[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Sensitization to nickel, cobalt and chromium is frequent in patch test populations. The prevalence is affected by geographical and socio-cultural factors. Objectives. To investigate the temporal trend of nickel, cobalt and chromium contact sensitization between 1996 and 2010 in north-eastern Italy. Patients/methods. Nineteen thousand and eighty-eight patients (67.2% women and 32.8% men) with suspected allergic dermatitis underwent patch testing with the European baseline series. The associations between nickel, cobalt and chromium sensitization and patient age (in quintiles) and year of patch testing were investigated by means of multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results. The prevalence of nickel sensitization decreased significantly among younger women (≤26 years), from 38.3% (1996-1998) to 31.9% (2002-2004), 28.3% (2005-2007) and 29.0% (2008-2010), whereas an increase was observed in the 36-45-year and 46-58-year age groups. The overall prevalence of chromium sensitization dropped from 10.2% (1996-1998) to 4.6% (2008-2010) among women, and from 11.3% (1996-1998) to 5.9% (2008-2010) among men. The prevalence of cobalt sensitization increased among younger men (≤26 years), from 2.7% (1996-1998) to 7.3% (1999-2001), 9.6% (2002-2004), and 6.6% (2005-2007). Conclusions. Our study showed a decreasing trend of nickel sensitization (only among younger women) and of chromium sensitization in both sexes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Cosensitization to nickel, cobalt and chromium occurs in the general population and in some occupational groups. Objectives. To estimate the isolated and concurrent occurrence of nickel, cobalt and chromium contact sensitization and their association with individual and occupational risk factors. Patients/methods. Twelve thousand four hundred and ninety-two patients were patch tested with the European baseline series between 1997 and 2004 in north-eastern Italy. The associations between patch test results and patient characteristics and occupations were investigated by means of multinomial logistic regression analysis. Results. Of the patients, 34.7% (4334 patients) had one or more positive patch test reactions to metals. As compared with those with negative reactions to all three metals, nickel sensitization was significantly higher in females than in males, not only as monosensitization, but also as cosensitization with cobalt, with chromium, or with both metals. Building and related trades workers showed positive reactions to chromium + nickel [odds ratio (OR) 1.99; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-3.76) and chromium + cobalt (OR 2.61; 95% CI 1.46-4.67]. Cleaning workers showed a high prevalence of nickel, chromium, nickel + chromium and nickel + cobalt + chromium cosensitization (ORs 1.29, 1.66, 2.11, and 1.79, respectively). An excess risk for cosensitization to all three metals was found in textile and leather workers (OR 2.19; 95% CI 1.10-4.33), and in bartenders (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.03-4.26). Conclusions. Some occupational groups are more likely to develop nickel, cobalt and chromium cosensitization.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp (EPDS) is a rare condition characterized by sterile pustules, erosions, and crusted lesions on the scalp of elderly patients. This inflammatory disorder has an unknown origin and it could develop into areas of alopecia that tend to be atrophic. An 84-year-old Caucasian man presented with a several months history of painful erythematous erosions and crusts on his scalp. The lesions appeared after treatment with imiquimod cream for actinic keratoses. Previous therapies included topical antibiotics and topical steroids. Physical examination revealed the presence of extensive erosions and crusts on the scalp, with minute pustules on the sides. The clinical features and the medical history led us to the diagnosis of EPDS. Treatment with systemic steroid was administered with improvement observed after ten days. The clinical manifestations of EPDS completely resolved after 2 months, without clinical relapses.
Case reports in dermatological medicine. 01/2012; 2012:828749.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is an extreme delayed-type skin sensitizer, and is relevant in both occupational and non-occupational exposures.
To estimate the prevalence of PPD sensitization in a population of consecutive patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis who attended units of dermatology or occupational medicine in north-eastern Italy and to investigate the association between their PPD sensitization and occupation.
A total of 14,464 patients (67.6% women and 32.4% men) with suspected allergic dermatitis underwent patch testing. The associations between patch test results and occupations were studied by multivariate logistic regression analysis.
In both sexes, PPD sensitization was significantly associated with hairdressing and beauty occupation [women, odds ratio (OR) 6.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.76-11.50; men, OR 22.3, 95% CI 4.18-119]. In the female group, PPD sensitization was also significantly higher in professional drivers (OR 5.31, 95% CI 1.76-16.1), barmaids (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.04-3.44), and cleaners (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.24-2.68). In the male group, PPD sensitization was significantly higher in bakers and waiters (OR 13.0, 95% CI 1.38-123), household workers (OR 8.46, 95% CI 1.68-42.8), and printers (OR 5.68, 95% CI 1.50-21.5).
Our study showed that workers in several occupations may be at higher risk of developing sensitization to PPD. It is of importance to reduce possible exposure to PPD-crossreacting substances in these occupations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exposure to nickel, cobalt and chromate are important causes of occupational contact dermatitis.
To estimate the prevalence of nickel, cobalt and chromate allergy in a population of consecutive patients and to investigate the possible association with individual and occupational risk factors.
A total of 14 464 patients (67.6% women and 32.4% men) with suspected allergic dermatitis underwent patch tests. The associations between patch test results and occupations were studied by multivariate logistic regression analysis.
About 24.6% of the patients reacted positively to nickel sulphate, 10.2% to cobalt chloride and 8.7% to potassium dichromate. Nickel sensitization was higher in women aged 26-35 years in comparison with the youngest group (15-25 years) and the older group (> 45 years). In women, the prevalence of positive reactions to nickel was positively associated with metal and mechanical work (OR 1.54; 95%, CI 1.16-2.05). Chromate sensitization was more prevalent in building trade workers for both women (OR 1.58; 95% CI 1.00-2.49) and men (OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.55-3.22). Cobalt sensitization was associated with textile and leather work in women (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.09-2.12) and with cleaning work in men (OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.18-2.93).
Our study showed interesting associations between some occupations and nickel, chromate and cobalt allergy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Continual surveillance based on patch test results has proved useful for the identification of contact allergy.
To provide a current view on the spectrum of contact allergy to important sensitizers across Europe.
Clinical and patch test data of 19 793 patients patch tested in 2005/2006 in the 31 participating departments from 10 European countries (the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies' (ESSCA) www.essca-dc.org) were descriptively analysed, aggregated to four European regions.
Nickel sulfate remains the most common allergen with standardized prevalences ranging from 19.7% (central Europe) to 24.4% (southern Europe). While a number of allergens shows limited variation across the four regions, such as Myroxylon pereirae (5.3-6.8%), cobalt chloride (6.2-8.8%) or thiuram mix (1.7-2.4%), the differences observed with other allergens may hint on underlying differences in exposures, for example: dichromate 2.4% in the UK (west) versus 4.5-5.9% in the remaining EU regions, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone 4.1% in the South versus 2.1-2.7% in the remaining regions.
Notwithstanding residual methodological variation (affecting at least some 'difficult' allergens) tackled by ongoing efforts for standardization, a comparative analysis as presented provides (i) a broad overview on contact allergy frequencies and (ii) interesting starting points for further, in-depth investigation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aging has been shown to be correlated with the rate and type of contact sensitization, but only a few studies have evaluated patch test reactivity in elderly subjects with an adequately large population.
The response patterns to patch testing in 1444 elderly subjects (>65 years) with suspected allergic contact dermatitis were studied, and the results compared with a control group of individuals with suspected allergic contact dermatitis, aged between 20 and 40 years.
The prevalence of the positive patch test to at least one hapten was significantly lower in the group of elderly patients compared with adult patients (40.7 vs 47.8%, p<0.0001). However, some allergens, i.e., primin, diaminodiphenylmethane, neomycin, lanolin alcohols, paraben mix, Euxyl K400 and quinoline mix, showed an increased sensitization rate in elderly patients compared with adult patients. These allergens are now less frequently employed in the workplace, or are substances particularly used in the formulation of topical treatment of age-related diseases, i.e., leg ulcer and xerosis. It was also found that the intensity of positive patch test reactions was significantly lower in elderly patients compared with younger subjects, with higher proportions of weak (+) positive reactions. Moreover, elderly patients showed a dynamic pattern of increasing intensity of patch test reactions at the second reading after 3 days compared with the first reading after 2 days more frequently than younger patients (60 vs 53%, p<0.0001).
These findings suggest an age-dependent decline of overall positive patch test reactions, but a higher sensitization rate to some allergens frequently used in the composition of topical treatments. The development of an allergic response in elderly patients was found to be delayed, and this may require an additional reading after 7 days and the interpretation of even weak reactions as valid positive patch test reactions.
Aging clinical and experimental research 07/2004; 16(3):221-5. · 1.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diaminodiphenylmethane (DDM) is an aromatic diamine used in the manufacture of rubber, plastics, diisocyanates, dyes and adhesives. It may cross-react with para-(amino)compounds. Allergic patch test reactions to DDM are relatively frequent, but their relevance is often difficult to detect. We report our experience in 6809 patients (4589 female, 2220 male, mean age 39.9+/-17.8 years) with suspected contact dermatitis patch tested during the period 1997-1999 by the North-East Italy Contact Dermatitis Group (NEICDG). A positive patch test to DDM was detected in 132 (1.9%) patients (88 female, 44 male, mean age 49.5+/-16.2 years). Eczema was mostly localized on the hands. The relevance was detected in 31 patients. A logistic regression analysis showed an association with patient's age (odds ratio 5.4 for age 30-59 years), absence of atopic diseases (odds ratio 3.1) and presence of leg ulcer (odds ratio 5). We found a highly significant correlation (p<0.001) between sensitivity to DDM and to para-phenylenediamine, Disperse Yellow 3, cobalt chloride, fragrance mix, benzocaine, paraben mix and primin. Positive patch test results to DDM were relatively frequent. The difficulty in detecting the relevance of these sensitizations may be related to the surprisingly high frequency of concomitant positive reactions to other allergens.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nevus spilus is characterized by a pigmented patch with scattered flat or maculopapular speckles. Nevus spilus was first described by Burkley in 1842. Since then, this lesion has been widely debated in the literature, particularly for the possible occurrence of melanoma within the lesion.
We describe the case of a 65-year-old female presenting with a nodular achromic melanoma that occurred within a nevus spilus on the left thigh.
Our observation is consistent with the idea that this entity in some circumstances may have the ability to evolve into a malignant melanoma.
Journal of Cutaneous Maedicine and Surgery 14(2):85-9. · 0.78 Impact Factor