Nasr El-Sayed

Ministry of Health and Population, Egypt, Al Qāhirah, Al Qāhirah, Egypt

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Publications (23)107.96 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: One approach to control enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections has been to develop vaccines focused on inducing protective immunity against surface expressed antigenic factors. One such factor is coli surface antigen 6 (CS6); ETEC isolates expressing CS6 may also simultaneously co-express surface antigens CS4 or CS5. However, there is little information regarding the inter-relationships of isolates expressing the CS6 antigen alone or in combination with CS4 or CS5. A total of 62 CS6-associated ETEC isolates were evaluated for their antimicrobial susceptibility, mechanisms of resistance, toxin genes, colonization factor expression, and XbaI-pulsed-field gel electrophoretic profiles. We observed 46 XbaI profiles; 31 were exclusive to ETEC expressing CS6 alone and 15 among the ETEC co-expressing CS4 or CS5. Nearly half (47%) of these isolates were resistant to ampicillin, a third (37%) of the isolates were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and 24% of the isolates were tetracycline-resistant. A blaTEM gene was detected in 24 (83%) ampicillin-resistant isolates. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant isolates (n = 23) carried either sulI (n = 1, 4%), sulII (n = 8, 35%) or both genes (n = 10, 43%); 4 had no detectable sul gene. Our results show a lack of clonality among Egypt CS6 E. coli isolates and supports the use and the further research on vaccines targeting this cell surface antigen.
    The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 02/2013; 7(2):90-100. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Identification of risk factors of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Egypt is crucial to develop appropriate prevention strategies. Methods We conducted a case–control study, June 2007-September 2008, to investigate risk factors for acute HCV infection in Egypt among 86 patients and 287 age and gender matched controls identified in two infectious disease hospitals in Cairo and Alexandria. Case-patients were defined as: any patient with symptoms of acute hepatitis; lab tested positive for HCV antibodies and negative for HBsAg, HBc IgM, HAV IgM; and 7-fold increase in the upper limit of transaminase levels. Controls were selected from patients’ visitors with negative viral hepatitis markers. Subjects were interviewed about previous exposures within six months, including community-acquired and health-care associated practices. Results Case-patients were more likely than controls to have received injection with a reused syringe (OR=23.1, CI 4.7-153), to have been in prison (OR=21.5, CI 2.5-479.6), to have received IV fluids in a hospital (OR=13.8, CI 5.3-37.2), to have been an IV drug user (OR=12.1, CI 4.6- 33.1), to have had minimal surgical procedures (OR=9.7, CI 4.2-22.4), to have received IV fluid as an outpatient (OR=8, CI 4–16.2), or to have been admitted to hospital (OR=7.9, CI 4.2-15) within the last 6 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that unsafe health facility practices are the main risk factors associated with transmission of HCV infection in Egypt. Conclusion In Egypt, focusing acute HCV prevention measures on health-care settings would have a beneficial impact.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 11/2012; 12(12:294):294. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Egypt, vaccination against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus was required of pilgrims departing for the 2009 Hajj. A survey of 551 pilgrims as they returned to Egypt found 542 (98.1% [weighted]) reported receiving the vaccine; 6 (1.0% [weighted]) were infected with influenza virus A (H3N2) but none with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus.
    Emerging Infectious Diseases 07/2011; 17(7):1266-8. · 6.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive hand hygiene campaign on reducing absenteeism caused by influenza-like illness (ILI), diarrhea, conjunctivitis, and laboratory-confirmed influenza, we conducted a randomized control trial in 60 elementary schools in Cairo, Egypt. Children in the intervention schools were required to wash hands twice each day, and health messages were provided through entertainment activities. Data were collected on student absenteeism and reasons for illness. School nurses collected nasal swabs from students with ILI, which were tested by using a qualitative diagnostic test for influenza A and B. Compared with results for the control group, in the intervention group, overall absences caused by ILI, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, and laboratory-confirmed influenza were reduced by 40%, 30%, 67%, and 50%, respectively (p<0.0001 for each illness). An intensive hand hygiene campaign was effective in reducing absenteeism caused by these illnesses.
    Emerging Infectious Diseases 04/2011; 17(4):619-25. · 6.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is recognized to be a common cause of acute watery diarrhea in children from developing countries. Colonization factors (CFAs) have been identified predominantly in ETEC isolates secreting heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) or cosecreting ST with a heat-labile toxin (LT). We hypothesized that LT-only-secreting ETEC produces unique colonization factors not previously described in ST and LTST-secreting ETEC. A set of degenerate primers based on nucleotide sequence similarities between the major structural genes of CS20 (csnA), CS18 (fotA), CS12 (cswA), and porcine antigen 987 (fasA) was developed and used to screen a collection of 266 LT-secreting ETEC isolates in which no known CFA was detected. PCR-amplified products of different molecular masses were obtained from 49 (18.4%) isolates. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the PCR amplicons followed by GenBank nucleotide BLASTn analysis revealed five novel DNA sequences; translated amino acid BLASTx analysis confirmed sequence similarity to class 1b major structural proteins encoded by csnA, fotA, and fasA. Strains expressing the novel CFAs were phylotyped and analyzed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST; Achtman scheme), and the types detected were compared to those of a collection of archived global E. coli strains. In conclusion, application of the degenerate primer sets to ETEC isolates from surveillance studies increased the total number of ETEC isolates with detectable CFAs by almost 20%. Additionally, MLST analysis suggests that for many CFAs, there may be a requirement for certain genetic backgrounds to acquire and maintain plasmids carrying genes encoding CFAs.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 02/2011; 49(4):1403-10. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The emergence of influenza viruses has raised awareness worldwide about influenza pandemic risks. Pandemic preparedness emphasizes development of risk communication and surveillance systems. The objective was to explore community classification of Acute Respiratory Illness (ARI) and health-seeking behaviors. Twenty in-depth interviews and 18 focus group discussions were conducted with caretakers in Egypt. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using the thematic analysis. ARI terminology contained few terms, usage of them was complex, and microorganism not part of illness explanation. Severe ARI was associated with social stigma. Homecare included extensive use of medications. In mild and severe ARI, health-seeking determinants varied. Classification of ARI parallels World Health Organization case definitions for ARI, facilitating risk communication. Homecare practices are social norms that can be expanded to include messages on ARI. Risk communication strategies and surveillance systems need to consider socio-cultural understanding of ARI.
    International Quarterly of Community Health Education 01/2011; 32(1):11-22.
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    ABSTRACT: During March 2006-March 2009, a total of 6,355 suspected cases of avian influenza (H5N1) were reported to the Ministry of Health in Egypt. Sixty-three (1%) patients had confirmed infections; 24 (38%) died. Risk factors for death included female sex, age > or = 15 years, and receiving the first dose of oseltamivir >2 days after illness onset. All but 2 case-patients reported exposure to domestic poultry probably infected with avian influenza virus (H5N1). No cases of human-to-human transmission were found. Greatest risks for infection and death were reported among women > or = 15 years of age, who accounted for 38% of infections and 83% of deaths. The lower case-fatality rate in Egypt could be caused by a less virulent virus clade. However, the lower mortality rate seems to be caused by the large number of infected children who were identified early, received prompt treatment, and had less severe clinical disease.
    Emerging Infectious Diseases 07/2010; 16(7):1101-7. · 6.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diversidad antigénica y genética de aislamientos del virus de Influenza Aviar de alta patogenicidad subtipo H5N1 en Egipto. El subtipo H5N1 de Influenza Aviar de alta patogenicidad ha mostrado diversidad antigénica y genética desde su detección inicial en Asia en el año 1997. En particular, los virus pertenecientes al clado 2.2 han sido reportados en numerosos países, en su mayoría provenientes de casos observados en Egipto. Reportes previos identificaron similitudes antigénicas entre los virus pertenecientes al clado 2.2. Sin embargo, los virus aviares y humanos aislados en el norte de Egipto durante los años 2007 y 2008 fueron antigénicamente distintos de otros virus del clado 2.2 de este país. El análisis genético de la hemaglutinina reveló un alto grado de divergencia de los nucleótidos y aminoácidos. Los cambios antigénicos observados en los virus egipcios aislados durante el 2007 y el 2008 hacen necesario que dos de estas cepas se consideren como candidatas potenciales a ser virus vacunales H5N1 pre-pandémicos. Abbreviations: CDC = Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; CLEVB = Central Laboratory for Veterinary Biologics Evaluation; GS/GD = A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96; HA = hemagglutinin; HI = hemagglutination inhibition; HPAI = highly pathogenic avian influenza; NAMRU-3 = U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3; NLQP = National Laboratory for Quality Control of Poultry Production; PBS = phosphate buffered saline; RT-PCR = reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; WHO = World Health Organization
    Avian Diseases 03/2010; · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1) has diverged antigenically and genetically since its initial detection in Asia in 1997. Viruses belonging to clade 2.2 in particular have been reported in numerous countries with the majority occurring in Egypt. Previous reports identified antigenic similarities between viruses belonging to clade 2.2. However, poultry and human viruses isolated in northern Egypt during 2007 and 2008 were found to be antigenically distinct from other clade 2.2 viruses from this country. Genetic analysis of the hemagglutinin revealed a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid divergence. The antigenic changes in Egyptian viruses isolated during 2007-08 necessitated that two of these strains be considered as potential H5N1 pre-pandemic vaccine candidates.
    Avian Diseases 03/2010; 54(1 Suppl):329-34. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Viral hepatitis is a major problem in Egypt. To define the epidemiology of the disease, sentinel surveillance was established in 5 hospitals in diverse areas of the country in 2001. Data were completed for patients meeting the case definition for viral hepatitis. Of a total of 5909 patients evaluated, 4189 (70.9%) showed positive antibody markers for hepatitis. Out of those, 40.2% had evidence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, 30.0% hepatitis B virus (HBV) and 29.8% hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This surveillance system was useful in identifying the variable endemicity of acute HAV infection in different regions and for better understanding the epidemiology of HBV and HCV infection.
    Eastern Mediterranean health journal = La revue de santé de la Méditerranée orientale = al-Majallah al-ṣiḥḥīyah li-sharq al-mutawassiṭ 02/2010; 16(2):134-40.
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a significant health problem in Egypt. To better define risk factors associated with HBV transmission, we conducted a case-control study among patients admitted with acute hepatitis to an infectious disease hospital in Cairo. A total of 60 cases and 120 controls were interviewed about various exposures within 6 months prior to admission. Univariate analysis revealed HBV case-patients were more likely to report providing injections to relatives or friends, injecting drug use, exposure to a household contact with hepatitis, exposure to invasive medical procedures and being in the military. Efforts should be made to implement strict infection control standards in Egypt.
    Eastern Mediterranean health journal = La revue de santé de la Méditerranée orientale = al-Majallah al-ṣiḥḥīyah li-sharq al-mutawassiṭ 01/2010; 16(1):4-9.
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a prospective cohort study to determine prevalence and incidence of West Nile virus (WNV) in Egypt. Cohorts were established in Upper (UE), Middle (ME), and Lower (LE) Egypt. Additionally, a cross-sectional serosurvey was performed in the North (NS) and South (SS) Sinai. Cohorts were bled initially and 1 year later. Sera were tested for WNV-IgG by ELISA and positive sera were confirmed by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Sentinel chicken flocks placed in the above sites were bled monthly for virus isolation and serology. Mosquitoes were collected monthly from the above sites and tested for WNV. Human seroprevalence rates were 35%, 27%, 14%, 1% and 7% in UE, ME, LE, NS and SS, respectively. Seroconversion rates were 18%, 17% and 7% in UE, ME and LE, respectively; 49% of the seroconverters reported undiagnosed febrile illness. Sentinel chickens showed seroconversion in all study sites. WNV was isolated from both sentinel chickens and mosquitoes in cohort sites. This study demonstrates that WNV was actively circulating during the study period in different areas in Egypt and causing febrile illness in a considerable proportion of individuals in the study sites.
    Journal of infection and public health. 01/2010; 3(2):54-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The availability of rotavirus vaccines makes the implementation of a national immunization program an important decision requiring economic considerations. A cost-benefit analysis of a national rotavirus immunization program in Egypt, from the perspective of the Ministry of Health and Population, and a cost-effectiveness analysis, from a societal perspective, were conducted. For a birth cohort of 1.9 million children, a vaccination program was estimated to prevent 1,140,496 episodes of diarrhea, 438,395 outpatient visits, and 47,508 hospitalizations and to save 2873 lives, resulting in direct Ministry of Health and Population medical savings of $2,481,792 (14,369,578 Egyptian pounds [LE]). On the basis of a $9.18 (53 LE) single-dose cost, rotavirus vaccine introduction would cost the Ministry of Health and Population $34,203,445.87 (198,037,951.56 LE) in health expenditures. This equates to an incremental cost of $30.22 (174.95 LE) per infection prevented. Vaccination would prevent the loss of 94,993 disability-adjusted life-years, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $363 per disability-adjusted life-year. The introduction of rotavirus vaccine to the national immunization program was not found to be cost saving based strictly from the Ministry of Health and Population perspective; however, the potential benefits of long-term health and economic gains from reduced mortality and morbidity, decreased direct costs of care for families, and indirect societal costs should be considered in such decisions.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 11/2009; 200 Suppl 1:S92-8. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For the final stages in the eradication of poliovirus type 1 (P1), the World Health Organization advocates the selective use of monovalent type 1 oral poliovirus vaccine (mOPV1). To compare the immunogenicity of mOPV1 with that of trivalent OPV (tOPV) in infants, a study was performed in Egypt in 2005. Newborns were vaccinated with mOPV1 or tOPV immediately after birth and were challenged with mOPV1 after 1 month. Vaccination with mOPV1 at birth resulted in significantly higher seroconversion against P1 viruses and lower excretion of P1 viruses than vaccination with tOPV. Intratypic differentiation of the viruses shed by the newborns revealed the presence of remarkably high numbers of antigenically divergent (AD) P1 isolates, especially in the mOPV1 study group. The majority of these AD P1 isolates (71%) were mOPV1 challenge derived and were shed by newborns who did not seroconvert to P1 after the birth dose. Genetic characterization of the viruses revealed that amino acid 60 of the VP3 region was mutated in all AD P1 isolates. Isolates with substitution of residue 99 of the VP1 region had significantly higher numbers of nonsynonymous mutations in the VP1 region than isolates without this substitution and were preferentially shed in the mOPV1 study group. The widespread use of mOPV1 has proven to be a powerful tool for fighting poliovirus circulation in the remaining areas of endemicity. This study provides another justification for the need to achieve high vaccination coverage in order to prevent the circulation of AD strains.
    Journal of Virology 07/2009; 83(17):8693-704. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis. Although substantial progress toward this goal has been made, eradication remains elusive. In 2004, the World Health Organization called for the development of a potentially more immunogenic monovalent type 1 oral poliovirus vaccine. We conducted a trial in Egypt to compare the immunogenicity of a newly licensed monovalent type 1 oral poliovirus vaccine with that of a trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive one dose of monovalent type 1 oral poliovirus vaccine or trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine at birth. Thirty days after birth, a single challenge dose of monovalent type 1 oral poliovirus vaccine was administered in all subjects. Shedding of serotype 1 poliovirus was assessed through day 60. A total of 530 subjects were enrolled, and 421 fulfilled the study requirements. Thirty days after the study vaccines were administered, the rate of seroconversion to type 1 poliovirus was 55.4% in the monovalent-vaccine group, as compared with 32.1% in the trivalent-vaccine group (P<0.001). Among those with a high reciprocal titer of maternally derived antibodies against type 1 poliovirus (>64), 46.0% of the subjects in the monovalent-vaccine group underwent seroconversion, as compared with 21.3% in the trivalent-vaccine group (P<0.001). Seven days after administration of the challenge dose of monovalent type 1 vaccine, a significantly lower proportion of subjects in the monovalent-vaccine group than in the trivalent-vaccine group excreted type 1 poliovirus (25.9% vs. 41.5%, P=0.001). None of the serious adverse events reported were attributed to the trial interventions. When given at birth, monovalent type 1 oral poliovirus vaccine is superior to trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine in inducing humoral antibodies against type 1 poliovirus, overcoming high preexisting levels of maternally derived antibodies, and increasing the resistance to excretion of type 1 poliovirus after administration of a challenge dose. (Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN76316509.)
    New England Journal of Medicine 11/2008; 359(16):1655-65. · 54.42 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Infectious Diseases - INT J INFECT DIS. 01/2008; 12.
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    ABSTRACT: To develop better estimates of brucellosis incidence, we conducted population-based surveillance for acute febrile illness (AFI) in Fayoum governorate (population 2347249), Egypt during two summer periods (2002 and 2003). All hospitals and a representative sample of community healthcare providers were included. AFI patients without obvious etiology were tested for brucellosis by culture and serology. Incidence estimates were calculated adjusting for sampling methodology and study period. Of 4490 AFI patients enrolled, 321 (7%) met the brucellosis case definition. The estimated annual incidence of brucellosis per 100000 population was 64 and 70 in 2002 and 2003, respectively. The median age of brucellosis patients was 26 years and 70% were male; 53% were initially diagnosed as typhoid fever. Close contact with animals and consumption of unpasteurized milk products were associated with brucellosis. The high incidence of brucellosis in Fayoum highlights its public health importance, and the need to implement prevention strategies in humans and animals.
    Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 08/2007; 101(7):707-13. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Egypt provides ideal conditions for poliovirus (PV) transmission (high population density, high contact rates and low sanitation and hygiene in some areas). Despite excellent program performance, wild poliovirus type 1 (PV1) continue to circulate in 2004. To investigate potential causes for the persistence, we conducted a serological study. Seroprevalence surveys were conducted in "polio-endemic" regions (Greater Cairo and Upper Egypt) and in one control region (Lower Egypt) in December 2004. Sera collected from infants aged 6-11 months were tested for antibodies to poliovirus by neutralization assay. A total of 973 subjects were tested. Seroprevalence to PV type 1 (PV1), PV type 2 (PV2) and PV type 3 (PV3) was 99, 99 and 91%, respectively. Significant variation in PV3 seroprevalence was found (range: 76-100%). Region, density, maternal education, socioeconomic status (SES), stunting and diarrhea were significant risk factors for lower seroprevalence in the univariate analysis. Our study suggested that uniformly high immunity levels (>96%) were required to interrupt PV1 transmission in the last remaining reservoirs (last PV1 was isolated in mid-January 2005 in Egypt). It further suggests substantial regional differences in OPV immunogenicity, with rural areas and low SES achieving the lowest seroprevalence to PV3.
    Vaccine 07/2007; 25(27):5062-70. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The epidemiologic status of leptospirosis in Egypt has not been well defined because of difficulties in disease diagnosis. A retrospective study was conducted to detect leptospiral antibodies among undiagnosed acute febrile illness (AFI) and hepatitis cases. Approximately 16% of both AFI (141/886) and acute hepatitis (63/392) cases showed seroreactivity to Leptospira IgM by ELISA and microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Canicola, Djasiman, Grippotyphosa, Pyrogenes, Icterohemorrhagiae, and Pomona were the most commonly reactive serovars among patients with AFI. Djasiman, Grippotyphosa and Icterohemorrhagiae were the most reactive among patients with acute hepatitis. This study represents the first systematic report of Leptospira associated with patients with AFI and hepatitis in Egypt. Physicians need to have increased awareness about the importance of leptospirosis in the differential diagnosis of AFI and acute hepatitis in Egypt. In addition, laboratory capacity should be developed at fever hospitals to diagnose leptospirosis.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 01/2007; 75(6):1085-9. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Egypt highlighted the urgent need for implementing infection control (IC) programs in Egypt. The Ministry of Health and Population (MOHP), in collaboration with the US Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3, and the World Health Organization (WHO), developed a national plan to initiate an IC program with the objectives of improving quality of care and reducing transmission of hospital-acquired infections. The strategic plan for this program included setting up an organizational structure, developing IC national guidelines, training health care workers, promoting occupational safety, and establishing a system for monitoring and evaluation. Implementation of the program started in late 2001. The achievements to date include developing a national organizational structure, IC guidelines, and a comprehensive IC training program. To date, a total of 72 hospitals in 13 governorates have been enrolled in the program, and 235 IC professionals have been trained. Many challenges were faced, including administrative, financial, and motivational difficulties. Future plans include expansion of the program to cover all 27 governorates of Egypt and establishment of a surveillance system for hospital-acquired infections. The process of developing the IC program in Egypt may serve as a model for other resource-limited countries that seek to initiate similar programs.
    American Journal of Infection Control 06/2006; 34(4):193-200. · 2.73 Impact Factor