[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: on behalf of the ENIGMA consortium BACKGROUND: Accurate evaluation of unclassified se-quence variants in cancer predisposition genes is essen-tial for clinical management and depends on a multi-factorial analysis of clinical, genetic, pathologic, and bioinformatic variables and assays of transcript length and abundance. The integrity of assay data in turn re-lies on appropriate assay design, interpretation, and reporting. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter investigation to compare mRNA splicing assay protocols used by mem-bers of the ENIGMA (Evidence-Based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles) consor-tium. We compared similarities and differences in re-sults derived from analysis of a panel of breast cancer 1,
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, it has been reported that biallelic mutations in the ERCC4 (FANCQ) gene cause Fanconi anemia (FA) subtype FA-Q. To investigate the possible role of ERCC4 in breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility, as occurs with other FA genes, we screened the 11 coding exons and exon-intron boundaries of ERCC4 in 1573 index cases from high-risk Spanish familial breast and ovarian cancer pedigrees that had been tested negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and 854 controls. The frequency of ERCC4 mutation carriers does not differ between cases and controls, suggesting that ERCC4 is not a cancer susceptibility gene. Interestingly, the prevalence of ERCC4 mutation carriers (one in 288) is similar to that reported for FANCA, whereas there are approximately 100-fold more FA-A than FA-Q patients, indicating that most biallelic combinations of ERCC4 mutations are embryo lethal. Finally, we identified additional bone-fide FA ERCC4 mutations specifically disrupting interstrand cross-link repair. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In agreement with historical documentation, several genetic studies have revealed ancestral links between the European Romani and India. The entire mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 27 Spanish Romani was sequenced in order to shed further light on the origins of this population. The data were analyzed together with a large published dataset (mainly hypervariable region I [HVS-I] haplotypes) of Romani (N = 1,353) and non-Romani worldwide populations (N>150,000). Analysis of mitogenomes allowed the characterization of various Romani-specific clades. M5a1b1a1 is the most distinctive European Romani haplogroup; it is present in all Romani groups at variable frequencies (with only sporadic findings in non-Romani) and represents 18% of their mtDNA pool. Its phylogeographic features indicate that M5a1b1a1 originated 1.5 thousand years ago (kya; 95% CI: 1.3-1.8) in a proto-Romani population living in Northwest India. U3 represents the most characteristic Romani haplogroup of European/Near Eastern origin (12.4%); it appears at dissimilar frequencies across the continent (Iberia: ∼31%; Eastern/Central Europe: ∼13%). All U3 mitogenomes of our Iberian Romani sample fall within a new sub-clade, U3b1c, which can be dated to 0.5 kya (95% CI: 0.3-0.7); therefore, signaling a lower bound for the founder event that followed admixture in Europe/Near East. Other minor European/Near Eastern haplogroups (e.g. H24, H88a) were also assimilated into the Romani by introgression with neighboring populations during their diaspora into Europe; yet some show a differentiation from the phylogenetically closest non-Romani counterpart. The phylogeny of Romani mitogenomes shows clear signatures of low effective population sizes and founder effects. Overall, these results are in good agreement with historical documentation, suggesting that cultural identity and relative isolation have allowed the Romani to preserve a distinctive mtDNA heritage, with some features linking them unequivocally to their ancestral Indian homeland.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e75397. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The PALB2 gene, also known as FANCN, forms a bond and co-localizes with BRCA2 in DNA repair. Germline mutations in PALB2 have been identified in approximately 1% of familial breast cancer and 3-4% of familial pancreatic cancer. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of PALB2 mutations in a population of BRCA1/BRCA2 negative breast cancer patients selected from either a personal or family history of pancreatic cancer.
132 non-BRCA1/BRCA2 breast/ovarian cancer families with at least one pancreatic cancer case were included in the study. PALB2 mutational analysis was performed by direct sequencing of all coding exons and intron/exon boundaries, as well as multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.
Two PALB2 truncating mutations, the c.1653T>A (p.Tyr551Stop) previously reported, and c.3362del (p.Gly1121ValfsX3) which is a novel frameshift mutation, were identified. Moreover, several PALB2 variants were detected; some of them were predicted as pathological by bioinformatic analysis. Considering truncating mutations, the prevalence rate of our population of BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer patients with pancreatic cancer is 1.5%.
The prevalence rate of PALB2 mutations in non-BRCA1/BRCA2 breast/ovarian cancer families, selected from either a personal or family pancreatic cancer history, is similar to that previously described for unselected breast/ovarian cancer families. Future research directed towards identifying other gene(s) involved in the development of breast/pancreatic cancer families is required.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e67538. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fanconi anemia is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder characterized by development abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and childhood cancers. Compelling evidence indicates a common genetic basis for FA and breast/ovarian cancer susceptibility. Recently, biallelic germ-line mutations in SLX4 have been demonstrated to cause a previously unknown FA subtype (FA-P). We address the role of SLX4/FANCP in breast/ovarian cancer susceptibility by conducting a comprehensive mutation scanning in 486 index cases from non-BRCA1/BRCA2 multiple-case breast and/or ovarian cancer families (non-BRCA1/2 families) from Spain. We detected one unequivocal loss-of-function mutation (p.Glu1517X). In addition, one missense change (p.Arg372Trp) predicted to be pathogenic by in silico analysis co-segregates with disease in one family. Overall, the study indicates that SLX4 mutation screening will have a very low impact (if any) in the genetic counseling of non-BRCA1/2 families.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 5 December 2012; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2012.268.
European journal of human genetics: EJHG 12/2012; · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We have performed a case-control study among prostate cancer patients treated with three-dimensional conformational radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in order to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), treatment and patient features with gastrointestinal and genitourinary acute toxicity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 698 patients were screened for 14 SNPs located in the ATM, ERCC2, LIG4, MLH1 and XRCC3 genes. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicities were recorded prospectively using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0. RESULTS: The XRCC3 SNP rs1799794 (G/G OR=5.65; 95% CI: 1.95-16.38; G/A OR=2.75; 95% CI: 1.25-6.05; uncorrected p-value=2.8×10(-03); corrected p-value=0.03; FDR q-value=0.06) as well as the mean dose received by the rectum (OR=1.06; 95% CI: 1.02-1.1; uncorrected p-value=2.49×10(-03); corrected p-value=0.03; FDR q-value=0.06) were significantly associated with gastrointestinal toxicity after correction for multiple testing. Those patients who undergone previous prostatectomy were less prone to develop genitourinary toxicity (OR=0.38; 95% CI: 0.18-0.71; uncorrected p-value=4.95×10(-03); corrected p-value=0.03; FDR q-value=0.08). Our study excludes the possibility of a >2-fold risk increase in genitourinary acute toxicity being due to rs1801516 ATM SNP, the rs1805386 and rs1805388 LIG4 markers, as well as all the SNPs evaluated in the ERCC2, MLH1 and XRCC3 genes. CONCLUSIONS: The XRCC3 rs1799794 SNP and the mean dose received by the rectum are associated with the development of gastrointestinal toxicity after 3D-CRT.
Radiotherapy and Oncology 10/2012; · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alterations in telomere maintenance mechanisms leading to short telomeres underlie different genetic disorders of ageing and cancer predisposition syndromes. It is known that short telomeres and subsequent genomic instability contribute to malignant transformation, and it is therefore likely that people with shorter telomeres are at higher risk for different types of cancer. Recently, the authors demonstrated that the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are modifiers of telomere length (TL) in familial breast cancer. The present study analysed TL in peripheral blood leucocytes of hereditary and sporadic ovarian cancer cases, as well as in female controls, to evaluate whether TL contributes to ovarian cancer risk.
TL was measured by quantitative PCR in 178 sporadic and 168 hereditary ovarian cases (46 BRCA1, 12 BRCA2, and 110 BRCAX) and compared to TL in 267 controls.
Both sporadic and hereditary cases showed significantly shorter age adjusted TLs than controls. Unconditional logistic regression analysis revealed an association between TL and ovarian cancer risk with a significant interaction with age (p<0.001). Risk was higher in younger women and progressively decreased with age, with the highest OR observed in women under 30 years of age (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.34 to 1.81; p=1.0×10(-18)).
These findings indicate that TL could be a risk factor for early onset ovarian cancer.
Journal of Medical Genetics 04/2012; 49(5):341-4. · 5.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a rare, nonsyndromic, heterogeneous disorder of cornification. It is divided into three clinical subtypes: lamellar ichthyosis (LI); congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma; and harlequin ichthyosis. In the majority of patients, LI is caused by transglutaminase-1 (TGase1) deficiency resulting from mutations in both copies of the transglutaminase 1 (TGM1) gene in chromosome 14.
We report a patient with a severe LI phenotype who has a homozygous putative splicing mutation in the TGM1 gene. Our aim is to assess the pathologic effect of the TGM1 c.984+1G>A by splicing assays and bioinformatic tools.
c.984+1G>A mutation created two alternative TGM1 mRNA splice variants that included 30 or 32 nucleotides of the 5' of intron 6. At the protein level, the partial in-frame aberrant transcript retaining 30 bp of intron 6 led to the insertion of 10 amino acids (p.Met329_Val330ins10) at the catalytic core domain of TGM1 protein (codons 247-572), whereas the transcript with the insertion of 32 nucleotides is predicted to encode a truncated protein (p.Val330MetfsX12).
Our splicing assay, together with bioinformatic prediction tools, supports the pathological effect of the recently identified c.984+1G>A mutation in the TGM1 gene and unravels the molecular mechanism by which c.984+1G>A acts.
International journal of dermatology 04/2012; 51(4):427-30. · 1.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have performed a case-control study in 413 prostate cancer patients to test for association between TGFβ1 and the development of late normal-tissue toxicity among prostate cancer patients treated with three-dimensional conformational radiotherapy (3D-CRT) MATERIALS AND METHODS: Late gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicities were assessed for at least two years after radiotherapy in 413 patients according to CTCAEvs3 scores. Codominant genotypic tests and haplotypic analyses were undertaken to evaluate the correlation between TGFβ1 SNPs rs1800469, rs1800470 and rs1800472 and radio-induced toxicity.
Neither the SNPs nor the haplotypes were found to be associated with the risk of late toxicity.
We were able to exclude up to a 2-fold increase in the risk of developing late gastrointestinal and genitourinary radio-induced toxicity due to the TGFβ1 SNPs rs1800469 and rs1800470, as well as the two most frequent TGFβ1 haplotypes.
Radiotherapy and Oncology 02/2012; 103(2):206-9. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the TGM1 gene encoding transglutaminase 1 are a major cause of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis. In the Galician (NW Spain) population, three mutations, c.2278C>T, c.1223_1227delACAC and c.984+1G>A, were observed at high frequency, representing ~46%, ~21% and ~13% of all TGM1 gene mutations, respectively. Moreover, these mutations were reported only once outside of Galicia, pointing to the existence of historical episodes of local severe genetic drift in this region.
In order to determine whether these mutations were inherited from a common ancestor in the Galician population, and to estimate the number of generations since their initial appearance, we carried out a haplotype-based analysis by way of genotyping 21 SNPs within and flanking the TGM1 gene and 10 flanking polymorphic microsatellite markers spanning a region of 12 Mb. Two linkage disequilibrium based methods were used to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA), while a Bayesian-based procedure was used to estimate the age of the two mutations. Haplotype reconstruction from unphased genotypes of all members of the affected pedigrees indicated that all carriers for each of the two mutations harbored the same haplotypes, indicating common ancestry.
In good agreement with the documentation record and the census, both mutations arose between 2,800-2,900 years ago (y.a.), but their TMRCA was in the range 600-1,290 y.a., pointing to the existence of historical bottlenecks in the region followed by population growth. This demographic scenario finds further support on a Bayesian Coalescent Analysis based on TGM1 haplotypes that allowed estimating the occurrence of a dramatic reduction of effective population size around 900-4,500 y.a. (95% highest posterior density) followed by exponential growth.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e33580. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been demonstrated that monoallelic PALB2 (Partner and Localizer of BRCA2) gene mutations predispose to familial breast cancer. Some of the families reported with germline PALB2 mutations presented male breast cancer as a characteristic clinical feature. Therefore, we wanted to investigate the contribution of germline PALB2 mutations in a set of 131 Spanish BRCA1/BRCA2-negative breast/ovarian cancer families with at least one male breast cancer case. The analysis included direct sequencing of all coding exons and intron/exon boundaries as well as a Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification-based analysis of genomic rearrangements. For the first time we have identified a genomic rearrangement of PALB2 gene involving a large deletion from exon 7 to 11 in a breast cancer family. We have also identified several PALB2 variants, but no other obvious deleterious PALB2 mutation has been found. Thus, our study does not support an enrichment of PALB2 germline mutations in the subset of breast cancer families with male breast cancer cases. The identification of intronic and exonic variants indicates the necessity of assessing the implications of variants that do not lead to PALB2 truncation in the pathoghenicity of the PALB2 gene.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 11/2011; 132(1):307-15. · 4.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose carriers to early onset breast and ovarian cancer. A common problem in clinical genetic testing is interpretation of variants with unknown clinical significance. The Evidence-based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles (ENIGMA) consortium was initiated to evaluate and implement strategies to characterize the clinical significance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants. As an initial project of the ENIGMA Splicing Working Group, we report splicing and multifactorial likelihood analysis of 25 BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants from seven different laboratories. Splicing analysis was performed by reverse transcriptase PCR or mini gene assay, and sequencing to identify aberrant transcripts. The findings were compared to bioinformatic predictions using four programs. The posterior probability of pathogenicity was estimated using multifactorial likelihood analysis, including co-occurrence with a deleterious mutation, segregation and/or report of family history. Abnormal splicing patterns expected to lead to a non-functional protein were observed for 7 variants (BRCA1 c.441+2T>A, c.4184_4185+2del, c.4357+1G>A, c.4987-2A>G, c.5074G>C, BRCA2 c.316+5G>A, and c.8754+3G>C). Combined interpretation of splicing and multifactorial analysis classified an initiation codon variant (BRCA2 c.3G>A) as likely pathogenic, uncertain clinical significance for 7 variants, and indicated low clinical significance or unlikely pathogenicity for another 10 variants. Bioinformatic tools predicted disruption of consensus donor or acceptor sites with high sensitivity, but cryptic site usage was predicted with low specificity, supporting the value of RNA-based assays. The findings also provide further evidence that clinical RNA-based assays should be extended from analysis of invariant dinucleotides to routinely include all variants located within the donor and acceptor consensus splicing sites. Importantly, this study demonstrates the added value of collaboration between laboratories, and across disciplines, to collate and interpret information from clinical testing laboratories to consolidate patient management.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 07/2011; 132(3):1009-23. · 4.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The c.156_157insAlu BRCA2 mutation has so far only been reported in hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (HBOC) families of Portuguese origin. Since this mutation is not detectable using the commonly used screening methodologies and must be specifically sought, we screened for this rearrangement in a total of 5,443 suspected HBOC families from several countries. Whereas the c.156_157insAlu BRCA2 mutation was detected in 11 of 149 suspected HBOC families from Portugal, representing 37.9% of all deleterious mutations, in other countries it was detected only in one proband living in France and in four individuals requesting predictive testing living in France and in the USA, all being Portuguese immigrants. After performing an extensive haplotype study in carrier families, we estimate that this founder mutation occurred 558 ± 215 years ago. We further demonstrate significant quantitative differences regarding the production of the BRCA2 full length RNA and the transcript lacking exon 3 in c.156_157insAlu BRCA2 mutation carriers and in controls. The cumulative incidence of breast cancer in carriers did not differ from that of other BRCA2 and BRCA1 pathogenic mutations. We recommend that all suspected HBOC families from Portugal or with Portuguese ancestry are specifically tested for this rearrangement.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 06/2011; 127(3):671-9. · 4.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although in recent years deleterious BRCA1 mutations have been extensively studied as a prostate cancer risk factor, results are inconclusive. To assess the contribution of the BRCA1 Galician founder mutation c.211A>G in prostate cancer morbidity we conducted a case-control study. Moreover, to better elucidate whether deleterious BRCA1 mutations are involved in the development of prostate cancer, we performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis of BRCA1 studies on prostate cancer.
A total of 905 unselected men diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the prostate and a control group of 936 unrelated men without history of prostate cancer were evaluated for c.211A>G. Adjusted by age Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. To construct the meta-analysis, genotype-based epidemiological studies reporting BRCA1 founder mutations on prostate cancer were identified by comprehensive and systematic bibliographic search. After extraction of relevant data, main and subgroup analysis by mutation were performed to assess the effect of BRCA1 on prostate cancer risk.
Four c.211A>G heterozygous individuals, one patient and three controls, were detected (OR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.01-2.36; P = 0.28). Meta-analysis results from the integration of our data and other seven studies with BRCA1 genotyping data (5,705 prostate cancer cases and 13,218 controls) did not detect an association with prostate cancer risk (OR = 1.36; 95% CI: 0.87-2.14; P = 0.18).
Our conclusive trial demonstrates the lack of association between Galician splicing mutation c.211A>G in the BRCA1 gene and prostate cancer risk. Moreover, the result of the meta-analysis also discards the involvement of BRCA1 mutations in the development of prostate cancer.
The Prostate 04/2011; 71(16):1768-79. · 3.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recent genome wide association study of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) provided evidence that common variation at 2q13 (rs17483466), 2q37.1 (rs13397985), 6p25.3 (rs872071), 11q24.1 (rs735665), 15q23 (rs7176508) and 19q13.32 (rs11083846) affects CLL risk. To verify and further explore the relationship between these variants and CLL risk we genotyped case-control datasets from Spain and Sweden (824 cases, 850 controls). Combined data provided statistically significant support for an association between genotypes at rs13397985, rs872071, rs735665, rs7176508 and rs11083846 and CLL risk. CLL risk increased with increasing numbers of risk alleles (P(trend) = 1.40 x 10(-15)), consistent with a polygenic model of disease susceptibility. These data validate the relationship between common variation and risk of CLL.
British Journal of Haematology 08/2010; 150(4):473-9. · 4.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant-inherited colorectal cancer syndrome, caused by germline mutations in the APC gene. Recently, biallelic mutations in MUTYH have also been identified in patients with multiple colorectal adenomas and in APC-negative patients with FAP. The aim of this work is therefore to determine the frequency of APC and MUTYH mutations among FAP families from two Spanish populations.
Eighty-two unrelated patients with classical or attenuated FAP were screened for APC germline mutations. MUTYH analysis was then conducted in those APC-negative families and in 9 additional patients from a previous study. Direct sequencing, SSCP analysis and TaqMan genotyping were used to identify point and frameshift mutations, meanwhile large rearrangements in the APC gene were screened by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA).
APC germline mutations were found in 39% of the patients and, despite the great number of genetic variants described so far in this gene, seven new mutations were identified. The two hotspots at codons 1061 and 1309 of the APC gene accounted for 9,4% of the APC-positive families, although they were underrepresented in Galician samples. The deletion at codon 1061 was not found in 19 APC-positive Galician patients but represented 23% of the Catalonian positive families (p = 0,058). The same trend was observed at codon 1309, even though statistical analysis showed no significance between populations. Twenty-four percent of the APC-negative patients carried biallelic MUTYH germline mutations, and showed an attenuated polyposis phenotype generally without extracolonic manifestations. New genetic variants were found, as well as the two hotspots already reported (p.Tyr165Cys and p.Gly382Asp).
The results we present indicate that in Galician patients the frequency of the hotspot at codon 1061 in APC differs significantly from the Catalonian and also other Caucasian populations. Similar results had already been obtained in a previous study and could be due to the genetic isolation of the Galician population. MUTYH analysis is also recommended for all APC-negative families, even if a recessive inheritance is not confirmed.
BMC Medical Genetics 07/2009; 10:57. · 2.54 Impact Factor