C Degott

Paris Diderot University, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (419)2433.98 Total impact

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    Gastroenterologie Clinique Et Biologique - GASTROEN CLIN BIOL. 01/2009; 33(2):101-102.
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT— To determine the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in homosexuals with chronic hepatitis, we tested for anti-HCV antibodies 113 (47 anti-HIV positive) French non-drug-addicted homosexual men admitted for chronic viral hepatitis. Anti-HCV were detected with second- and third-generation ELISAs (ELISA2 and ELISA3) and RIBAs (RIBA2 and RIBA3). Chronic hepatitis was related to non-A, non-B infection in four, to hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection in five and to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in 104 patients. Anti-HCV positivity was found in 50.4% and 12.4% of the 113 patients, with ELISA2 and ELISA3, respectively. Positivity with RIBA2 and RIBA3 was found in only six of the 57 ELISA2 positive patients (all six were ELISA3 positive). The high prevalence of positivity with ELISA2 not confirmed by RIBA2 or RIBA3 suggests false-positive results. ELISA2 positive results were more frequent with frozen serum samples than with fresh serum samples (62% vs 23.5%, p = 0.0003). However, even with fresh serum, ELISA2-positive RIBA-negative results remained frequent in anti-HIV positive patients. ELISA3 seems to give more specific results. We conclude that the prevalence of HCV infection, as assessed with RIBA, was 5.3% among French homosexual men with chronic hepatitis (3.8% after exclusion of transfused patients). This low prevalence suggests that homosexual transmission of HCV is relatively uncommon.
    Liver International 12/2008; 13(6):319 - 322.
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    ABSTRACT: Beclin 1 physically associates with Bcl-x(L) and is considered as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor. As the role of Beclin 1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unknown, we determined Beclin 1 mRNA expression in 27 pairs of tumoral/nontumoral (T/NT) liver samples. The Beclin 1 mRNA T/NT ratio was less than 0.5 in 2 tumors and more than 2 in 1 tumor, and was positively correlated with the Bcl-X(L) mRNA T/NT ratio (P < 0.001), but not with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen mRNA T/NT ratio. Coregulation of Beclin 1 and Bcl-X(L) expression in HCC may suggest cooperation in the regulation of apoptosis.
    Cancer Investigation 07/2007; 25(4):226-31. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the test performance profile (TPP) of blood tests of liver fibrosis. Three hundred and fifty-six patients with C chronic hepatitis were included in two centers. Metavir staging of liver specimens by two independent pathologists and the following tests were evaluated: Fibrotest (FT), APRI, FibroMeter (FM), and Hepascore (HS). Metavir stages were: F0: 4%, F1: 55%, F2: 26%, F3: 11%, and F4: 4%. The AUROCs were not significantly different, respectively, FT, FM, APRI, HS: >or=F2: 0.79, 0.78, 0.76, >or=0.76; F3: 0.81, 0.85, 0.81, 0.81; and F4: 0.86, 0.94, 0.92, 0.89. The TPP relies on the paired comparison of blood-test misclassification based on liver specimen, e.g. FT vs FM, respectively: F0+1: 18 vs 28% (p=0.0003), >or=F2: 43 vs 31% (p=0.004). There was no center effect. In those populations, the four blood tests had a similar performance for significant fibrosis (F>or=2), lying in the lower range of published results which is attributable to a low >or=F2 prevalence, and for >or=F3 and F4. However, FM and FT had performance profiles significantly different as a function of fibrosis stages or diagnostic target (fibrosis cut-off). This has to be considered during the interpretation process. Moreover, the performance should be reported with different diagnostic targets.
    Journal of Hepatology 03/2007; 46(3):395-402. · 9.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Noninvasive indexes have been developed to predict fibrosis staging. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of these indexes in comparison with liver histology in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. A total of 235 consecutive patients with HCV infection from the Fibropaca multicentre independent study were included in this paper. FibroTest (FT), aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) and Forns score were assessed in the cohort and compared with liver histology performed on the same day. The main end point was the area under characteristic curves (AUCs) for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis (F2-F4) and cirrhosis (F4) by the METAVIR classification. Mean age was 46 (+/-11) years, 55% were males, 42% (n = 99) had significant fibrosis (F2-F4) and 7% (n = 16) had cirrhosis (F4). For the diagnosis of significant fibrosis, respective AUCs of FT, APRI and Forns score were 0.81 (95% confidence interval: 0.76-0.86), 0.71 (0.67-0.79) and 0.76 (0.70-0.82); for cirrhosis prognosis, AUCs of FT and APRI were 0.82 (0.77-0.87) and 0.81 (0.76-0.86) (AUCs not significantly different). Using each index independently, all patients were classified by FT, 214 (91%) patients were classified by APRI and 129 (55%) by Forns score. There were significantly more cases of discordances between APRI and liver biopsy than between FT or Forns score and liver biopsy (P < 0.05). Performing all scores (FT, Forns and APRI) without liver biopsy allowed fibrosis to be well evaluated in 191 patients (81.3%), including patients with FT failure. Liver biopsy remained mandatory to evaluate fibrosis in 44 patients (18.7%). Our study shows that performing all the tests and liver biopsy improves the diagnostic accuracy for liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C patients without patent comorbidities. The combination of all tests with liver biopsy allowed 225/235 (96%) patients to be correctly classified. The combination of all tests without liver biopsy allowed 191/235 (81.3%) patients to be correctly classified; liver biopsy remained mandatory in some patients (18.7%).
    Journal of Viral Hepatitis 10/2006; 13(10):659-70. · 3.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine cytokeratin, epithelial glycoprotein (mucin) and glycoprotein CD10 expression in benign mucinous cystdenomas (MCAs) in comparison with intraductal papillary mucinous adenomas (IPMAs). Thirty MCAs of the pancreas were analysed for immunohistochemical expression of cytokeratin (CK) 7, CK20, MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC and CD10 and were compared with 16 IPMAs. CK7 was expressed in all neoplasms. CK20 was significantly more frequent in MCAs compared with IPMAs (56.66% versus 18.75%, P = 0.027). MUC1 was more frequent in MCAs (40% versus 12.5%, P = 0.0915), whereas MUC5AC was significantly less frequent in MCAs (33.33% versus 100%). MUC2 was expressed in goblet cells of seven MCAs. In MCAs, CD10 was observed both in epithelial cells and in the ovarian-type stromal cells (24/30). Epithelial expression of CD10 was significantly lower in IPMAs (66.66% versus 6.25%, p = 0.0001). MCA is characterized by a significantly greater frequency of expression of CK20 and CD10 when compared with IPMA, which preferentially expresses MUC5AC.
    Histopathology 07/2006; 48(7):813-21. · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fibrotest (FT) and Actitest (AT) are biochemical markers of fibrosis and activity for use as a non-invasive alternative to liver biopsy in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). The aim of this study was to perform an external validation of FT and AT and to study the discordances between FT/AT and liver biopsy in patients with chronic hepatitis C. A total of 519 consecutive patients with chronic HCV were prospectively included in five centers, with liver biopsy and biochemical markers taken at the same day. Fifteen patients were excluded because their biopsies could not be interpreted. Diagnostic accuracies were assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Median biopsy size was 15 mm (range: 2-58), with 9 portal tracts (1-37) and 1 fragment (1-12). 46% (230/504) were classified F2-F4 in fibrosis and 39% A2-A3 in activity. FT area under ROC curve for diagnosis of activity (A2-A3), significant fibrosis (F2-F4), and severe fibrosis (F3-F4) were 0.73 [0.69-0.77], 0.79 [0.75-0.82], and 0.80 [0.76-0.83], respectively. Among the 92 patients (18%) with 2 fibrosis stages of discordance between FT and biopsy, the discordance was attributable to FT in 5% of cases, to biopsy in 4%, and undetermined in 9%. This prospective independent and multicenter study confirms the diagnostic value of FT and AT found in the princeps study and suggests that FT and AT can be an alternative to biopsy in most patients with chronic HCV.
    The American Journal of Gastroenterology 04/2006; 101(3):547-55. · 9.21 Impact Factor
  • Histopathology 03/2006; 48(3):309-11. · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of steatosis and possible interactions between steatosis, host factors, viral factors, and treatment for HIV infection in HIV-hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfected patients. Steatosis was assessed among 395 HIV-HCV coinfected patients who were enrolled in the ANRS trial HC02 Ribavic and for whom histological data were available. Steatosis was graded as follows: 0 (none); 1 (< 30% hepatocytes containing fat); 2 (30-70%); 3 (> 70%). Steatosis was present in 241 patients (61%), of whom 149 (38%) had grade 1, 64 (16%) grade 2 and 28 (7%) grade 3. In multivariate analysis, the following five independent risk factors were associated with steatosis: HCV genotype 3 [odds ratio (OR), 3.02; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.91-4.79; P < 0.0001], the mean METAVIR fibrosis score (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.11-1.84; P = 0.0053), the body mass index (BMI; OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.05-1.21; P = 0.0013), HCV viral load (OR. 1.65; 95% CI, 1.22-2.23; P = 0.0012) and ferritin (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.06-1.21; P < 0.0003). As HCV genotype 3 was a risk factor for steatosis, further exploratory analyses were stratified according to the HCV genotype (1 and 3). Factors independently associated with steatosis were BMI and HCV viral load in patients with HCV genotype 3 infection and the mean METAVIR fibrosis score, the BMI and ferritin in patients with HCV genotype 1 infection. Steatosis is particularly frequent in HIV-HCV coinfected patients, who appear to have the same risk factors for steatosis as HCV monoinfected patients. None of the characteristics of HIV infection, including antiretroviral therapy, was independently associated with steatosis.
    AIDS 02/2006; 20(4):525-31. · 6.41 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterologie Clinique Et Biologique - GASTROEN CLIN BIOL. 01/2006; 30(8):1059-1059.
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    ABSTRACT: Intraportal lymphoid nodules have been observed in liver biopsy specimens from patients with autoimmune liver disease and chronic active hepatitis C. They are characterized by a nodular lymphocyte aggregate with a germinal center. The purpose of this in situ immunophenotyping study was to determine immunohistochemically the phenotype of immunocompetent cells in and around intraportal lymphoid nodules in patients with chronic hepatitis C. For comparison, we also examined lymphoid nodules in patients with autoimmune liver disease. Liver biopsy specimens from 13 unselected patients with CAH and hepatitis C antibodies and from 7 unselected patients with autoimmune liver disease seen during the same period were studied. Sections of snap-frozen specimens were immunostained with monoclonal antibodies directed against different subsets of T cells, B cells, follicular dendritic cells and macrophages. Intraportal lymphoid nodules were observed in 11 of 13 patients with chronic hepatitis C. They appeared as lymphoid follicles with activated B cells in germinal centers surrounded by a follicular dendritic cell network. A mantle zone of B cells was present around the aggregate of activated B cells. A T-cell zone comprising CD4-positive helper T cells, CD8-positive suppressor/cytotoxic T cells and a few CD25-positive activated T cells expressing interleukin-2 receptor was seen at the periphery of the nodules. Human leukocyte antigen DR was expressed by B cells and by T cells, indicating that T cells were activated. The immunocompetent cells observed in piecemeal necrosis were predominantly CD4 helper T cells, whereas those seen in the lobule were predominantly CD8 suppressor/cytotoxic T cells. Some polytypic plasma cells were present in piecemeal necrosis. Intraportal lymphoid nodules were also observed in one patient with type 1 autoimmune chronic hepatitis and in one patient with primary sclerosing cholangitis. These nodules had a pattern indistinguishable from that observed in the patients with chronic hepatitis C. Similarly, immunocompetent cells of piecemeal necrosis and liver lobule shared a similar phenotype. We conclude that intraportal lymphoid nodules seen in chronic hepatitis C may be true functional lymphoid follicles, which induce stimulation of effector T cells and B cells. The characteristics of the nodules, their similarity with those observed in autoimmune liver disease and the presence of autoantibodies suggest an immune mechanism in the liver injury of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. (HEPATOLOGY 1993;17:366–371.)
    Hepatology 12/2005; 17(3):366 - 371. · 12.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intravenous administration of high doses of tetracycline may produce severe microvesicular steatosis of the liver in man. A similar disease is observed after ingestion of drugs which inhibit hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation and in subjects with various inborn defects in this metabolic pathway. We therefore determined the effects of tetracycline on the mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids in mice and in man.In vitro, addition of tetracycline 0.25, 0.5, 1 or 2 mM inhibited by 15, 38, 56 and 65%, respectively, the formation of β-oxidation products during incubation of palmitic acid with mouse liver mitochondria and the various cofactors necessary for β-oxidation. Inhibition was reversible. Inhibition appeared even greater with human liver mitochondria.Tricarboxylic acid cycle activity, assessed by the in vitro formation of [14C]CO2 from [1-14C]acetylcoenzyme A by mouse liver mitochondria, was inhibited by 25, 32 and 43%, respectively, in the presence of 0.5, 1 or 2 mM of tetracycline.In vivo, administration of tetracycline, 0.25 or 1 mmole per kg, inhibited by 53 and 84%, respectively, the exhalation of [14C]CO2 during the first 3 hours following the administration of a tracer dose of [U-14C] palmitic acid. Administration of tetracycline, 0.0625, 0.25 or 1 mmole per kg, 6 hr before the measurement, increased hepatic triglycerides by 100, 170 and 250%, respectively. After 1 mmole per kg, accumulation of hepatic triglycerides was maximum at 24 hr, reaching 9-fold the control value; liver histology showed microvesicular steatosis at 6 and 24 hr.We conclude that tetracycline inhibits the mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids in mice and in man. This effect may contribute to the development and severity of microvesicular steatosis observed after high doses of this antibiotic in man.
    Hepatology 12/2005; 8(5):1056 - 1062. · 12.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The molecular mechanisms of hepatocellular carcinoma have been studied, but little is known of the changes in liver gene expression during the different stages of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, in particular the transition from mild to moderate fibrosis. We used real-time quantitative RT PCR to study the messenger RNA expression of 240 selected genes in 2 pools of liver specimens according to the stages of fibrosis (Metavir score; mild fibrosis = F1 and septal fibrosis = F2). Genes whose expression differed between pools (F2 vs F1) by at least 2-fold were selected. In addition, the expression level of these selected genes then was assessed in each of the 62 individual samples (F4, n = 6; F3, n = 17; F2, n = 21; vs F1, n = 18). The 22 genes that were up-regulated in the 21 F2 samples relative to the 18 F1 samples mainly encoded genes involved in cytoskeleton (KRT 19 and SCG 10), growth factors/cytokines (CXCL6, interleukin 8 [IL8], IL1A, IL2, and CXCL10), or growth factor receptors (CCR2, CXCR3, and CXCR4), or were involved in extracellular matrix production (COL1A1, CHI3L, and SPP1), in extracellular matrix remodeling (TIMP1, MMP7, and MMP9), and in cell junction (ITGA2 and CLDN 4). When hierarchically clustering the F2 and F1 samples according to the expression of the 11 most discriminatory genes (KRT 19, COL1A1, STMN2, CXCL6, CCR2, TIMP1, IL8, IL1A, ITGA2, CLDN 4, and IL2), the patient population was categorized into 2 subgroups: F1 and F2. Specifically, 15 of 18 F1 (83%) and 19 of 21 F2 (90%) were classified correctly (P < 10(-5)). We also studied the messenger RNA expression of these 240 selected genes in normal liver in comparison with F1. Genes dysregulated in the transition from normal liver to F1 mainly were interferon-inducible genes, and therefore were very different from those dysregulated in the transition from F1 to F2. Genes involved in extracellular matrix turnover and immune response are implicated in the transition from mild to moderate fibrosis. Eleven of the genes could form the basis for the gene expression signature of mild versus moderate fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C.
    Gastroenterology 12/2005; 129(6):2064-75. · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipomatous meningiomas are rarely encountered and are included in the World Health Organization's (WHO) group of metaplastic meningiomas. We report two cases of these tumors. The presenting symptoms were headaches in one case and seizure in the other. Radiologically, these tumors were extra-axial and unique. One tumor displayed fat accumulation, while the other had the appearance of a conventional meningioma. Microscopically, these tumors corresponded to meningothelial and transitional meningiomas containing a variable proportion of adipose tissue composed of mature adipocytes or lipoblasts. Fat content was high in one case and moderate in the other, thus explaining the radiological findings. Expression of epithelial membrane antigen and progesterone receptors was present in meningothelial, adipocyte-like, and lipoblast-like cells. These immunohistochemical results suggest that lipid accumulation in meningioma should be considered a transformation of meningothelial cells rather than a true metaplasia.
    Annales de Pathologie 11/2005; 25(5):389-92. · 0.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipomatous meningiomas are rarely encountered and are included in the World Health Organization's (WHO) group of metaplastic meningiomas. We report two cases of these tumors. The presenting symptoms were headaches in one case and seizure in the other. Radiologically, these tumors were extra-axial and unique. One tumor displayed fat accumulation, while the other had the appearance of a conventional meningioma. Microscopically, these tumors corresponded to meningothelial and transitional meningiomas containing a variable proportion of adipose tissue composed of mature adipocytes or lipoblasts. Fat content was high in one case and moderate in the other, thus explaining the radiological findings. Expression of epithelial membrane antigen and progesterone receptors was present in meningothelial, adipocyte-like, and lipoblast-like cells. These immunohistochemical results suggest that lipid accumulation in meningioma should be considered a transformation of meningothelial cells rather than a true metaplasia.
    Annales de Pathologie 10/2005; 25(5):389–392. · 0.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interferon (IFN) therapy has been shown to reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic hepatitis C, including virological nonresponders (NR). Whether IFN suppresses liver cell proliferation, i.e. the relevant risk factor for HCC, is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of IFN therapy on liver cell proliferation in chronic hepatitis C. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen-labelling index (PCNA-LI) was assessed prior to and at the end of therapy in the liver of 29 patients with chronic hepatitis C who received 3 MU IFN-alpha2b thrice weekly for 24-48 weeks. Overall, the median value of PCNA-LI was significantly reduced from 2.6% to 1.1% at the end of therapy (P < 0.0001). At baseline, PCNA-LI median values were similar in the 15 virological responders compared with the 14 NRs (2.3%vs 3.4%, P = 0.121) and at the end of therapy, median changes of PCNA-LI (-1.4%vs-1.1%, P = 0.089) were also similar although there was a higher decline of the proliferation index in responders with respect to NRs at the end of therapy (0.7%vs 1.6%, P = 0.004). In the two groups, the rate of fibrosis score reduction was also similar (7%vs 20%, P = 0.326). In contrast, the histological activity index was more often reduced in responders than in NRs both at the >or=2 and >or=4 points reduction level (80%vs 36%, P = 0.02 and 53%vs 14%, P = 0.03, respectively). The study showed a significant suppression of liver cell proliferation in IFN-treated patients with chronic hepatitis C. Although the strongest IFN effect was observed in virological responders, a reduction of proliferative activity was also seen in virological NRs.
    Journal of Viral Hepatitis 09/2005; 12(5):499-506. · 3.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin is the most effective therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C. We evaluated this combination in unselected patients with bridging fibrosis or cirrhosis. Eighty patients were treated with peginterferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin. Hepatitis C virus serum RNA was monitored. Tolerance and safety were evaluated by the rate of treatment's discontinuation for any reason, and occurrence of serious clinical adverse events, respectively. Sustained virologic response (SVR) rate was 36.3% overall, and was observed in every group of patients except those who had previously failed to respond to the combination of interferon and ribavirin. No serious clinical adverse event occurred. Treatment was withdrawn in 18.7% of patients. Variables associated with discontinuation of treatment were low prothrombin index [OR: 1.16 (1.05;1.27)] and low body mass index [OR: 1.47 (1.12;1.92)]. Initial blood count abnormalities were not associated with cessation of treatment. Furthermore, early virologic response at week 8 and week 12 of treatment had similar predictive value for SVR. Combination therapy with peginterferon plus ribavirin seems effective in this group of patients, except in those who had previously failed to respond to the combination of interferon and ribavirin. This therapy is safe with appropriate monitoring, but tolerance seems worse in patients with the most advanced liver disease.
    Journal of Viral Hepatitis 08/2005; 12(4):421-8. · 3.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the expression of hypoxia-regulated markers in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PA) in relationship to the presence of a fibrotic focus, angiogenesis quantification and clinical outcome. The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha, HIF-2alpha, carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was immunohistochemically detected in 50 PA and correlated with tumour characteristics, microvascular density (MVD) and survival. HIF-1alpha was expressed within tumour cells in 68%, HIF-2alpha in 46%, CA9 in 78% and VEGF in 52% of the cases. Stromal expression was also noted for HIF-2alpha and CA9 in, respectively, 42% and 48% of the cases. Tumour CA9 expression was associated with that of VEGF (P=0.004) and that of stromal HIF-2alpha (P=0.013), with the presence of a fibrotic focus (P=0.046) and with an increased MVD (P=0.034). Tumour VEGF expression correlated with the presence of a fibrotic focus (P=0.039) and a greater MVD (P=0.047). Both the presence of a fibrotic focus (P=0.0002) and high tumour CA9 expression (P=0.029) were associated with reduced overall survival. The strong association of the presence of a fibrotic focus with CA9 expression and lower survival demonstrates that hypoxia-driven angiogenesis plays an important role in the progression of PA.
    Histopathology 07/2005; 46(6):668-76. · 2.86 Impact Factor
  • Histopathology 06/2005; 46(5):590-2. · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute rejection is an extremely common complication of lung transplantation. (1) To appreciate the interobserver variation in the interpretation of histologic findings and (2) to assess the efficacy of transbronchial biopsy (TBB) for acute rejection diagnosis and associated diseases, particularly infection, we performed a retrospective study including 53 consecutive patients who underwent at least one clinically indicated TBB during the first 6 months after lung transplantation. A total of 94 TBB was obtained. The following histologic features observed in TBB specimens-perivascular mononuclear infiltrates, lymphocytic bronchitis/bronchiolitis, and alveolar lesions, were reliably reproduced by 2 pathologists from the same transplant center, with kappa values ranging from 0.79 to 0.82. For identifying perivascular mononuclear infiltrates, discordance between the 2 observers was significantly associated with moderate/severe alveolar lesions. For the diagnosis of acute rejection, perivascular mononuclear infiltrates had a specificity of 96.5%, a positive predictive value of 97.5%, and a sensitivity of 67.7%, whereas lymphocytic bronchitis/bronchiolitis had a specificity of 56.3% and a sensitivity of 19.4%. Interestingly, there was a positive independent correlation between infection and moderate/severe alveolar histologic lesions ( P < .01). In conclusion, the interobserver agreement between experienced pathologists in TBB interpretation is good. Perivascular mononuclear infiltrates remain the cornerstone for acute rejection diagnosis. The presence of moderate/severe alveolar lesions should prompt to search for infection.
    Human Pathlogy 05/2005; 36(4):387-94. · 2.84 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

12k Citations
2,433.98 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009
    • Paris Diderot University
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2005
    • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Dijon
      Dijon, Bourgogne, France
  • 1990–2005
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2002
    • ANRS - Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida et les hépatites virales
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1980–2002
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 2001
    • Joslin Diabetes Center
      • Section on Immunobiology
      Boston, MA, United States
    • Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1988–2001
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1996–1999
    • Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire
      Strasburg, Alsace, France
  • 1992
    • CHRU de Strasbourg
      Strasburg, Alsace, France
  • 1982–1985
    • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Reims
      Rheims, Champagne-Ardenne, France