Beate M Crossley

University of California, Davis, Davis, California, United States

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Publications (31)60.42 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: An outbreak of goiter with high morbidity and mortality in a flock of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in California is described. Forty-five out of 400 adult birds exhibited signs of illness, weight loss, and enlargement in the crop area; 15 of the 45 birds died over a 2-3-month period. Diet consisted of a commercial mixture with the addition of broccoli, whole oats, and carrots, but no minerals or supplements. Six budgerigars were subjected to necropsy; all 6 birds had severely enlarged thyroid glands. Thyroid follicular hyperplasia was histologically observed in all birds examined, while granulomatous thyroiditis and microfollicular adenoma were observed in 2 birds, respectively. Virological, bacteriological, parasitological, and heavy metal analyses were negative or within normal limits. The total iodine in the thyroid glands of affected birds was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Following iodine supplementation and removal of broccoli from the diet, the owner reported weight gain and a reduced death rate among clinically affected birds; no additional birds became sick. The presence of broccoli with its iodine-binding ability and the complete lack of added minerals in the diet of these animals were thought to be the predisposing factors for the outbreak in the present study. Outbreaks of goiter accompanied by high mortality are rare in any species and, to the best of the authors' knowledge, have not been described previously in any avian species. Recognition of this condition may help improve medical, welfare, and trade standards concerning this species. © 2014 The Author(s).
    11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The cleavage motif in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of highly pathogenic H5 and H7 subtypes of avian influenza viruses is characterized by a peptide insertion or a multibasic cleavage site (MBCS). Here, we isolated an H4N2 virus from quails (Quail/CA12) with two additional arginines in the HA cleavage site, PEKRRTR/G, forming an MBCS-like motif. Quail/CA12 is a reassortant virus with the HA and neuraminidase (NA) gene most similar to a duck-isolated H4N2 virus, PD/CA06 with a monobasic HA cleavage site. Quail/CA12 required exogenous trypsin for efficient growth in culture and caused no clinical illness in infected chickens. Quail/CA12 had high binding preference for α2,6-linked sialic acids and showed higher replication and transmission ability in chickens and quails than PD/CA06. Although the H4N2 virus remained low pathogenic, these data suggests that the acquisition of MBCS in the field is not restricted to H5 or H7 subtypes.
    Virology 08/2014; 468-470C:72-80. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bluetongue is a potentially fatal arboviral disease of domestic and wild ruminants that is characterized by widespread edema and tissue necrosis. Bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes 10, 11, 13, and 17 occur throughout much of the United States, whereas serotype 2 (BTV-2) was previously only detected in the southeastern United States. Since 1998, 10 other BTV serotypes have also been isolated from ruminants in the southeastern United States. In 2010, BTV-2 was identified in California for the first time, and preliminary sequence analysis indicated that the virus isolate was closely related to BTV strains circulating in the southeastern United States. In the current study, the whole genome sequence of the California strain of BTV-2 was compared with those of other BTV-2 strains in the Americas. The results of the analysis suggest co-circulation of genetically distinct viruses in the southeastern United States, and further suggest that the 2010 western isolate is closely related to southeastern strains of BTV. Although it remains uncertain as to how this novel virus was translocated to California, the findings of the current study underscore the need for ongoing surveillance of this economically important livestock disease.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In order to improve the analytic quality of respiratory specimens collected from cattle for nucleic acid-based diagnosis, a study was undertaken to verify realtime PCR efficiency of specimens collected and stabilized on FTA Cards™, filter paper which is treated chemically. Nucleic acids collected using FTA Cards without the need for a cold-chain or special liquid media handling provided realtime PCR results consistent (96.8% agreement, Kappa 0.923 [95% CI = 0.89 to 0.96]) with the same specimens collected using traditional viral transport media and shipped on ice using the U.S. Department of Transportation mandated liquid handling requirements. Nucleic acid stabilization on FTA Cards was evaluated over a temperature range (-27 °C to +46 °C) for up to 14 days to mimic environmental conditions for diagnostic sample handling between collection and processing in a routine veterinary laboratory. No significant difference (P ≥ 0.05) was observed in realtime PCR cycle threshold values over the temperature range and time storage conditions for Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus, Bovine Respiratory Syncytial virus, Bovine Coronavirus, and Bovine Herpesvirus I. The four viruses evaluated in the study are associated with Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex where improvements in ease and reliability of specimen collection and shipping would enhance the diagnostic quality of specimens collected in the field, and ultimately improve diagnostic efficiency.
    Journal of virological methods 06/2014; · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cleavage motif in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of highly pathogenic H5 and H7 subtypes of avian influenza viruses is characterized by a peptide insertion or a multibasic cleavage site (MBCS). Here, we isolated an H4N2 virus from quails (Quail/CA12) with two additional arginines in the HA cleavage site, PEKRRTR/G, forming an MBCS-like motif. Quail/CA12 is a reassortant virus with the HA and neuraminidase (NA) gene most similar to a duck-isolated H4N2 virus, PD/CA06 with a monobasic HA cleavage site. Quail/CA12 required exogenous trypsin for efficient growth in culture and caused no clinical illness in infected chickens. Quail/CA12 had high binding preference for α2,6-linked sialic acids and showed higher replication and transmission ability in chickens and quails than PD/CA06. Although the H4N2 virus remained low pathogenic, these data suggests that the acquisition of MBCS in the field is not restricted to H5 or H7 subtypes.
    Virology. 01/2014; s 468–470:72–80.
  • Munashe Chigerwe, Beate M Crossley
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the current study was to investigate if the presence of colostral-derived immunoglobulin G (IgG) in blood is an inhibitor of diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Eleven precolostral and 11 postcolostral blood samples in ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) anticoagulant as well as serum samples were collected from 11 Holstein bull calves. Calves were fed 3 liters of colostrum once, by oroesophageal tubing. Postcolostral, blood, and serum samples were collected at 48 hr of age. Serum IgG concentrations were determined in the precolostral and postcolostral serum samples using radial immunodiffusion. The blood samples (precolostral and postcolostral) were spiked with BVDV, and 2 diagnostic PCR extraction methods were applied to each sample. The extraction and amplification efficiencies of the 2 PCR methods on the precolostral and postcolostral EDTA blood samples were evaluated. Two of the 11 calves had inadequate passive transfer of colostral immunoglobulins at 48 hr of age based on the serum IgG concentrations. All blood samples from calves were negative for BVDV prior to the spiking with the virus. Evaluation of the 2 different methods among 3 different virus concentrations demonstrated that there was no difference in extraction or amplification efficiency in precolostral and postcolostral samples. The results of this study suggest that bovine IgG is not an inhibitor of PCR used for detection of BVDV in cattle. The methods used in the current study are acceptable for PCR detection of BVDV in cattle.
    Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 06/2013; · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pathogenicity induced by co-challenge with the rB strain of very virulent Infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) and IBDV pathotypes endemic in the United States was evaluated in specific pathogen-free chickens. Four- and 6-week-old birds were simultaneously challenged with a 10(5) 50% egg infectious dose (EID50) of rB mixed with a 10(5) EID50 of one of the following viruses: standard classic (STC), subclinical variant (Del-E), subclinical variant (T1), or avirulent serotype 2 (OH). Each challenge group consisted of 5 chickens. The severity of disease was assessed by comparing the 5-day mortality rates, bursal lesions (mean bursal lesion scores), and mean bursal-to-body weight ratios in each of the challenged groups. A mortality of 100% (10/10 and 5/5) was observed in birds inoculated with only the vvIBDV (rB) strain at 4 weeks and 6 weeks of age, respectively. Although the sample sizes were low, a significant reduction in mortality and severity of disease, based on mean bursal lesion scores, was observed in groups co-challenged with rB and the less virulent pathotypes Del-E, T1, or OH at 4 weeks of age. Co-challenge with rB and the antigenically similar STC strain did not result in a significant decrease in mortality compared to challenge with the pathogenic rB strain at 4 weeks of age, but a significant reduction in the mean bursa lesion score was observed. At 6 weeks of age, a significant decrease in mortality and mean bursa lesion score was observed in the rB groups co-challenged with STC, Del-E, or T1 but not OH.
    Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 04/2013; · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    Emerging Infectious Diseases 04/2013; 19(4):665-6. · 6.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In December of 2008 very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) was identified in a commercial flock in northern California. Since then several other backyard and commercial facilities in California have had flocks affected by the same strain and other unique (previously unseen) strains of IBDV. Previous to this incident, very virulent infectious bursal disease (vvIBD) had never been identified in North America. Following the initial outbreak in 2008, California became the first state to undertake a voluntary surveillance effort to try to determine the geographical prevalence of vvIBD based on sequencing of a portion of the segment A region of the vvIBDV genome. To date we have complete geographical information on approximately 500 separate accessions representing approximately 1500 birds from over 200 commercial (-85% of the facilities) and backyard facilities (-15% of the facilities) throughout the state. Sequencing of targeted regions of both the segment A and segment B regions of the genome has revealed three distinct types of IBDV in California chickens. One type is genetically and in pathogenically consistent with vvIBDV. The second and third types only have a segment A region consistent with vvIBDV. Geographic information system mapping coupled with spatial-temporal cluster analysis identified significant spatial and time-space clustering; however, no temporal clustering was noted. The lack of temporal clustering coupled with negative vvIBDV results in tested avian wildlife implies that avian wildlife in California do not currently appear to play a significant role in vvIBDV transmission. In the voluntary surveillance that was done in the Central Valley of California, which has a high density of commercial poultry, no positive farms were found when 142 of 504 farms were sampled. Given this level of sampling, the confidence (probability) of detecting an affected commercial flock was calculated to be between 28% and 81% depending on whether one or five hypothetically affected farms were affected.
    Avian Diseases 03/2013; 57(1):76-82. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In September 2010, an outbreak of type A botulism involved 4 horses in northern California that were fed grass clippings obtained from a nearby park. All 4 animals developed a progressive flaccid paralysis syndrome clinically consistent with exposure to preformed Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT). Within 48 hr of consuming the grass clippings, all 4 horses showed marked cervical weakness (inability to raise their heads to a normal position) and died or were euthanized within 96 hr. One horse was submitted for diagnostic examination and subsequent necropsy. At necropsy, extensive edema was observed in areas of the nuchal ligament and inguinal fascia. A sample of the grass clippings tested positive for preformed BoNT type A by the mouse bioassay test. Emphasis should be placed on early case recognition, rapid initiation of treatment with the trivalent antitoxin product, and preventing exposure to BoNT in spoiled forages.
    Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 05/2012; 24(3):601-3. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several phylogenetic lineages of the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) genome segment B have been identified. Although this genome segment has been shown to contribute to virulence, little is known about the genetic lineages that exist in the United States. The nucleotide genome segment B sequences of 67 IBDV strains collected from 2002 to 2011 in the United States were examined. Although they were from nine different states, a majority (47) of these viruses were from California. A 722-base pair region near the 5' end of genome segment B, starting at nucleotide 168 and ending at 889, was examined and compared to sequences available in GenBank. The nucleotide sequence alignment revealed that mutations were frequently observed and that they were uniformly spaced throughout the region. When the predicted amino acids were aligned, amino acids at positions 145, 146, and 147 were found to change frequently. Six different amino acid triplets were observed and the very virulent (vv) IBDV strains (based on presence of vvIBDV genome segment A sequence) all had the triplet T145, D146, and N147. None of the non-vvIBDV strains had this TDN triplet. Phylogenetic analysis of the 67 nucleotide sequences revealed four significant genome segment B lineages among the U.S. viruses. One of these included the genome segment B typically found in vvIBDV and three contained non-vvIBDV genome segment B sequences. When the available sequences in GenBank were added to the analysis, two additional lineages were observed that did not contain U.S. viruses; one included viruses from China and the other contained viruses from the Ivory Coast. Although the samples tested do not represent all poultry producing regions in the United States, serotype 1 viruses from states outside California all belonged to one genome segment B lineage. The other three lineages observed in the United States were populated with viruses exclusively found in California, except the serotype 2 lineage, where the type strain was a serotype 2 virus from Ohio. The data provide further evidence for the importance of genome segment B identification during routine molecular diagnosis of all IBDV strains.
    Avian Diseases 03/2012; 56(1):165-72. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe virus isolation, full genome sequence analysis, and clinical pathology in ferrets experimentally inoculated with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus recovered from a clinically ill captive cheetah that had minimal human contact. Evidence of reverse zoonotic transmission by fomites underscores the substantial animal and human health implications of this virus.
    Emerging Infectious Diseases 02/2012; 18(2):315-7. · 6.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2007, a novel coronavirus associated with an acute respiratory disease in alpacas (Alpaca Coronavirus, ACoV) was isolated. Full-length genomic sequencing of the ACoV demonstrated the genome to be consistent with other Alphacoronaviruses. A putative additional open-reading frame was identified between the nucleocapsid gene and 3'UTR. The ACoV was genetically most similar to the common human coronavirus (HCoV) 229E with 92.2% nucleotide identity over the entire genome. A comparison of spike gene sequences from ACoV and from HCoV-229E isolates recovered over a span of five decades showed the ACoV to be most similar to viruses isolated in the 1960's to early 1980's. The true origin of the ACoV is unknown, however a common ancestor between the ACoV and HCoV-229E appears to have existed prior to the 1960's, suggesting virus transmission, either as a zoonosis or anthroponosis, has occurred between alpacas and humans.
    Viruses 01/2012; 4(12):3689-700. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes an economically important, immunosuppressive disease in chickens. There are two serotypes of the virus that contain a bi-segmented double-stranded RNA genome. In December 2008, the first very virulent (vv)IBDV was identified in California, USA and in 2009 we isolated reassortant viruses in two different locations. Genome segment A of these reassortants was typical of vvIBDV serotype 1 but genome segment B was most similar to IBDV serotype 2. The CA-K785 reassortant caused 20% mortality in chickens but no morbidity or mortality in commercial turkey poults despite being infectious. There have been previous reports of natural reassortants between vvIBDV and other serotype 1 strains, but a natural reassortant between IBDV serotypes 1 and 2 has not been described. The apparent reassorting of California vvIBDV with an endemic serotype 2 virus indicates a common host and suggests vvIBDV may have entered California earlier than originally thought.
    Virology 09/2011; 420(2):98-105. · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bluetongue is a vector-borne viral disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants. The epidemiology of this disease has recently changed, with occurrence in new geographic areas. Various real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time qRT-PCR) assays are used to detect Bluetongue virus (BTV); however, the impact of biologic differences between New World camelids and domestic ruminant samples on PCR efficiency, for which the BTV real-time qRT-PCR was initially validated are unknown. New world camelids are known to have important biologic differences in whole blood composition, including hemoglobin concentration, which can alter PCR performance. In the present study, sheep, cattle, and alpaca blood were spiked with BTV serotypes 10, 11, 13, and 17 and analyzed in 10-fold dilutions by real-time qRT-PCR to determine if species affected nucleic acid recovery and assay performance. A separate experiment was performed using spiked alpaca blood subsequently diluted in 10-fold series in sheep blood to assess the influence of alpaca blood on performance efficiency of the BTV real-time qRT-PCR assay. Results showed that BTV-specific nucleic acid detection from alpaca blood was consistently 1-2 logs lower than from sheep and cattle blood, and results were similar for each of the 4 BTV serotypes analyzed.
    Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 07/2011; 23(4):753-6. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There have been substantial recent changes in the global distribution and nature of bluetongue virus (BTV) infection of ungulates, perhaps as a result of climate change. To evaluate the epidemiology of BTV infection in California, an area historically endemic for the virus, we monitored newborn dairy calves at different sites for 1 year for the presence of BTV RNA and virus-specific antibodies. The data confirm both localized, vector-mediated, seasonal transmission of BTV as well as dissemination of BTV and/or viral nucleic acid to newborn calves following ingestion of colostrum.
    Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 08/2010; 57(4):277-81. · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In October 2008, a 15-year-old female alpaca (Vicugna pacos) housed at a breeding farm in northern California died after a brief illness characterized by sudden onset of weakness, recumbency, and respiratory distress. Postmortem examination revealed severe hydrothorax and hydropericardium, marked pulmonary edema, and acute superficial myocardial hemorrhage affecting the left ventricle. Bluetongue virus (BTV) was detected in the spleen by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and confirmed by sequence analysis. No antibodies against BTV were detected in the serum using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, confirming acute, fulminant BTV infection.
    Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 01/2010; 22(1):134-6. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alpaca respiratory syndrome (ARS) was first recognized in California in October 2007. This syndrome is characterized by acute respiratory signs, high fever, and occasional sudden death, and has mostly been observed in pregnant alpacas (Vicugna pacos), although all signalments have been affected. A similarity in clinical signs to cases located on the East Coast of the United States was observed; however, a causative agent had not been identified. Preliminary diagnostic submissions to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System (CAHFS) were negative for known bacterial, parasitic, fungal, and viral pathogens, as well as for toxins, making the etiology of this disease unknown. However, based on pathologic findings, a viral or toxic etiology was strongly considered. A novel coronavirus was recovered from lung tissue of a clinical case submitted to CAHFS. The coronavirus identity was confirmed in tissue culture by transmission electron microscopy and by sequence analysis of a conserved region within the viral genome. Statistical analysis calculating a serologic association between the serum virus neutralization antibody titer and coronavirus, the presence of exposure history on 40 animals with a history of ARS, and 167 controls provided an odds ratio of 121 (95% confidence interval: 36.54 and 402.84; P < 0.0001). The findings indicate that the ARS-associated coronavirus described is distinct from the previously reported gastrointestinal-associated coronavirus identified in alpaca herds.
    Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 01/2010; 22(1):94-7. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An outbreak of infectious bursal disease (IBD) in two California layer flocks resulted in the isolation of two infectious bursal disease viruses designated rA and rB. Increased mortality plus gross and histopathology in the layer flocks suggested rA and rB could be very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV). Preliminary studies indicated that high mortality resulted when bursa homogenates from the layer farms were used to inoculate specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicks. In addition, rA and rB contained VP2 amino acid sequences typically seen in vvIBDV. Molecular and in vivo studies were conducted to more thoroughly identify and characterize the rA and rB viruses. Nucleotide sequence analysis demonstrated that rA and rB had identical sequences across the hypervariable VP2 (hvVP2) and segment B regions examined, and their amino acid sequences in the hvVP2 region were identical to the vvwIBDV type strains UK 661, OKYM, and Harbin. Furthermore, the genome segment B nucleotide sequences examined for rA and rB were a 98.1% match with vvIBDV and only an 88.0% match with classic IBDV strains. Phylogenetic analysis placed the rA and rB viruses with other vvIBDV and confirmed these viruses were close genetic descendants of vvIBDV seen around the world. Pathogenicity studies in 4-wk-old SPF chicks demonstrated that at a high dose (105.5 50% egg infective dose [EID50]) and a low dose (102.0 EID50) of rA and rB, mortality ranged from 91% to 100%. A pathogenic classic virus, standard challenge (STC), at similar doses did not cause mortality in the SPF chicks. In addition, mortality occurred in three out of four SPF birds exposed by direct contact to rA and rB inoculated chicks. Serum from convalescent birds inoculated with rA had high titers to IBDV but were negative for antibodies to infectious bronchitis virus, avian influenza virus, chicken anemia virus, Newcastle disease virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, and Mycoplasma synoviae. Virus isolation attempts on the rA and rB bursa homogenate inocula also indicated that no contaminating microorganisms contributed to the high mortality and pathology observed in the SPF chicks. In one experiment, broilers with maternal immunity to IBDV were protected from infection and disease when they were challenged with 10(2) EID50 and 10(5) EID50 of the STC virus. When challenged with 10(2) EID50 of the rA virus, the maternally immune broilers were protected from disease but not infection as evidenced by a positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for the virus. When the broilers were challenged with 10(5) EID50 of the rA virus, they had typical gross and histopathologic signs of IBD but no mortality by 7 days postinoculation. It was concluded that the rA and rB viruses meet the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of a vvIBDV.
    Avian Diseases 12/2009; 53(4):592-600. · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • Avian Diseases Digest 01/2009; 4(4).

Publication Stats

183 Citations
60.42 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2014
    • University of California, Davis
      • • School of Veterinary Medicine
      • • California Animal Health & Food Safety Laboratory System - CAHFS
      • • Department of Veterinary Medicine and Epidemiology
      • • Veterinary Medicine Teaching & Research Center
      Davis, California, United States
  • 2009–2013
    • The Ohio State University
      • Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center
      Columbus, OH, United States