Caroline A Crowther

University of São Paulo, San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Publications (250)1457.32 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Overweight and obesity is a significant health concern during pregnancy. Our aim was to investigate the effect of providing antenatal dietary and lifestyle advice to women who are overweight or obese on components of maternal diet and physical activity.
    BMC medicine. 10/2014; 12(1):161.
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    ABSTRACT: Overweight and obesity during pregnancy represents a considerable health burden. While research has focused on interventions to limit gestational weight gain, there is little information describing their impact on neonatal health. Our aim was to investigate the effect on a range of pre-specified secondary neonatal outcomes of providing antenatal dietary and lifestyle advice to women who are overweight or obese.
    BMC medicine. 10/2014; 12(1):163.
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    ABSTRACT: Antenatal magnesium sulfate given to pregnant women at imminent risk of very preterm delivery reduces the risk of cerebral palsy in early childhood, although its effects into school age have not been reported from randomized trials.
    JAMA. 09/2014; 312(11):1105-1113.
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    ABSTRACT: Aim To examine clinician views and knowledge regarding postpartum healthcare provision for women who have experienced gestational diabetes (GDM). Methods Systematic review that searched PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE and CINAHL. Qualitative studies and surveys, with clinicians as participants, which reported pre-specified outcomes, including barriers and facilitators to postpartum care for GDM, were included. Two authors independently assessed quality and undertook thematic synthesis. Results Eleven surveys and two interview studies were included (4435 clinicians). Key themes included adequacy of knowledge of risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), gaps between knowledge and practice relating to postpartum screening, and differing perceptions of the value of postpartum screening. Clinicians perceived that women faced obstacles to accessing healthcare, and a need for improved GDM education. Studies reported shortfalls in systems to ensure postpartum screening occurs, and a need to improve communication and collaboration relating to care of women who have experienced GDM. The surveys were often limited in their depth and ability to identify remedial strategies. Conclusions Barriers to provision of care for women who have had GDM, such as lack of communication of the diagnosis, need to be addressed, and further interview studies exploring clinician views on screening for T2DM are required.
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 09/2014; · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Magnesium sulphate has been used in some settings as a tocolytic agent to inhibit uterine activity in women in preterm labour with the aim of preventing preterm birth.
    Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 08/2014; 8:CD001060. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Maternal mortality has declined by nearly half since 1990, but over a quarter million women still die every year of causes related to pregnancy and childbirth. Maternal-health related targets are falling short of the 2015 Millennium Development Goals and a post-2015 Development Agenda is emerging. In connection with this, setting global research priorities for the next decade is now required.
    Reproductive health. 08/2014; 11(1):61.
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    Caroline Crowther, Julie Brown
    The Lancet Global Health. 08/2014; 2(8):e447.
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    Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 04/2014; · 5.70 Impact Factor
  • Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand Poster Symposium 152 in Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, Perth, Western Australia; 04/2014
  • Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand Poster Symposium Abstracts. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 50: 40–64. doi: 10.1111/jpc.12528_2, Perth, Australia; 04/2014
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Population-based health registries are essential for monitoring progress towards Millennium Development Goals 4 & 5 (reduce child mortality and improve maternal health). However, ineffective and inefficient in data collection and usage is a major barrier to the implementation of effective interventions. We aimed to develop criterion-based datasets for enhancing the implementing of essential interventions in maternal and newborn health. This presentation focuses on those interventions in neonatal care. METHOD: For each of the 13 WHO essential interventions in neonatal care, we secured process and outcome indicators required to measure performance in both screening and treatment/management. Existing indicators were adapted or modified as required, or novel indicators were developed by the study team. Indicator utility was assessed by an international panel against the criteria: Action focused; Important; Operational; Feasible; and Simple and valued. RESULTS: We have secured 56 indicators spanning newborn care, neonatal infection management and care for small and ill babies. The indicators generally scored well on the criteria: Action focused, Important, and Simple and valued, but scored less favourably on the criteria: Operational and Feasible. Specific barriers to the utility of indicators included difficulty in data acquisition in low- and middle-income settings and difficulty accurately attributing causes of mortality and morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Indicators and data points to monitor WHO essential interventions in neonatal care have now been developed. Upcoming initiatives for more effective cause of death classification systems and innovative e-Health and m-Health solutions for open-source data collection and management have great capacity to surmount the identified barriers.
    18th Congress of the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand (PSANZ), Crown Perth, Perth, Western Australia; 04/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Magnesium is an essential mineral required for regulation of body temperature, nucleic acid and protein synthesis and in maintaining nerve and muscle cell electrical potentials. Many women, especially those from disadvantaged backgrounds, have low intakes of magnesium. Magnesium supplementation during pregnancy may be able to reduce fetal growth restriction and pre-eclampsia, and increase birthweight. To assess the effects of magnesium supplementation during pregnancy on maternal, neonatal/infant and paediatric outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2013). Randomised and quasi-randomised trials assessing the effects of dietary magnesium supplementation during pregnancy were included. The primary outcomes were perinatal mortality (including stillbirth and neonatal death prior to hospital discharge), small-for-gestational age, maternal mortality and pre-eclampsia. Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Ten trials involving 9090 women and their babies were included; one trial had a cluster design (with randomisation by study centre). All 10 trials randomly allocated women to either an oral magnesium supplement or a control group; in eight trials a placebo was used, and in two trials no treatment was given to the control group. In the 10 included trials, the compositions of the magnesium supplements, gestational ages at commencement, and doses administered varied, including: magnesium oxide, 1000 mg daily from ≤ four months post-conception (one trial); magnesium citrate, 365 mg daily from ≤ 18 weeks until hospitalisation after 38 weeks (one trial), and 340 mg daily from nine to 27 weeks' gestation (one trial); magnesium gluconate, 2 to 3 g from 28 weeks' gestation until birth (one trial), and 4 g daily from 23 weeks' gestation (one trial); magnesium aspartate, 15 mmol daily (three trials, commencing from either six to 21 weeks' gestation until birth, ≤ 16 weeks' gestation until birth, or < 12 weeks until birth), or 365 mg daily from 13 to 24 weeks until birth (one trial); and magnesium stearate, 128 mg elemental magnesium from 10 to 35 weeks until birth (one trial).In the analysis of all trials, oral magnesium supplementation compared to no magnesium was associated with no significant difference in perinatal mortality (stillbirth and neonatal death prior to discharge) (risk ratio (RR) 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72 to 1.67; five trials, 5903 infants), small-for-gestational age (RR 0.76; 95% CI 0.54 to 1.07; three trials, 1291 infants), or pre-eclampsia (RR 0.87; 95% CI 0.58 to 1.32; three trials, 1042 women). None of the included trials reported on maternal mortality.Considering secondary outcomes, while no increased risk of stillbirth was observed, a possible increased risk of neonatal death prior to hospital discharge was shown for infants born to mothers who had received magnesium (RR 2.21; 95% CI 1.02 to 4.75; four trials, 5373 infants). One trial contributed over 70% of the participants to the analysis for this outcome; the trial authors suggested that the large number of severe congenital anomalies in the supplemented group (unlikely attributable to magnesium) and the deaths of two sets of twins (with birthweights < 750 g) in the supplemented group likely accounted for the increased risk of death observed, and thus this result should be interpreted with caution. Furthermore, when the deaths due to severe congenital abnormalities in this trial were excluded from the meta-analysis, no increased risk of neonatal death was seen for the magnesium supplemented group. Magnesium supplementation was associated with significantly fewer babies with an Apgar score less than seven at five minutes (RR 0.34; 95% CI 0.15 to 0.80; four trials, 1083 infants), with meconium-stained liquor (RR 0.79; 95% CI 0.63 to 0.99; one trial, 4082 infants), late fetal heart decelerations (RR 0.68; 95% CI 0.53 to 0.88; one trial, 4082 infants), and mild hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (RR 0.38; 95% CI 0.15 to 0.98; one trial, 4082 infants). Women receiving magnesium were significantly less likely to require hospitalisation during pregnancy (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.86; three trials, 1158 women).Of the 10 trials included in the review, only two were judged to be of high quality overall. When an analysis was restricted to these two trials none of the review's primary outcomes (perinatal mortality, small-for-gestational age, pre-eclampsia) were significantly different between the magnesium supplemented and control groups. There is not enough high-quality evidence to show that dietary magnesium supplementation during pregnancy is beneficial.
    Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 04/2014; 4:CD000937. · 5.70 Impact Factor
  • Philippa Middleton, Caroline A Crowther
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    ABSTRACT: The early postpartum period is an important time in which to identify the risk of diabetes in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Oral glucose tolerance and other tests can help guide lifestyle management and monitoring to reduce the future risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. To assess whether reminder systems increase the uptake of testing for type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance in women with a history of GDM. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE (last searched 1 June 2013) and The Cochrane Library (last searched April 2013). We included randomised trials of women who had experienced GDM in the index pregnancy and who were then sent any modality of reminder (or control) to complete a test for type 2 diabetes after giving birth. Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts for relevance. One author extracted the data, carried out 'Risk of bias' assessments and evaluated the overall study quality according to GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) criteria; the other author double-checked these procedures. Meta-analysis was not possible as only one study was eligible for inclusion. Only one trial with an unclear risk of bias in the majority of domains was included in the study; the overall study quality was judged to be low. This factorial trial of 256 women compared three types of postal reminder strategies (in a total of 213 women) with usual care (no postal reminder, 43 women) and reported on the uptake of four possible types of glucose tests. The three strategies investigated were: reminders sent to both the woman and the physician; reminder sent to the woman only; and reminder sent to the physician only, all issued approximately three months after the woman had given birth.There was low-quality evidence that all three reminder interventions increased uptake of oral glucose tolerance tests compared with usual care (no reminder system): reminders to the woman and the physician (uptake 60% versus 14%): risk ratio 4.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.85 to 9.71); 116 participants); reminder to the woman only (uptake 55% versus 14%): RR 3.87 (95% CI 1.68 to 8.93); 111 participants); reminder to the physician only (uptake 52% versus 14%): RR 3.61 (95% CI 1.50 to 8.71); 66 participants). This represented an increase in uptake from 14% in the no reminder group to 57% across the three reminder groups. There was also an increase in uptake of fasting glucose tests in the reminder group compared with the usual care group: reminders to the woman and the physician versus no reminder (uptake 63% versus 40%): RR 1.57 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.44); reminder to the woman only (uptake 71% versus 40%): RR 1.78 (95% CI 1.16 to 2.73); reminder to the physician only (uptake 68% versus 40%): RR 1.69 (95% CI 1.06 to 2.72). Uptake of random glucose and glycated haemoglobin A1c tests was low, and no statistically significant differences were seen between the reminder and no reminder groups for these tests. Uptake of any test was higher in each of the reminder groups compared with the no reminder group (RR 1.65 (95% CI 1.12 to 2.41); 1.73 (95% CI 1.18 to 2.52); and 1.55 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.38) in the respective reminder groups.The trial did not report this review's other primary outcomes (proportion of women diagnosed with type 2 diabetes or showing impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose after giving birth; or health-related quality of life). Nor did it report any secondary review outcomes such as diabetes-associated morbidity, lifestyle changes, need for insulin, recurrence of GDM or women's and/or health professionals' views of the intervention. No adverse events of the intervention were reported.Subgroup interaction tests gave no indication that dual reminders (to both women and physicians) were more successful than single reminders to either women or physicians alone. It was also not clear if test uptakes between women in the reminder and no reminder groups differed by type of glucose test undertaken. Results from the only trial that fulfilled our inclusion criteria showed low-quality evidence for a marked increase in the uptake of testing for type 2 diabetes in women with previous GDM following the issue of postal reminders. The effects of other forms of reminder systems need to be assessed to see whether test uptake also increases when email and telephone reminders are deployed. We also need a better understanding of why some women fail to take opportunities to be screened postpartum. As the ultimate aim of increasing postpartum testing is to prevent the subsequent development of type 2 diabetes, it is important to determine whether increased test uptake rates also increase women's use of preventive strategies such as lifestyle modifications.
    Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 03/2014; 3:CD009578. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of antenatal dietary and lifestyle interventions on health outcomes in overweight and obese pregnant women. Multicentre randomised trial. We utilised a central telephone randomisation server, with computer generated schedule, balanced variable blocks, and stratification for parity, body mass index (BMI) category, and hospital. Three public maternity hospitals across South Australia. 2212 women with a singleton pregnancy, between 10+0 and 20+0 weeks' gestation, and BMI ≥25. 1108 women were randomised to a comprehensive dietary and lifestyle intervention delivered by research staff; 1104 were randomised to standard care and received pregnancy care according to local guidelines, which did not include such information. Incidence of infants born large for gestational age (birth weight ≥90th centile for gestation and sex). Prespecified secondary outcomes included birth weight >4000 g, hypertension, pre-eclampsia, and gestational diabetes. Analyses used intention to treat principles. 2152 women and 2142 liveborn infants were included in the analyses. The risk of the infant being large for gestational age was not significantly different in the two groups (lifestyle advice 203/1075 (19%) v standard care 224/1067 (21%); adjusted relative risk 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.77 to 1.07; P=0.24). Infants born to women after lifestyle advice were significantly less likely to have birth weight above 4000 g (lifestyle advice 164/1075 (15%) v standard care 201/1067 (19%); 0.82, 0.68 to 0.99; number needed to treat (NNT) 28, 15 to 263; P=0.04). There were no differences in maternal pregnancy and birth outcomes between the two treatment groups. For women who were overweight or obese, the antenatal lifestyle advice used in this study did not reduce the risk delivering a baby weighing above the 90th centile for gestational age and sex or improve maternal pregnancy and birth outcomes. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12607000161426).
    BMJ (online) 02/2014; 348:g1285. · 17.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The optimal timing of birth for women with an otherwise uncomplicated twin pregnancy at term is uncertain, with clinical support for both elective delivery at 37 weeks, as well as expectant management (awaiting the spontaneous onset of labour). To assess a policy of elective delivery from 37 weeks' gestation compared with an expectant approach for women with an otherwise uncomplicated twin pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (12 December 2013). Randomised controlled trials with reported data that compared outcomes in mothers and babies who underwent elective delivery from 37 weeks' gestation in a twin pregnancy with outcomes in controls who were managed expectantly. At least two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, trial quality and extracted data from the included trials. Two randomised controlled trials comparing elective birth at 37 weeks for women with an uncomplicated twin pregnancy, with expectant management were included, involving 271 women and 542 infants. One trial was at an overall low risk of bias, and one trial was at unclear risk of selection bias, performance bias and detection bias.There were no statistically significant differences identified between a policy of elective birth at 37 weeks' gestation and expectant management with regards to birth by caesarean section (two studies; 271 participants; risk ratio (RR) 1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83 to 1.32); perinatal death or serious perinatal morbidity (two studies; 542 infants; RR 0.34; 95% CI 0.01 to 8.35); or maternal death or serious maternal morbidity (one study; 235 women; RR 0.29; 95% CI 0.06 to 1.38).There were no statistically significant differences identified for the pre-specified secondary maternal and infant review outcomes reported by these two trials between the two treatment policies (including for: haemorrhage requiring blood transfusion; instrumental vaginal birth; meconium-stained liquor; Apgar score less than seven at five minutes; admission to neonatal intensive care; birthweight less than 2500 g; neonatal encephalopathy; and respiratory distress syndrome). While not a pre-specified review outcome, elective birth at 37 weeks, compared with expectant management, was shown to significantly reduce the risk of infants being born with a birthweight less than the third centile (one study; 470 infants; RR 0.30; 95% CI 0.13 to 0.68). Early birth at 37 weeks' gestation compared with ongoing expectant management for women with an uncomplicated twin pregnancy does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of harms, findings which are consistent with the United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommendations which advocate birth for women with a dichorionic twin pregnancy at 37 + 0 weeks' gestation. It is unlikely that sufficient clinical equipoise exists to allow for the randomisation of women to a later gestational age at birth.
    Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 02/2014; 2:CD003582. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To evaluate a slower (compared with a standard) infusion rate of the loading dose of magnesium sulphate for preterm fetal neuroprotection as a strategy to reduce maternal adverse effects. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting South Australian maternity hospital. Population Fifty-one women at <30 weeks of gestation, where birth was planned or expected within 24 hours. Methods Women received a loading infusion of 4 g of magnesium sulphate over either 60 or 20 minutes (followed by maintenance of 1 g/hour until birth, or for up to 24 hours). Main outcome measures Any maternal adverse effects associated with the infusion. Results Overall, 71% of women experienced adverse effects during the first hour of their infusion; the difference between groups was not significant [15/25 (60%) 60-minute loading; 21/26 (81%) 20-minute loading; risk ratio (RR) 0.74; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.51–1.08]. Although no serious maternal complications occurred, adverse effects led to three women ceasing the loading treatment (1/25 in the 60-minute loading group; 2/26 in the 20-minute loading group; RR 0.52; 95% CI 0.05–5.38). Women in the 60-minute loading group experienced significantly less warmth and flushing at 20 minutes into the infusion (7/25 in the 60-minute loading group; 15/26 in the 20-minute loading group; RR 0.49; 95% CI 0.24–0.99). No other differences between groups for maternally reported and clinical adverse effects were shown. Conclusions A slower rate of administering the loading dose of magnesium sulphate did not reduce the occurrence of maternal adverse effects overall. Flushing and warmth at 20 minutes into the infusion was reduced with a slower infusion.
    BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 01/2014; · 3.76 Impact Factor
  • Stuart R Dalziel, Caroline A Crowther, Jane E Harding
    Lancet. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To describe the mode and timing of delivery of twin pregnancies at >/=34 weeks of gestation and their association with perinatal outcomes. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study. POPULATION: Twin deliveries at >/=34 weeks of gestation from 21 low- and middle-income countries participating in the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health. METHODS: Descriptive analysis and effect estimates using multilevel logistic regression. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stillbirth, perinatal mortality, and neonatal near miss (use of selected life saving interventions at birth). RESULTS: The average length of gestation at delivery was 37.6 weeks. Of all twin deliveries, 16.8 and 17.6% were delivered by caesarean section before and after the onset of labour, respectively. Prelabour caesarean delivery was associated with older maternal age, higher institutional capacity and wealth of the country. Compared with spontaneous vaginal delivery, lower risks of neonatal near miss (adjusted odds ratio, aOR, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 0.44-0.94) were found among prelabour caesarean deliveries. A lower risk of early neonatal mortality (aOR 0.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.56) was also observed among prelabour caesarean deliveries with nonvertex presentation of the first twin. The week of gestation with the lowest rate of prospective fetal death varied by fetal presentation: 37 weeks for vertex-vertex; 39 weeks for vertex-nonvertex; and 38 weeks for a nonvertex first twin. CONCLUSIONS: The prelabour caesarean delivery rate among twins varied largely between countries, probably as a result of overuse of caesarean delivery in wealthier countries and limited access to caesarean delivery in low-income countries. Prelabour delivery may be beneficial when the first twin is nonvertex. International guidelines for optimal twin delivery methods are needed.
    BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 01/2014; 121 Suppl 1:89-100. · 3.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Babies born very preterm (before 30 weeks gestation) are at high risk of dying in their first weeks of life, and those who survive are at risk of developing cerebral palsy in childhood. Recent high-quality evidence has shown that giving women magnesium sulphate immediately prior to very early birth can significantly increase the chances of their babies surviving free of cerebral palsy. In 2010 Australian and New Zealand clinical practice guidelines recommended this therapy. The WISH (Working to Improve Survival and Health for babies born very preterm) Project aims to bi-nationally improve and monitor the use of this therapy to reduce the risk of very preterm babies dying or having cerebral palsy. The WISH Project is a prospective cohort study. The 25 Australian and New Zealand tertiary level maternity hospitals will be provided with a package of active implementation strategies to guide the introduction and local adaptation of guideline recommendations. Surveys will be conducted at individual hospitals to evaluate outcomes related to local implementation progress and the use and value of the WISH implementation strategies. For the hospitals participating in the 'WISH audit of uptake and health outcomes data collection', the primary health outcomes (assessed through case note review, and 24 month corrected age questionnaires) will be: the proportion of eligible women receiving antenatal magnesium sulphate; and rates of death prior to primary hospital discharge and cerebral palsy at two years corrected age in infants born to eligible mothers. For hospitals wishing to assess factors influencing translation locally, barriers and facilitators will be measured through interviews with health care professionals, to further guide implementation strategies. Study outcomes for the early phase of the project (Year 1) will be compared with the later intervention phase (Years 2 and 3). The WISH Project will offer insight into the effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy to improve the uptake of a novel neuroprotective therapy in obstetric clinical practice. The successful implementation of antenatal magnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection in Australia and New Zealand could lead to over 90 fewer very preterm babies dying or suffering the long-term consequences of cerebral palsy each year.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 12/2013; 13(1):239. · 2.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
1,457.32 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • University of São Paulo
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2012–2014
    • University of Auckland
      • Liggins Institute
      Окленд, Auckland, New Zealand
  • 1994–2014
    • University of Adelaide
      • • Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
      • • Robinson Institute
      • • Discipline of Public Health
      Tarndarnya, South Australia, Australia
  • 2013
    • La Trobe University
      • Faculty of Health Sciences
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2006–2012
    • World Health Organization WHO
      • Department of Reproductive Health and Research (RHR)
      Genève, GE, Switzerland
  • 2011
    • University of the Witwatersrand
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
      Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa
    • University of Western Sydney
      • Centre for Complementary Medicine Research (CompleMED)
      Penrith, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2010
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Population Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
    • Penang Medical College
      Penang, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
  • 2009
    • University of the Philippines Manila
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Manila, National Capital Region, Philippines
  • 2008
    • Menzies School of Health Research
      Palmerston, Northern Territory, Australia
    • Khon Kaen University
      • Department of Biostatistics and Demography
      Khon Kaen, Changwat Khon Kaen, Thailand
  • 2007
    • University of Sydney
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Rouen
      Rouen, Upper Normandy, France
  • 2005
    • Royal Adelaide Hospital
      Tarndarnya, South Australia, Australia
  • 2004
    • University of South Australia 
      • School of Health Sciences
      Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
  • 2001
    • Women`s and Children`s Hospital
      Tarndarnya, South Australia, Australia