Nobuo Yaegashi

Tohoku University, Miyagi, Japan

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Publications (411)1024.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to explore the correlation between the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and postpartum depression among perinatal subjects in the Miyako region of Iwate, an area damaged by earthquakes and tsunamis. We retrospectively compared the percentages of women with scores ≥9 on the Japanese version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) among 3 groups of women who gave birth prior to the disaster (before-disaster group: n=141), within 3 months after the disaster (within-3-months group: n=70), and 4-6 months after the disaster (4-6-months group: n=89) at the Iwate Prefectural Miyako Hospital. The risk factors for EPDS scores ≥9 were estimated with multivariate logistic regression analyses. Compared with the before-disaster group, a significantly greater number of women in the within-3-months group had EPDS scores ≥9 at hospital discharge (31.4% versus 9.9%, P<.0001), whereas women in the 4-6-months group did not (10.1% versus 9.9%, P=.96). In both the after-disaster groups, the destruction of their home (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46-9.26) and dissatisfaction with their living conditions (AOR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.20-7.59) were significantly associated with EPDS scores ≥9. An increase in postpartum depression was observed after the Great East Japan Earthquake among perinatal women. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;0:1-6).
    Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness 04/2015; · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Surgery is effective and useful for curative treatment of patients with early invasive cervical cancer, yet minimization of surgical procedures provides many additional advantages for patients. Because the mean age of patients diagnosed with cervical precancer and invasive cancer has been decreasing, the need for minimization of surgery to reduce disruption of fertility is increasing. Trachelectomy is an innovative procedure for young patients with invasive cancer. Minimally invasive procedures are increasingly implemented in the treatment of patients with early cervical cancer, such as laparoscopic/robotic surgery and sentinel lymph node navigation. The use of modified radical hysterectomy may not only be curative but also minimally invasive for Stage IA2-IB1 patients with a tumor size <2 cm in diameter. Here, we have summarized and discussed the minimally invasive procedures for the treatment of patients with early cervical cancer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:
    Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/2015; DOI:10.1093/jjco/hyv048 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The second edition of the Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology guidelines for the treatment of uterine cervical cancer was published in 2011. The guidelines comprise eight chapters and five algorithms. They were prepared by consensus among the members of the Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology Guidelines Formulation Committee and Evaluation Committee and are based on a careful review of the evidence obtained from the literature, health insurance system, and actual clinical settings in Japan. The highlights of the 2011 revision are (1) the recommended grades have been changed to five stages-A, B, C1, C2, and D; (2) the revisions are consistent with the new International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging system; (3) the roles are shared between the 'Japanese classification of cervical cancer' and the new guidelines; (4) clinical questions related to adenocarcinoma have been revised; and (5) a clinical question regarding cervical cancer in pregnant patients has been added. Each chapter includes a clinical question, recommendations, background, objectives, explanations, and references. Each recommendation is accompanied by a classification of recommendation categories. The objective of these guidelines is to update the standard treatment strategies for cervical cancer, thus eliminating unnecessary and insufficient treatment.
    International Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2015; 20(2). DOI:10.1007/s10147-015-0806-7 · 2.17 Impact Factor
  • Koji Matsumoto, Takashi Onda, Nobuo Yaegashi
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    ABSTRACT: Several 'lines of therapy' that utilize cytotoxic agents and are driven by platinum-free intervals are the current standard of care for patients with recurrent ovarian cancer. For patients with platinum-resistant disease, single agent chemotherapy (pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, topotecan, gemcitabine or weekly paclitaxel) is the standard of care. For patients with platinum-sensitive disease, combination chemotherapy (carboplatin plus paclitaxel, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin or gemcitabine) is the standard of care. In addition, antiangiogenic therapy using bevacizumab is an established option. Future directions could include 'lines of therapy' with biologic agents driven by specific biologic targets. Data from antiangiogenic agents (trebananib, pazopanib and cediranib), antifolate drugs (farletuzumab and vintafolide), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (olaparib and veliparib), mTOR inhibitors (everolimus and temsirolimus) and immune editing agents (nivolumab) have been summarized in this review. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:
    Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2015; DOI:10.1093/jjco/hyv014 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This multi-institutional study was conducted to clarify the clinicopathological features of squamous cell carcinomas of the vulva. The medical records of vulvar cancer patients treated between 2002 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed following approval by the Institutional Review Board of each institution. One hundred and eleven patients with vulvar malignancies were included. Of these, 63 patients had squamous cell carcinoma (57 %). Initial treatment was surgery, radiation therapy (RT), and concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in 34 (54 %), 15 (24 %), and 11 (17 %) patients, respectively. Nineteen, 11, 26, and 7 patients had stage I, II, III, and IV disease, respectively. Of the 34 patients who had surgical treatment, 50 % had stage I disease, while 74 % of those who received CCRT had stage III or IV disease. Complete response (CR) rates for the surgery, RT, and CCRT groups were 73, 60, and 64 %, respectively. The 5-year survival rates for stage I/II and III/IV disease were 64 and 39 %, respectively (P = 0.019). The 5-year survival rates for the surgery, RT, and CCRT groups were 53, 38, and 50 %, respectively, and the prognosis of patients treated with surgery or CCRT was significantly better than that of patients who received RT (P < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, clinical response to initial treatment was an independent prognostic factor (P < 0.001). Although many patients had advanced-stage disease in the CCRT group, the therapeutic outcome for the surgery and CCRT groups was similar. Thus, CCRT may be a promising treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva.
    International Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10147-015-0803-x · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to determine indications for less radical surgery such as modified radical hysterectomy, the risk of pathological parametrial involvement and prognosis of FIGO stage IB1 cervical cancer patients undergoing standard radical hysterectomy with pre-operatively assessed tumor diameter ≤2cm were investigated. We conducted a retrospective multi-institutional chart review of patients with FIGO stage IB1 cervical cancer who underwent primary surgical treatment between 1998 and 2002. The eligibility criteria for the analyses were (i) histologically-proven squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma or, adenosquamous cell carcinoma, (ii) radical hysterectomy performed, (iii) clinical tumor diameter data available by MR imaging or specimens by cone biopsy, and (iv) age between 20 and 70. Based on the clinical tumor diameter, patients were stratified into those with the following tumors: i) 2cm or less (cT≤2cm) and ii) greater than 2cm (cT>2cm). We expected 5-year OS of ≥95% and parametrial involvement <2-3% for patients with cT≤2cm who underwent radical hysterectomy. Of the 1269 patients enrolled, 604 were eligible for the planned analyses. Among these, 571 underwent radical hysterectomy (323 with cT≤2cm and 248 with cT>2cm). Parametrial involvement was present in 1.9% (6/323) with cT≤2cm and 12.9% (32/248) with cT>2cm. Five-year overall survivals were 95.8% (95% CI 92.9-97.6%) in cT≤2cm and 91.9% (95% CI 87.6-94.8%) in cT>2cm patients. Patients with cT≤2cm had lower risk of parametrial involvement and more favorable 5-year overall survival. They could therefore be good candidates for receiving less radical surgery. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Gynecologic Oncology 02/2015; 137(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ygyno.2015.01.548 · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 is predictive of poor outcome in several types of cancer. The present study investigated the biological role for PAI-1 in ovarian cancer and potential of targeted pharmacotherapeutics. In patients with ovarian cancer, PAI-1 mRNA expression in tumor tissues was positively correlated with poor prognosis. To determine the role of PAI-1 in cell proliferation in ovarian cancer, the effects of PAI-1 inhibition were examined in PAI-1-expressing ovarian cancer cells. PAI-1 knockdown by small interfering RNA resulted in significant suppression of cell growth accompanied with G2/M cell cycle arrest and intrinsic apoptosis. Similarly, treatment with the small molecule PAI-1 inhibitor TM5275 effectively blocked cell proliferation of ovarian cancer cells that highly express PAI-1. Together these results suggest that PAI-1 promotes cell growth in ovarian cancer. Interestingly, expression of PAI-1 was increased in ovarian clear cell carcinoma compared with that in serous tumors. Our results suggest that PAI-1 inhibition promotes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in ovarian cancer and that PAI-1 inhibitors potentially represent a novel class of anti-tumor agents.
    Cancer biology & therapy 01/2015; DOI:10.1080/15384047.2014.1001271 · 3.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate prognostic factors, including postoperative chemotherapy regimen, for the treatment of ovarian yolk sac tumour (YST), and resulting fertility outcome.
    European Journal of Cancer 01/2015; 51(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2014.12.004 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hachimijiogan (HJG), Ba-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan in Chinese, is one of the most popular herbal medicines in Japanese Kampo. HJG is often prescribed for the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases. Muscle atrophy plays an important role in aging-related disabilities such as sarcopenia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible beneficial effect of HJG on skeletal muscle. Cells of murine skeletal muscle myoblast cell line C2C12 were used as an in vitro model of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. The effect of HJG on C2C12 cell proliferation and differentiation was assessed. We counted the number of myotubes morphologically to assess the degree of differentiation. HJG treatment (200 μg/mL) for 3 days significantly increased C2C12 cell number by 1.23-fold compared with that of the control. HJG promoted the proliferation of C2C12 cells through activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway without affecting the Akt signaling pathway. HJG did not affect the differentiation of C2C12 cells. HJG had beneficial effects on skeletal muscle myoblast proliferation. These findings may provide a useful intervention for the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia.
    Clinical Interventions in Aging 01/2015; 10:445-51. DOI:10.2147/CIA.S75945 · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake hit northeast Japan. Previous letter on Hypertension by Sato et al reported that 11.6/3.9mmHg for systolic/diastolic blood pressure (BP) and 4.7bpm for heart rate (HR) elevations were observed by home BP measurement among hypertensive outpatients aged 68.1±8.8 years. In this study we observed home BP change before and after the earthquake among pregnant women. We used database from the BOSHI study which participated pregnant women from October 2006 to September 2011 at a maternity hospital In Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. The participants were asked to measure their own BPs every morning at home while they were pregnant. A linear mixed model was used for analysis of the BP course throughout pregnancy. Total 1137 pregnant woman was included into the analysis. Of those, 210 pregnant women were participated before the earthquake and gave birth after the earthquake. Of those, 133 women measured their BP in March 2011. The average number of home BP measurements was 13.8 in March 2011. Home BP and HR which are not measured in March 2011 were 105.9(105.4-106.4)/63.2(62.8-63.6)mmHg and 74.3(73.9-74.7)bpm, respectively. Home BP and HR were 105.0(103.5-106.4)/64.1(62.8-65.3)mmHg, 73.8(71.8-81.8)bpm in the morning at March 11, 2011 (just before the earthquake), and 110.7(104.8-116.6)/63.6(58.4-68.8)mmHg, 76.3(70.2-82.5)bpm in the morning at March 12, 2011 (just after the earthquake), respectively. Home BP was immediately elevated just after the earthquake and gradually decreased over a month as we previously reported among hypertensive patients. Because we only analyzed BP who could keep their equipment, the BP change just after the earthquake might be underestimated. H. Metoki: Research Support Recipient; Commercial Interest: Omron Healthcare. N. Iwama: None. Z. Watanabe: None. T. Ohkubo: None. M. Ishikuro: None. T. Obara: None. M. Kikuya: None. J. Sugawara: None. S. Kuriyama: None. K. Itoh: None. K. Hoshi: None. M. Suzuki: None. M. Satoh: None. N. Yaegashi: None. Y. Imai: None. Copyright © 2014.
    01/2015; 5(1):4-5. DOI:10.1016/j.preghy.2014.10.012
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    ABSTRACT: To the Editor: The global population is aging.1 Pneumonia is a leading cause of death in elderly adults, especially those with dysphasia and microaspiration.2 Because aspiration pneumonia is related to impairment of the swallowing and cough reflex,3 the development of preventive strategies is needed to improve such protective reflexes to reduce the incidence of pneumonia in older people. In Japan, pneumonia is the third leading cause of death.4 It was previously reported that acupuzncture at two points on the legs (ST36 and KI3) improved the swallowing reflex after stroke5 and reduced pharyngeal retention and aspiration.6 To investigate the effectiveness of acupuncture with press needles in improving the swallowing reflex in elderly adults with cerebrovascular disease, a three-arm randomized double-blind controlled multicenter trial was conducted by incorporating sham patches and sham points. Individuals aged 65 and older who had had a stroke and had dysphasia were recruited consecutively from two hospitals and two nursing homes in Sendai, Japan. The purpose and design of the study were explained to each individual, and informed consent was obtained. The Tohoku University ethics committee approved the study protocol. Twenty-nine individuals (10 men, 19 women; mean age � SD 82.2 � 7.1) were recruited and assigned randomly to three groups: group 1, press needles (Pyonex; Seirin Corporation, Shizuoka, Japan) on the ST36 and KI3; group 2, sham patches on the acupuncture points; and group 3, press needles on sham points. The needles were 0.2 mm in diameter and 0.6 mm long. The design of the sham patch was identical to that of the press needle except most of the needle had been cut off, so that only the head of the needle remained in the resin. Patches were applied and changed every day for 4 weeks. Latent time of swallowing reflex (LTSR), plasma substance P (SP), Barthel Index, Mini-Mental State Examination, and days of fever were measured at baseline and 4 weeks later. Table 1 shows the outcomes of this study. The primary outcome was change in LTSR. A statistically significant shortening of LTSR was evident in Group 1 (6.9 � 2.3 vs 2.5 � 0.3 seconds, P = .005), whereas no statistically significant difference was observed in the other two groups. There was a significant difference between the three groups in change in LTSR (P = .009). Change in LTSR in Group 1 was significantly different from that in Group 2 (P = .008) but not Group 3 (P > .99). There was a significant difference in LTSR at day 28 between Groups 1 and 2 (P = .001), but no significant difference between Groups 1 and 3 (P = .51). Plasma SP did not change significantly during the study in any group, and no differences in secondary outcomes were observed in any group. between baseline and Day 28. Peripheral blood tests were performed to assess inflammatory and nutritional status. No statistically significant differences were observed in white blood cell count, C-reactive protein, total protein, albumin, or total cholesterol between baseline and Day 28. There were no significant differences in any parameters. Neither press needle nor sham needle treatment caused any side effects. Attachment of press needles at the two leg acupuncture points improved the swallowing reflex of elderly adults with cerebrovascular disease. Lack of a significant difference between acupuncture points and sham points indicates that the attachment of the fine needle itself has some effect on the swallowing reflex. Even if the press needles are placed at positions that deviate from the acupoints (e.g., sham points in this study), LTSR may improve, which is clinically convenient. This type of acupuncture may become a new adjuvant method for the prevention and treatment of pneumonia in elderly adults. The limitations of the present study were the small sample size and short follow-up time. In addition, only Group 3 included participants with extremely poor LTSR at baseline, which could have been why there was no difference between Groups 1 and 3 in LTSR at Day 28. Further studies are required to investigate the effect of the press needle on swallowing function.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 12/2014; 62(12):2438. DOI:10.1111/jgs.13164. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endometrial carcinoma, especially endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma, is an estrogen-dependent tumor that is similar to breast cancer. Androgen is closely associated with other steroid hormones, but its correlation with endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma remains largely unclear. We previously demonstrated the expression of the androgen receptor, 5α-reductase type 1, and 5α-reductase type 2 in endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma tissue, but androgen action and its correlation with prognosis are unknown. In this study, we measured the tissue and serum concentrations of androgen and performed immunohistochemical analyses of androgen-associated factors in 41 patients. In 86 additional patients, we performed the same immunohistochemical analyses to identify correlations associated with prognosis. We found that 5α-reductase type 1 was associated with intratumoral dihydrotestosterone concentrations, and it was an independent prognostic factor in endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma. The poor prognosis of patients negative for both androgen receptor and 5α-reductase type 1 suggests that androgens have inhibitory effects on tumor growth. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 12/2014; 401. DOI:10.1016/j.mce.2014.11.022 · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate surgical, pregnancy, and prognostic outcomes of radical abdominal trachelectomy (RAT) for Japanese patients with early-stage cervical cancer.
    International Journal of Clinical Oncology 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10147-014-0763-6 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AimThe aim of this study was to investigate the long-term fertility prognosis after B-Lynch sutures for post-partum hemorrhage (PPH).MethodsA retrospective observational study was conducted on patients who underwent B-Lynch sutures in our hospital between 2005 and 2010. Patient data was collected from hospital records. Information regarding subsequent pregnancies and menstrual complications were obtained by posted questionnaires and telephone interviews with patients who avoided hysterectomy.ResultsA total of 28 B-Lynch sutures were performed in 3976 deliveries, all in patients that underwent cesarean section. Twenty-two of the 26 patients who avoided hysterectomy answered our questionnaire or took part in an interview. All patients recovered regular menstruation with no severe complications. Of the 19 patients who wanted another child, 12 patients (63.2%) had 14 subsequent pregnancies in a mean follow-up period of 52.1 months. The results of pregnancies were nine uncomplicated term pregnancies, all delivered by elective cesarean section, two artificial abortions and three miscarriages. A significant difference was observed in the age of patients with subsequent pregnancies and those without pregnancies (30.8 vs 34.6 years, P = 0.04).ConclusionB-Lynch sutures for PPH do not appear to jeopardize fecundity. An older age was a risk factor for achieving subsequent pregnancies.
    Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 11/2014; DOI:10.1111/jog.12590 · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of paclitaxel and carboplatin in patients with completely or optimally resected uterine carcinosarcoma. Materials and Methods: We conducted a single-arm multicenter prospective phase II trial at 20 Japanese medical facilities. Eligible patients had histologically confirmed uterine carcinosarcoma without prior chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Patients received 6 courses of 175 mg/m(2) paclitaxel over 3 hours, followed by a 30-minute intravenous administration of carboplatin at an area under the serum concentration-time curve of 6. Results: A total of 51 patients were enrolled in this study, 48 of whom underwent complete resection and 3 of whom underwent optimal resection. At 2 years, the progression-free survival and overall survival rates were 78.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 64.1%-87.3%) and 87.9% (95% CI, 75.1%-94.4%), respectively. At 4 years, these rates were 67.9% (95% CI, 53.0%-79.0%) and 76.0% (95% CI, 60.5%-86.1%), respectively. Although 15 patients showed disease recurrence during the follow-up period (median, 47.8 months; range, 2.1-72.8 months), a total of 40 (78.4%) patients completed the 6 courses of treatment that had been planned. Conclusions: The combination of paclitaxel and carboplatin was a feasible and effective postoperative adjuvant therapy for patients with completely or optimally resected uterine carcinosarcoma.
    International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 10/2014; 25(1). DOI:10.1097/IGC.0000000000000302 · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ischemic reperfusion (IR) during the perinatal period is a known causative factor of fetal brain damage. So far, both morphologic and histologic evidence has shown that fetal brain damage can be observed only several hours to days after an IR insult has occurred. Therefore, to prevent fetal brain damage under these circumstances, a more detailed understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms involved during an acute response to IR is necessary. In the present work, pregnant mice were exposed to IR on day 18 of gestation by clipping one side of the maternal uterine horn. Simultaneous fetal electrocardiography was performed during the procedure to verify that conditions resulting in fetal brain damage were met. Fetal brain sampling within 30 minutes after IR insult revealed molecular evidence that a fetal response was indeed triggered in the form of inhibition of the Akt-mTOR-S6 synthesis pathway. Interestingly, significant changes in mRNA levels for both HIF-1α and p53 were apparent and gene regulation patterns were observed to switch from a HIF-1α-dependent to a p53-dependent process. Moreover, pre-treatment with pifithrin-α, a p53 inhibitor, inhibited protein synthesis almost completely, revealing the possibility of preventing fetal brain damage by prophylactic pifithrin-α treatment.
    PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e110577. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0110577 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To ascertain the spectrum of clinical management of endometrial carcinoma (EC) the largest international survey was conducted to evaluate and identify differences worldwide. Methods After validation of a 15-item questionnaire regarding surgical and adjuvant treatment of EC in Germany, an English-adapted questionnaire was put online and posted to all the major gynecological cancer Societies worldwide for further distribution commencing in 2010 and continued for 26 months. Results A total of 618 Institutions around the world participated: Central Europe (CE), Southern Europe (SE), Northern Europe (NE), Asia and USA/Canada/UK. Both a therapeutic and staging value was attributed to systematic pelvic and paraaortic lymph node dissection (LND) in CE (74.6 %) and in Asia (67.2 %), as opposed to USA/UK where LND was mainly for staging purposes (53.5 %; p p p p Conclusions There is broad range in both the surgical and adjuvant treatment of EC across different countries. Large-scale multicenter prospective trials are warranted to establish consistent, evidence-based guidelines to optimize treatment worldwide.
    Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics 10/2014; 291(4). DOI:10.1007/s00404-014-3510-3 · 1.28 Impact Factor
  • Placenta 10/2014; 35(10):A19. DOI:10.1016/j.placenta.2014.08.072 · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Clinical Medicine Research 10/2014; 6(5):392-4. DOI:10.14740/jocmr1867e
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    ABSTRACT: This study explores the correlation between the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the incidence of postpartum depression in Miyagi prefecture, Japan. The design used was a cross-sectional study with self-administered questionnaires, 6-9 months after the disaster. The results showed the prevalence of postnatal women with Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score of ≥9 to be 21.3 %. Multivariate analysis showed that exposure to tsunami (odds ratio, 1.80; 95 % confidence interval, 1.16-2.78) was significantly and independently associated with an EPDS score of ≥9. Postnatal women and their children should be treated as a vulnerable population, and a protective framework must be established to prepare for future devastating disasters.
    Archives of Women s Mental Health 09/2014; 17(6). DOI:10.1007/s00737-014-0459-y · 1.96 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
1,024.20 Total Impact Points


  • 1995–2015
    • Tohoku University
      • • Department of Gynecology
      • • Graduate School of Medicine
      • • Department of Obstetrics
      • • Division of Reproductive and Developmental Medicine
      • • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      • • Department of Medical Genetics
      Miyagi, Japan
  • 2013
    • Fudan University
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2003–2013
    • University Hospital Medical Information Network
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Sendai University
      Sendai, Kagoshima, Japan
  • 1994–2013
    • Kinki University
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2011
    • University of Western Australia
      • School of Women's and Infants' Health
      Perth, Western Australia, Australia
    • Shinshu University
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Shonai, Nagano, Japan
  • 2010
    • Keio University
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
    • Osaka City General Hospital
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
    • Tottori University
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      TTJ, Tottori, Japan
    • Iwate Prefectural Central Hospital
      Aomori, Aomori Prefecture, Japan
    • Juntendo University
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2008
    • Hirosaki University
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Khirosaki, Aomori Prefecture, Japan
  • 2007
    • RIKEN
      Вако, Saitama, Japan
    • National Defense Medical College
      • Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Tokorozawa, Saitama-ken, Japan
  • 2006
    • Fukushima Medical University
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Hukusima, Fukushima, Japan
  • 2004
    • Kumamoto University
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan
  • 2003–2004
    • Yamagata University
      Ямагата, Yamagata, Japan
  • 2001
    • Hiroshima Prefectural University
      • School of Bioresources
      Hirosima, Hiroshima, Japan
  • 1999
    • Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health
      Izumi, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 1991–1993
    • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
      Seattle, Washington, United States