Maximilian F Reiser

Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich, München, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (975)2519.46 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Rationale and Objectives The purpose of this study was to provide normal values of volumetry and linear dimensions of adrenal glands. Materials and Methods Contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography scans of 105 patients were evaluated in this retrospective study. Imaging software was used both to measure the adrenal gland volume and to determine linear dimensions and density. For interobserver reliability, determination was repeated by a second reader in 10 patients selected at random. Results The mean adrenal volume was 4.84 (±1.67) cm³ on the left side and 3.62 (±1.23) cm³ on the right side. The total adrenal volume was mainly influenced by body weight (P < .001) and gender with women having smaller glands on average. The total width of the adrenal gland was 15.80 (±3.05) mm on the right side and 18.96 (±3.37) mm on the left side. There was a significant correlation between volume and linear measurements (P < .001). The mean density of both adrenal glands was 32.66 (±19.64) HU. Overall, interobserver reliability was high for volumetry (left adrenal, r = 0.98; right adrenal, r = 0.90) and low for linear dimensions. Conclusions Normal data for volumetry and linear dimensions are provided. There is a concordance between volumetric and linear assessment. However, volumetry is more reproducible.
    Academic Radiology. 11/2014; 21(11):1465–1474.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The purpose of this prospective study was to perform a head-to-head comparison of the two methods most frequently used for evaluation of carotid plaque characteristics: Multi-detector Computed Tomography Angiography (MDCTA) and black-blood 3 T-cardiovascular magnetic resonance (bb-CMR) with respect to their ability to identify symptomatic carotid plaques. METHODS: 22 stroke unit patients with unilateral symptomatic carotid disease and >50% stenosis by duplex ultrasound underwent MDCTA and bb-CMR (TOF, pre- and post-contrast fsT1w-, and fsT2w- sequences) within 15 days of symptom onset. Both symptomatic and contralateral asymptomatic sides were evaluated. By bb-CMR, plaque morphology, composition and prevalence of complicated AHA type VI lesions (AHA-LT6) were evaluated. By MDCTA, plaque type (non-calcified, mixed, calcified), plaque density in HU and presence of ulceration and/or thrombus were evaluated. Sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), positive and negative predictive value (PPV, NPV) were calculated using a 2-by-2-table. RESULTS: To distinguish between symptomatic and asymptomatic plaques AHA-LT6 was the best CMR variable and presence / absence of plaque ulceration was the best CT variable, resulting in a SE, SP, PPV and NPV of 80%, 80%, 80% and 80% for AHA-LT6 as assessed by bb-CMR and 40%, 95%, 89% and 61% for plaque ulceration as assessed by MDCTA. The combined SE, SP, PPV and NPV of bb-CMR and MDCTA was 85%, 75%, 77% and 83%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Bb-CMR is superior to MDCTA at identifying symptomatic carotid plaques, while MDCTA offers high specificity at the cost of low sensitivity. Results were only slightly improved over bb-CMR alone when combining both techniques.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 10/2014; 16(1):84. · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new dual-energy computed tomographic postprocessing approach on the basis of the transformation of dual-energy radiodensity data into polar coordinates. Given 2 corresponding dual-energy computed tomographic images, the attenuation data D(U1), D(U2) in Hounsfield units of both tube voltages (U1,U2) were transformed for each voxel to polar coordinates: r (distance to the radiodensity coordinate origin) is an approximate measure of electron density and φ (angle to the abscissa) differentiates between materials.
    Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography 10/2014; · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE. Beta-2-microglobulin is a serum maker of tumor burden in hematologic malignancies. We aimed to correlate serum β2-microglobulin levels in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) to tumor mass determined by whole-body MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS. We retrospectively included patients with newly diagnosed, untreated MM who underwent whole-body MRI at our institution between 2003 and 2011. Patients with a glomerular filtration rate of less than 60 mL/min were excluded from analysis because β2-microglobulin levels are increased in renal failure. Thirty patients could be included. Whole-body MRI examinations (T1-weighted turbo spin-echo and STIR sequences) were assessed by two musculoskeletal radiologists in consensus for focal lesions and the presence of diffuse myeloma infiltration. The presence of diffuse infiltration was confirmed by histology as the reference standard. MM was staged according to the Durie and Salmon PLUS staging system. RESULTS. According to whole-body MRI findings, MM was classified as Durie and Salmon PLUS stage I (low grade) in 13 patients, stage II (intermediate grade) in six patients, and stage III (high grade) in 11 patients. As we expected, most patients with stage I disease (12/13) had normal β2-microglobulin levels (≤ 3 mg/L). Higher β2-microglobulin values were associated with a higher stage of disease (p < 0.05). However, five of six patients with stage II MM and five of 11 patients with stage III MM showed normal β2-microglobulin levels. Thus, 10 of 17 patients (58.8%) with substantial infiltration in the bone marrow showed false-negative β2-microglobulin levels. CONCLUSION. Serum β2-microglobulin levels correlate with tumor stage in MM. However, it may be misleading as a marker of tumor load in a subset of patients with substantial myeloma infiltration in the bone marrow. Whole-body MRI may display the full tumor load and correctly show the extension of myeloma infiltrates.
    AJR. American journal of roentgenology. 10/2014; 203(4):854-862.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of region of interest (ROI) size and positioning on perfusion and permeability parameters as well as on interobserver and intraobserver variability of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-MRI) of primary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and metastases.
    Investigative radiology. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the use of diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) and volume measurements for early monitoring of antiangiogenic therapy in an experimental tumor model.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e106970. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE. The purpose of our study was to determine the optimum combination of b values for calculating the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) using a diffusion-weighted (DW) single-shot turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence in the differentiation between acute benign and malignant vertebral body fractures. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Twenty-six patients with osteoporotic (mean age, 69 years; range, 31.5-86.2 years) and 20 patients with malignant vertebral fractures (mean age, 63.4 years; range, 24.7-86.4 years) were studied. T1-weighted, STIR, and T2-weighted sequences were acquired at 1.5 T. A DW single-shot TSE sequence at different b values (100, 250, 400, and 600 s/mm(2)) was applied. On the DW images for each evaluated fracture, an ROI was manually adapted to the area of hyperintense signal intensity on STIR-hypointense signal on T1-weighted images. For each ROI, nine different combinations of two, three, and four b values were used to calculate the ADC using a least-squares algorithm. The Student t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to determine significant differences between benign and malignant fractures. An ROC analysis and the Youden index were used to determine cutoff values for assessment of the highest sensitivity and specificity for the different ADC values. The positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were also determined. RESULTS. All calculated ADCs (except the combination of b = 400 s/mm(2) and b = 600 s/mm(2)) showed statistically significant differences between benign and malignant vertebral body fractures, with benign fractures having higher ADCs than malignant ones. The use of higher b values resulted in lower ADCs than those calculated with low b values. The highest AUC (0.85) showed the ADCs calculated with b = 100 and 400 s/mm(2), and the second highest AUC (0.829) showed the ADCs calculated with b = 100, 250, and 400 s/mm(2). The Youden index with equal weight given to sensitivity and specificity suggests use of an ADC calculated with b = 100, 250, and 400 s/mm(2) (cutoff ADC, < 1.7 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) to best diagnose malignancy (sensitivity, 85%; specificity, 84.6%; PPV, 81.0%; NPV, 88.0%). CONCLUSION. ADCs calculated with a combination of low to intermediate b values (b = 100, 250, and 400 s/mm(2)) provide the best diagnostic performance of a DW single-shot TSE sequence to differentiate acute benign and malignant vertebral body fractures.
    American Journal of Roentgenology 09/2014; 203(3):582-8. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In young healthy participants, the degree of daily rhythmicity largely varies across different neuronal resting-state networks (RSNs), while it is to date unknown whether this temporal pattern of activity is conserved in healthy and pathological aging. Twelve healthy elderly (mean age = 65.1 ± 5.7 years) and 12 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI; mean age = 69.6 ± 6.2 years) underwent four resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans at fixed 2.5 h intervals throughout a day. Time courses of a RSN were extracted by a connectivity strength and a spatial extent approach performed individually for each participant. Highly rhythmic RSNs included a sensorimotor, a cerebellar and a visual network in healthy elderly; the least rhythmic RSNs in this group included a network associated with executive control and an orbitofrontal network. The degree of daily rhythmicity in aMCI patients was reduced and dysregulated. For healthy elderly, the findings are in accordance with results reported for young healthy participants suggesting a comparable distribution of daily rhythmicity across RSNs during healthy aging. In contrast, the reduction and dysregulation of daily rhythmicity observed in aMCI patients is presumably indicative of underlying neurodegenerative processes in this group.
    Chronobiology International 08/2014; · 4.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To evaluate technical success, complications, and effective dose in patients undergoing CT fluoroscopy-guided iliosacral screw placement for the fixation of unstable posterior pelvic ring injuries. Materials and methods Our retrospective analysis includes all consecutive patients with vertical sacral fractures and/or injury of the iliosacral joint treated with CT fluoroscopy-guided screw placement in our department from 11/2005 to 03/2013. Interventions were carried out under general anesthesia and CT fluoroscopy (10–20 mAs; 120 kV; 16- or 128-row scanner, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). Technical outcome, major and minor complications, and effective patient dose were analyzed. Results We treated 99 consecutive patients (mean age 53.1 ± 21.7 years, 50 male, 49 female) with posterior pelvic ring instability with CT fluoroscopy-guided screw placement. Intervention was technically successful in all patients (n = 99). No major and one minor local complication occurred (1 %, secondary screw dislocation). General complications included three cases of death (3 %) due to pulmonary embolism (n = 1), hemorrhagic shock (n = 1), or cardiac event (n = 1) during a follow-up period of 30 days. General complications were not related to the intervention. Mean effective patient radiation dose per intervention was 12.28 mSv ± 7.25 mSv. Mean procedural time was 72.1 ± 37.4 min. Conclusions CT fluoroscopy-guided screw placement for the treatment of posterior pelvic ring instabilities can be performed with high technical success and a low complication rate. This method provides excellent intrainterventional visualization of iliac and sacral bones, as well as the sacral neuroforamina for precise screw placement by applying an acceptable effective patient dose.
    Skeletal Radiology 08/2014; 43(8). · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To find out whether the use of accelerated 2D-selective parallel-transmit excitation MRI for diffusion-weighted EPI (pTX-EPI) offers advantages over conventional single-shot EPI (c-EPI) with respect to different aspects of image quality in the MRI of the pancreas. Materials and methods The MRI examinations of 33 consecutive patients were evaluated in this prospective and IRB-approved study. PTX-EPI was performed with a reduced (zoomed) FOV of 230 × 118 mm2. The 2D-RF pulse of pTX-EPI was accelerated, i. e. shortened by a factor of 1.7 (pTX-acceleration factor). C-EPI used a full-FOV of 380 × 285 mm2. In a qualitative analysis, two experienced readers evaluated 3 different aspects of image quality on 3- to 5-point Likert scales. Additionally, apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were determined in both c-EPI and pTX-EPI in normal-appearing pancreatic tissue using regions of interests (ROIs). Mean ADC values and standard deviations were compared between the two techniques. Results The reduced-FOV pTX-EPI was superior to c-EPI with respect to overall image quality (p < 0.0001) and identifiability of the pancreatic ducts (p < 0.01). Artifacts were significantly less severe in pTX-EPI (p < 0.01). The mean ADC values of c-EPI (1.29 ± 0.19 × 10−3 mm2/s) and pTX-EPI (1.27 ± 0.17 × 10−3 mm2/s) did not differ significantly between the two techniques (p = 0.44). The variation within the ROIs as measured by the standard deviation was significantly lower in pTX-EPI (0.095 × 10−3 mm2/s) than in c-EPI (0.135 × 10−3 mm2/s), p < 0.05. Conclusions PTX-accelerated EPI with spatially-selective excitation and reduced FOV leads to substantial improvements in DWI of the pancreas with respect to different aspects of image quality without significantly influencing the ADC values.
    European Journal of Radiology 07/2014; 83(10):1709-1714. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Grating-based X-ray dark-field contrast is an emerging new imaging modality that is demonstrating particularly high potential for radiography. The signal in dark-field X-ray imaging is determined by small-angle X-ray scattering at structures typically below the spatial resolution of the imaging setup. Thus, this technique not only yields complementary information but also visualizes information that lies under the resolution limit for con-ventional, absorption-based radiography. Grating-based X-ray dark-field imaging has been shown to be feasible with both synchrotron radiation and conventional X-ray tubes. Lung, breast, and bone imaging have been identified as the applications promising the main impact, but other applications are on the horizon. Specifically, dark-field radiography has been used to detect pulmonary emphy-sema and assesses its regional distribution in mice and holds promise to improve the visualization of micro-cal-cifications in mammography and yields information about bone microstructure. Further technical developments are required to make the technique suitable for clinical use.
    Current Radiology Reports. 07/2014; 2(7).
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    ABSTRACT: To date, the MRI-based individualized prediction of psychosis has only been demonstrated in single-site studies. It remains unclear if MRI biomarkers generalize across different centers and MR scanners and represent accurate surrogates of the risk for developing this devastating illness. Therefore, we assessed whether a MRI-based prediction system identified patients with a later disease transition among 73 clinically defined high-risk per-sons recruited at two different early recognition centers. Prognostic performance was measured using cross-validation, independent test validation and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Transition outcomes were correctly predicted in 80% of test cases (sensitivity: 76%, specificity: 85%, positive likelihood ratio: 5.1). Thus, given a 54-months transition risk of 45% across both centers, MRI-based predictors provided a 36%-increase of prognostic certainty. After stratifying individuals into low, intermediate and high-risk groups using the predictor’s decision score, the high vs. low-risk groups had median psychosis-free survival times of 5 vs. 51 months and transition rates of 88% vs. 8%. The predictor’s decision function involved gray matter volume alterations in prefrontal, perisylvian and subcortical structures. Our results support the existence of a cross-center neuroanatomical signature of emerging psychosis enabling individualized risk staging across different high-risk populations. Supplementary results revealed that (1) potentially confounding between-site differences were effectively mitigated using statistical correction methods, and (2) the detection of the prodromal signature considerably depended on the available sample sizes. These observations pave the way for future multi-center studies, which may ultimately facilitate the neurobiological refinement of risk criteria and personalized preventive therapies based on individualized risk profiling tools.
    Schizophrenia Bulletin 06/2014; · 8.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare single-slice and 3-dimensional (3D) analysis for magnetic resonance renography (plasma flow [FP], plasma volume [VP], and glomerular filtration rate [GFR]) and for dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of renal tumors (FP, VP, permeability-surface area product), respectively.
    Investigative radiology. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Methylphenidate (MPH) is an indirect dopaminergic and noradrenergic agonist that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and that has shown therapeutic potential in neuropsychiatric diseases such as depression, dementia, and Parkinson's disease. While effects of MPH on task-induced brain activation have been investigated, little is known about how MPH influences the resting brain. To investigate the effects of 40 mg of oral MPH on intrinsic functional connectivity, we used resting state fMRI in 54 healthy male subjects in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Functional connectivity analysis employing ICA revealed seven resting state networks (RSN) of interest. Connectivity strength between the dorsal attention network and the thalamus was increased after MPH intake. Other RSN located in association cortex areas, such as the left and right frontoparietal networks and the executive control network, showed MPH-induced connectivity increase to sensory-motor and visual cortex regions and connectivity decrease to cortical and subcortical components of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits (CST). RSN located in sensory-motor cortex areas showed the opposite pattern with MPH-induced connectivity increase to CST components and connectivity decrease to sensory-motor and visual cortex regions. Our results provide evidence that MPH does not only alter intrinsic connectivity between brain areas involved in sustained attention, but that it also induces significant changes in the cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical connectivity of many other cognitive and sensory-motor RSN. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Human Brain Mapping 05/2014; · 6.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess whether the recently developed method of grating-based x-ray dark-field radiography can improve the diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema in vivo.
    Investigative radiology. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To evaluate if vascular and pulmonary parenchymal enhancement values in dual-energy (DE) pulmonary computed tomography angiography (CTPA) can suggest the diagnosis of pulmonary congestion. Methods DE CTPA images of 90 out of 1321 patients negative for pulmonary embolism showed signs of congestive heart failure. We measured dual-energy-derived pulmonary parenchymal (PBV), pulmonary arterial (PA), and left atrial (LA) enhancement values in those and 142 control patients. Enhancement values were compared between the populations and correlated with serum values of BNP and proBNP, where available. Results No significant difference of PBV but significant differences of mean PA and LA enhancement and individual enhancement differences [PA-LA] were found between the populations. [PA-LA] was higher in patients with elevated BNP and proBNP and was positively correlated with those values. ROC analysis revealed a moderate discriminatory power of [PA-LA] for the presence of cardiac biomarker elevations. Conclusion PBV in DE CTPA is not altered in patients with signs of congestive heart failure. However, differences in enhancement values in the pre- and post-pulmonary vessels were found in comparison with the control population. Those easy measurements may be a helpful tool in patients with dyspnea or chest pain negative for PE.
    The British journal of radiology 05/2014; · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluates high-resolution tomographic x-ray phase-contrast imaging in whole human knee joints for the depiction of soft tissue with emphasis on hyaline cartilage. The method is compared with conventional computed tomography (CT), synchrotron radiation absorption-based CT, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). After approval of the institutional review board, 2 cadaveric human knees were examined at an synchrotron institution using a monochromatic x-ray beam of 60 keV, a detector with a 90-mm field of view, and a pixel size of 46 × 46 μm. Images of phase-contrast imaging CT were reconstructed with the filtered back projection algorithm and the equally sloped tomography method. Image quality and tissue contrast were evaluated and compared in all modalities and with histology. Phase-contrast imaging provides visualization of altered cartilage regions invisible in absorption CT with simultaneous high detail of the underlying bony abnormalities. The delineation of surface changes is similar to 3-T MRI using cartilage-dedicated sequences. Phase-contrast imaging CT presents soft tissue contrast surpassing that of conventional CT with a clear discrimination of ligamentous, muscular, neural, and vascular structures. In addition, phase-contrast imaging images show cartilage and meniscal calcifications that are not perceptible on conventional CT or on MRI. Phase-contrast imaging CT may facilitate a more complete evaluation of the human knee joint by providing concurrent comprehensive information about cartilage, the underlying subchondral bone, and their changes in osteoarthritic conditions.
    Investigative radiology 05/2014; · 4.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease, in which liver affection is common, contrary to a primary hepatic lymphoma that is very rarely seen. On MRI both present with almost the same imaging features: hypointense in T1-weighted and hyperintense in T2-weighted sequences. Our patient with a histologically confirmed sarcoidosis in the lungs showed liver lesions that were similar to sarcoidosis manifestations of the liver. Due to size, progression and overlapping features with secondary malignant liver lesions within an interval of 5 months, a biopsy was conducted and confirmed a primary hepatic lymphoma with diffuse large b-cells. Thus, we would recommend performing a biopsy in ambiguous lesions with indistinguishable characteristics and progression within a short follow-up interval.
    Acta radiologica short reports. 05/2014; 3(4):2047981613493625.
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    ABSTRACT: Vertebral artery hypoplasia (VAH) is supposed to be a risk factor for posterior circulation ischemia (PCI), particularly in the territory of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). The aim of our study was to determine whether VAH impedes perfusion in the dependent PICA territory even in the absence of manifest PCI. VA diameter was retrospectively measured in 934 consecutive patients who underwent whole-brain multimodal computed tomography because of suspected stroke. VAH was defined by a diameter of ≤2 mm and an asymmetry ratio of ≤1:1.7 of both VAs. We performed blinded computed tomography perfusion reading in patients with VAH without PCI (MRI-confirmed) and in control patients (ratio 1:2) with normal VAs. Four different perfusion maps were evaluated for a relative hypoperfusion in the PICA territory. VAH was found in 146 of 934 patients (15.6%). It was more frequent on the right side (66.1%). Of 146 patients, 59 without PCI qualified for computed tomography perfusion analysis. Depending on the perfusion map, ≤42.4% (25/59) of patients with VAH, but only 7.6% (9/118) without VAH, showed an ipsilateral PICA hypoperfusion (P<0.001). Sensitivities in patients with VAH were as follows: time to drain 42.4% (25/59)>mean transit time 39.0% (23/59)>cerebral blood flow 25.4% (15/59). Cerebral blood volume was never affected. VAH is a frequent vascular variant that can lead to a relative regional hypoperfusion in the PICA territory. Additional research should clarify the pathophysiological role of VAH in PCI.
    Stroke 04/2014; · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: There appears to be an inconsistency in experimental paradigms used in fMRI research on moral judgments. As stimuli, moral dilemmas or moral statements/ pictures that induce emotional reactions are usually employed; a main difference between these stimuli is the perspective of the participants reflecting first-person (moral dilemmas) or third-person perspective (moral reactions). The present study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in order to investigate the neural correlates of moral judgments in either first-or third-person perspective. Results: Our results indicate that different neural mechanisms appear to be involved in these perspectives. Although conjunction analysis revealed common activation in the anterior medial prefrontal cortex, third person-perspective elicited unique activations in hippocampus and visual cortex. The common activation can be explained by the role the anterior medial prefrontal cortex may play in integrating different information types and also by its involvement in theory of mind. Our results also indicate that the so-called "actor-observer bias" affects moral evaluation in the third-person perspective, possibly due to the involvement of the hippocampus. We suggest two possible ways in which the hippocampus may support the process of moral judgment: by the engagement of episodic memory and its role in understanding the behaviors and emotions of others. Conclusion: We posit that these findings demonstrate that first or third person perspectives in moral cognition involve distinct neural processes, that are important to different aspects of moral judgments. These results are important to a deepened understanding of neural correlates of moral cognition—the so-called "first tradition" of neuroethics, with the caveat that any results must be interpreted and employed with prudence, so as to heed neuroethics "second tradition" that sustains the pragmatic evaluation of outcomes, capabilities and limitations of neuroscientific techniques and technologies.

Publication Stats

15k Citations
2,519.46 Total Impact Points


  • 1998–2014
    • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich
      • • Department of Clinical Radiology
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2013
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • DePaul University
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2000–2013
    • Technische Universität München
      • • Institute of Medical and Polymer Engineering
      • • Institute of Radiology
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2012
    • University of Leeds
      • Division of Medical Physics
      Leeds, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2002–2012
    • University Hospital München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2011
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Radiology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • NYU Langone Medical Center
      • Department of Radiology
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2009–2011
    • University of Rostock
      Rostock, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany
    • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
      • Department of Radiology
      New York City, NY, United States
    • Cyberknife Center Munich
      Münchenbernsdorf, Thuringia, Germany
    • Scott & White
      Temple, Texas, United States
  • 2008–2010
    • Trinity College Dublin
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      Dublin, L, Ireland
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • • Faculty of Medicine Mannheim and Clinic Mannheim
      • • Institute of Clinical Radiology
      Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
    • Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz, BfS
      Brunswyck, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 2007
    • Universität Mannheim
      Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Department of Radiology
      Mississippi, United States
  • 2004
    • Shantou University
      Swatow, Guangdong, China
    • Universitätsklinikum Schleswig - Holstein
      Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany
  • 1993
    • University of Bonn
      • Radiologische Klinik
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany