confined RuO(2) materials, mechanistic details remain limited because the faradaic signals of interest are heavily masked by the background current. Here, it is shown that the underlying electron transfer reactions associated with the VI to II oxidation states of surface-confined RuO(2) materials in acidic medium are far more accessible in the background current free fourth and higher harmonic components available via large-amplitude Fourier transformed ac voltammetry. Enhanced resolution and sensitivity to both electron transfer and protonation processes and discrimination against solvent and background capacitance are achieved so that the Ru(V) to Ru(VI) process can be studied for the first time. Thus, kinetic and thermodynamic information relevant to each ruthenium redox level is readily deduced. The relative rate of electron transfer and the impact of protonation associated with Ru(VI) to Ru(II) redox processes are found to depend on the nature of the RuO(2) materials (extent of crystallinity and hydration) and concentration of sulfuric acid electrolyte. In the electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose in alkaline medium, access to the underlying electron transfer processes allows ready detection of the redox couple associated with the catalysis. Thus, application of an advanced ac electroanalytical technique is shown to provide the methodology for enhancing our understanding of the charge transfer processes of RuO(2), relevant to pseudocapacitance and electrocatalysis.
    Langmuir 10/2010; 26(20):16155-62. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t The performances of freestanding carbon nanotube (buckypaper) and polymer-intercalated buckypaper electrodes in an electroanalytical chemistry context were evaluated via analysis of direct current and Fourier Transform large-amplitude alternating current voltammograms derived from the ferrocenemono-carboxylic acid (FMCA 0/+), ruthenium hexamine ([Ru(NH 3) 6 ] 3+/2+) and ferricyanide ([Fe(CN) 6 ] 3À/4À) redox couples. The composite polymer-intercalated buckypaper electrodes exhibit substantially superior Fara-daic-to-capacitive background charging current ratios under both dc and ac conditions compared and display close to ideal voltammetry for all three processes. A significant difference was detected in mid-point potentials determined by cyclic voltammetry at buckypaper and polymer-intercalated buckypaper electrodes, commensurate with different mass transport mechanisms. It is proposed that the porosity of the buckypaper gives rise to a restricted diffusion model of mass transport within the pores and a large electrode over that generates a large capacitance current. Thus, polymer intercalation is required to achieve high quality electroanalytical performance. Simulations of voltammograms obtained at porous polymer-intercalated buckypaper electrodes are consistent with the composite electrodes consisting of a randomly arranged array of nano-/micro-electrode domains, implying that significant surface heteroge-neity is present. However, under slow scan rate conditions, when significant overlap of diffusion layers occurs, voltammograms may be approximately interpreted in terms of a linear diffusion based mass transport model.
    Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 10/2010; 652:52. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The fourth and higher harmonic components available in large-amplitude Fourier transformed ac voltammetry have been employed in a study involving surface-confined redox proteins having multiple electron-transfer centers. Ferredoxin I from Azotobacter vinelandii (AvFdI) and two variants exhibit significant differences in the reversible reduction potentials (Eo′) of their two non-interacting FeS clusters which are located at a fixed distance 1.2 nm apart. At pH 9.0 in aqueous buffered medium, FdI adsorbed on a pyrolytic graphite edge electrode displays two one-electron-transfer processes that are not complicated by coupled proton transfer. Ac voltammetric faradaic currents devoid of significant background, are detected and analyzed for the fourth to seventh harmonics of the [4Fe–4S]2+/+ and [3Fe–4S]+/0 processes. The absence of a non-faradaic background in these, but not in the dc or initial three ac harmonics, facilitates the experimental analysis. In potential regions where overlay of the [4Fe–4S]2+/+ and [3Fe–4S]+/0 processes occur, the alternating currents are not always additive because each process may exhibit different phases. The level of resolution of the two processes is governed by the separation of the Eo′ values, with the higher harmonic components giving enhanced resolution in the regimes of the reversible potentials. Simulation–experimental data comparisons have been used to determine the rate constants for each electron-transfer process. Theory–experiment comparisons are generally in satisfactory agreement, but some imperfections are consistent with the kinetic or/and thermodynamic dispersion associated with films of surface-confined proteins adhered to a heterogeneous edge plane graphite electrode.
    Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry. 09/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: Large-amplitude ac voltammograms contain a wealth of kinetic information concerning electrode processes and can provide unique mechanistic insights compared to other techniques. This paper describes the effects homogeneous chemical processes have on ac voltammetry in general and provides experimental examples using two well-known chemical systems: one simple and one complex. Oxidation of [Cp*Fe(CO)(2)](2) (Cp* = η(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) in noncoordinating media is a reversible one-electron process; in the presence of nucleophiles, however, the resulting ligand-induced disproportionation changes the process to a multiple step regeneration. The chemical kinetic parameters of the regeneration mechanism were discerned via analysis of the third and higher harmonics of Fourier-transformed ac voltammetry data. Comparison of experimental data to digital simulations provides clear evidence that the reaction proceeds via a rapid pre-equilibrium between the electrogenerated monocation and the coordinating ligand; simultaneous fitting of the first nine harmonics indicates that k(f) = 7500 M(-1) s(-1) and k(r) = 100 s(-1), and that the unimolecular decomposition of the corresponding intermediate occurs with a rate constant of 2.2 s(-1). The rapid cis(+) → trans(+) isomerization of the electrogenerated cis-[W(CO)(2)(dpe)(2)](+), where dpe = 1,2-diphenylphosphinoethane, was examined to illustrate the effects of a simpler EC mechanism on the higher harmonics; a rate constant of 280 s(-1) was determined. These results not only shed new light on the chemistry of these systems, but provide a clear demonstration that the higher harmonics of ac voltammetry provide mechanistic insights into coupled homogeneous processes far more detailed than those that are readily accessible with dc techniques.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 09/2010; 114(37):10122-34. · 2.77 Impact Factor
  • Chong-Yong Lee, Alan M Bond
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    ABSTRACT: A debate as to whether heme remains bound or is released in myoglobin molecules incorporated into a didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) film adhered to a pyrolytic graphite electrode has prompted a comparison of their electrochemistry by the highly sensitive large-amplitude Fourier transformed ac voltammetric method. The accessibility of third, fourth, and higher harmonic components that are devoid of background current and the enhanced resolution relative to that available in dc voltammetry have allowed a detailed comparison of the Fe(III)/Fe(II) and Fe(II)/Fe(I) redox processes of myoglobin and heme molecules to be undertaken as a function of buffer composition and pH and in the presence and absence of NaBr in the buffer and/or film. Under most conditions examined, only very subtle differences, in the Fe(III)/Fe(II) process were found, implying this process cannot be used to indicate the intactness or otherwise of myoglobin in myoglobin-DDAB films. In contrast, higher order ac harmonics obtained from myoglobin-DDAB and heme-DDAB films reveal pH dependent differences with respect to the Fe(II)/Fe(I) couple. Analysis of the ac harmonics, and with the hypothesis that the Fe(II)/Fe(I) process reflects the myoglobin state, suggests that the majority of the iron heme is released from myoglobin-DDAB (pH 5.0, no NaBr) films in contact with pH 5.0 (0.1 M sodium acetate) buffer solution devoid of or containing NaBr. However, myoglobin films prepared with pH 5.0 buffer containing NaBr shows significant difference in the higher harmonic shapes and midpoint potentials in the Fe(II)/Fe(I) process relative to the case when heme molecules are used, although as noted in other studies, a significant fraction of the Mb is rendered electroinactive in the presence of NaBr. The voltammetric responses of myoglobin and heme-DDAB (pH 5.0) films in contact with pH 7.0 (0.1 M) phosphate buffer solution also exhibit significant differences in the Fe(II)/Fe(I) redox couple in the higher harmonics in contrast to a report [de Groot, M.T.; Merkx, M.; Koper, M. T. M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 16224] that claimed identical midpoint potentials apply to both films under conditions of dc cyclic voltammetry. The FT-ac voltammetric data therefore suggest that a substantial fraction of myoglobin in myoglobin-DDAB (pH 5.0) films in contact with pH 7.0 phosphate buffer solution remains intact. No evidence of a catalytic effect that enhanced the released of heme from myoglobin was found at the pyrolytic graphite electrode surface. In summary, higher harmonic ac voltammetric data indicate that the Fe(II)/Fe(I) process but not the Fe(III)/Fe(II) reflects the state of myoglobin in DDAB films. On this basis, films prepared at pH 5.0 should include NaBr, or else films should be prepared at neutral pH to achieve films with myoglobin remains in its intact near native state when a myoglobin-DDAB film is confined to a graphite electrode surface. Otherwise, the release of heme in myoglobin molecules incorporated into a DDAB film is likely to be a dominant reaction pathway.
    Langmuir 03/2010; 26(7):5243-53. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Putting insulating polymers into a highly conductive single-walled carbon nanotube paper leads to excellent electrochemical performance; fast redox reactions and high signal to background noise ratio. The ability of such composites to serve as superior electrochemical platforms was investigated by using DC and AC cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical platforms show benefits in sensing applications with fast signal generation and low limits of detection.
    International Conference on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology - ICONN 2010; 02/2010
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate a rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles using hydroquinone as a reducing agent under acidic conditions without the need for precursor seed particles. The nanoparticle formation process is facilitated by the addition of NaOH to a solution containing HAuCl4 and hydroquinone to locally change the pH; this enhances the reducing capability of hydroquinone to form gold nucleation centres, after which further growth of gold can take place through an autocatalytic mechanism. The stability of the nanoparticles is highly dependent on the initial solution pH, and both the concentration of added NaOH and hydroquinone present in solution. The gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV–visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and zeta potential measurements. It was found that under optimal conditions that stable aqueous suspensions of 20 nm diameter nanoparticles can be achieved where benzoquinone, the oxidized product of hydroquinone, acts as a capping agent preventing nanoparticles aggregation.
    Colloids and Surfaces A Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 01/2010; 370:35-41. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Modern chemistry involves a mix of experimentation and computer-supported theory. Historically, these skills have been provided by different groups, and range from traditional “wet” laboratory science to advanced numerical simulation. This paper discusses the application of advanced e-Science software tools to electrochemistry research and involves collaboration between laboratories at Monash and Oxford Universities. In particular, we show how the Nimrod/OK tool can be used to automate the estimation of electrochemical parameters in Fourier transformed voltammetry. Replacing an ad-hoc manual process with e-Science tools both accelerates the process and produces more accurate solutions. In this work much attention was given to the role of the scientist user. During the research, Nimrod/K (on which Nimrod/OK is built) was extended to shield that user from technical details of the grid infrastructure, a new system of file management and grid abstraction has been incorporated.
    Sixth International Conference on e-Science, e-Science 2010, 7-10 December 2010, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 01/2010
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    ABSTRACT: A systematic approach to quantifying the electrode kinetics of surface-confined proteins and identifying the impact of surface heterogeneity is presented. The evaluation approach is based on analysis of individual harmonics derived from Fourier transformed large-amplitude ac voltammetry, and their peak current magnitude, I(p)(nomegat) versus frequency, f, relationships. Effectively, variability in the time-scale of each harmonic is expected, and advantage is taken of the fact that each individual harmonic displays a different level of sensitivity with respect to the kinetic evaluation. The data strategy protocols have been examined for the azurin Cu(II)/Cu(I) process when this metalloprotein is immobilized on gold electrodes modified alkanethiols having different chain lengths, using both pure and mixed thiol systems. I(p)(nomegat) versusf relationships also offer the advantage of the ability to detect and allow for the ohmic IR(u) drop effect and allow analyses that are independent of protein surface coverage. Estimation of an electron transfer rate is achievable from this form of analysis. However, experimentally observed waveshapes for each individual harmonic are consistently broader than that deduced theoretically on the basis of their rate constants because of kinetic and/or thermodynamic dispersion. In the mixed thiol systems, and with use of the ac method, kinetic discrimination is achieved for fast processes. This systematic study based on a model protein indicates that a more comprehensive level of evaluation of electrode kinetics can be derived from analysis of the ac harmonics available in large-amplitude ac voltammetry, by initially using I(p)(nomegat)-f data to evaluate the electrode kinetics followed by waveshape analysis to detect heterogeneity effects that give rise to kinetic or thermodynamic dispersion.
    Analytica chimica acta 10/2009; 652(1-2):205-14. · 4.31 Impact Factor
  • Chong-Yong Lee, Alan M Bond
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    ABSTRACT: The level of edge plane defect sites present in highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) electrodes has been evaluated via analysis of dc, ac fundamental, and higher-order ac harmonics available from a single large-amplitude Fourier transformed (FT) ac voltammetric experiment. Deliberate introduction of a low level of edge plane defect was achieved by polishing, with a higher level being introduced via electrochemical pretreatment. Kinetics regimes associated with fast electron transfer on the edge plane defect sites and slow electron transfer on the basal plane surface are resolved under ac conditions when using the surface-sensitive [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-) redox probe. However, because of their insensitivity to slow electron transfer, higher-order ac faradaic harmonics almost exclusively detect only the much faster processes that emanate from edge plane defect sites. Thus, detection of fourth- and higher-order ac Faradaic harmonic components that are devoid of background capacitive current is possible at freshly cleaved HOPG in the region near the reversible potential for the [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-) process. Under these circumstances, dc cyclic voltammograms exhibit only reduction and oxidation peaks separated by more than 1 V. The fundamental ac harmonic provides detailed information on the capacitive current, which increases with the level of edge plane defect sites. Apparent charge transfer rate constants also can be derived from peak-to-peak separations obtained from the dc aperiodic component. Estimates of the percentage of edge plane defect sites based on ac higher harmonics, capacitance, and dc aperiodic component that are available from a single experiment have been compared. The edge plane defect levels deduced from capacitance (fundamental harmonic ac component) and higher harmonic Faradaic currents are considered to be more reliable than estimations based on apparent rate constants derived from the dc aperiodic component or conventional dc cyclic voltammogram.
    Analytical Chemistry 02/2009; 81(2):584-94. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Electrochemical processes in mesoporous TiO2-Nafion thin films deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes are inherently complex and affected by capacitance, Ohmic iR-drop, RC-time constant phenomena, and by potential and pH-dependent conductivity. In this study, large-amplitude sinusoidally modulated voltammetry (LASMV) is employed to provide access to almost purely Faradaic-based current data from second harmonic components, as well as capacitance and potential domain information from the fundamental harmonic for mesoporous TiO2-Nafion film electrodes. The LASMV response has been investigated with and without an immobilized one-electron redox system, ferrocenylmethyltrimethylammonium+. Results clearly demonstrate that the electron transfer associated with the immobilized ferrocene derivative follows two independent pathways i) electron hopping within the Nafion network and ii) conduction through the TiO2 backbone. The pH effect on the voltammetric response for the TiO2 reduction pathway (ii) can be clearly identified in the 2nd harmonic LASMV response with the diffusion controlled ferrocene response (i) acting as a pH independent reference. Application of second harmonic data derived from LASMV measurement, because of the minimal contribution from capacitance currents, may lead to reference-free pH sensing with systems like that found for ferrocene derivatives.
    Electroanalysis 11/2008; 21(1):41 - 47. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    Chong-Yong Lee, Yong-Jun Tan, Alan M Bond
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    ABSTRACT: Voltammetric behavior at gold electrodes in aqueous media is known to be strongly dependent on electrode polishing and history. In this study, an electrode array consisting of 100 nominally identical and individually addressable gold disks electrodes, each with a radius of 127 microm, has been fabricated. The ability to analyze both individual electrode and total array performance enables microscopic aspects of the overall voltammetric response arising from variable levels of inhomogeneity in each electrode to be identified. The array configuration was initially employed with the reversible and hence relatively surface insensitive [Ru(NH 3) 6] (3+/2+) reaction and then with the more highly surface sensitive quasi-reversible [Fe(CN) 6] (3-/4-) process. In both these cases, the reactants and products are solution soluble and, at a scan rate of 50 mV s (-1), each electrode in the array is assumed to behave independently, since no evidence of overlapping of the diffusion layers was detected. As would be expected, the variability of the individual electrodes' responses was significantly larger than found for the summed electrode behavior. In the case of cytochrome c voltammetry at a 4,4'-dipyridyl disulfide modified electrode, a far greater dependence on electrode history and electrode heterogeneity was detected. In this case, voltammograms derived from individual electrodes in the gold array electrode exhibit shape variations ranging from peak to sigmoidal. However, again the total response was always found to be well-defined. This voltammetry is consistent with a microscopic model of heterogeneity where some parts of each chemically modified electrode surface are electroactive while other parts are less active. The findings are consistent with the common existence of electrode heterogeneity in cyclic voltammetric responses at gold electrodes, that are normally difficult to detect, but fundamentally important, as electrode nonuniformity can give rise to subtle forms of kinetic and other forms of dispersion.
    Analytical Chemistry 06/2008; 80(10):3873-81. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of surface heterogeneity in dc and ac voltammetries has been investigated with a variety of dual-electrode materials and electrode reactions for quasireversible electron-transfer reactions in which the substrate and product are present as solutes. Typically, and as theoretically expected, when two distinctly different surfaces are present, the faradaic currents arising from each region combine additively. This leads to a marked effect on the shape of the transient response, particularly in the ac voltammetric case. However, heterogeneity is not possible to detect when the rate constants for the two regions are identical in magnitude (or reversible). At the other extremity where very large differences in rate constants occur, it is possible to detect fully resolved voltammetric process. For example, the presence of a small region of edge planes on an otherwise highly ordered pyrolytic graphite electrode surfaces clearly reveals itself in the case of [Fe(CN)6]3− electro-reduction. In this example, the vastly enhanced reversibility of the electron-transfer at defect sites present in the edge planes, compared with the much slower reaction on the highly ordered pyrolytic graphite surface leads to detection of two well resolved [Fe(CN)6]3−/4− processes from an experiment at a single electrode.
    Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry. 01/2008;