[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To verify if HDL3 Anionic Peptide Factor (HDL3-APF) is as an apolipoprotein that promotes the reverse cholesterol transport.
We investigated a possible association between plasma HDL3-APF concentration, cholesterol efflux from Fu5AH cells and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) (n=36), those without CAD (n=20), and 37 healthy subjects.
Plasma APF concentrations were decreased in diabetics with CAD compared to controls (p<0.01). Cellular cholesterol efflux was decreased in diabetics without and with CAD, (p<0.01 and p<0.001 respectively). CETP activity was significantly elevated in all patient groups. Multiple linear regression analysis shows that cholesterol efflux was independently and positively related only to APF concentrations in controls.
APF is likely to be a key independent factor for promoting cellular cholesterol efflux in healthy subjects. However this association is altered in type 2 diabetes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the role of genetic variants of angiotensinogen (AGT M235T), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE I/D), and angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R A1166C) as predictors of diabetes risk and to examine their combined effects on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.
One hundred and fourteen T2DM patients were compared to 175 healthy controls with similar age and sex.
The genotypic frequencies for all three genes alone were significantly associated with increased risk of developing diabetes. Logistic regression analysis of classic coronary risk factors and the genetic polymorphisms demonstrated that hypertension and ACE DD genotype were the most significant contributors to T2DM. For the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) genes, the risk of T2DM in individuals with one risk genotype was 1.9 (95%CI: 1.1-3.0, p=0.017) higher than those with zero risk genotype. Individuals who carried two risk genotypes had a 4.0 (95%CI 1.7-9.4, p=0.001) times higher risk of T2DM than those who did not carry any risk genotypes of the RAS genes. Most interestingly, the risk of T2DM for individuals with three risk genotypes was 26.2 (95%CI: 5.8-117.9, p<0.001) higher than those with zero risk genotype.
The results of the present study imply that genotyping of renin-angiotensin system genes could become an important part of the clinical process of risk identification for T2DM in Tunisian population.
Life sciences 07/2010; 87(1-2):49-54. · 2.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/aimsThe role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphisms as being risk factors for diabetes is still controversial. The aim was to investigate the distribution of ACE and MTHFR genotypes as well as to evaluate the role of plasmatic total homocysteine levels (tHcy) and ACE activity in Tunisian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Design and methods115 T2DM patients compared to 116 healthy volunteers.ResultsThe ACE I/D polymorphism was significantly associated with diabetes (p < 0.0001). The DD genotype and D allele were more frequent in patients compared to control group [DD: OR = 4.93; p < 0.0001; 95 % CI: 2.71–8.97; D: OR = 3.08, 95% CI: 2.09–4.51 p < 0.0001]. MTHFR allele and genotype frequencies did not differ between patients and controls. The susceptibility to diabetes in individuals with genotypes DD +vTT was 13.39 and in the individuals with DD + CT was 6.57 times that of the controls. However, individuals with genotypes ID + CC or II + CT have a protective effect against diabetes. The DD and TT genotypes were associated with significantly higher ACE activity and tHcy levels in diabetics.ConclusionOur data suggest that ACE ID polymorphism may act synergistically with MTHFR C677T polymorphism to assess diabetes risk.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationship between apolipoprotein E (ApoE) polymorphism, fasting lipid parameters, and coronary artery disease (CAD) is controversial.
We studied this relationship, for the first time, in Tunisian type 2 diabetic patients. The studied population comprised 157 type 2 diabetic patients (145 of them were not on any lipid-lowering drugs). Fasting lipids were measured by enzymatic methods and ApoE genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism.
Our results showed that the alleles E2, E3, and E4 were found in 4%, 88%, and 8% of patients, respectively. In the total type 2 diabetic population, no association was found between ApoE polymorphism, lipid parameters, and CAD. However, the E4 allele was associated with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and with CAD in type 2 diabetic men.
The effect of ApoE polymorphism on CAD is gender-dependent in the Tunisian type 2 diabetic population. ApoE 4 allele may enhance atherogenesis indirectly by a strong effect on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Journal of Clinical Lipidology 10/2008; 2(5):360-4. · 2.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is the pathway, by which the excess of cholesterol is removed from peripheral cells to the liver. An early step of RCT is the efflux of free cholesterol from cell membranes that is mediated by high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) transfers phospholipids between apolipoprotein-B-containing lipoproteins (i.e., chylomicrons and very low-density lipoproteins) and HDL. PLTP contributes to the HDL maturation and increases the ability of HDL to extract the cellular cholesterol. It is known that RCT is impaired in type 2 diabetic patients, especially when cardiovascular complication is associated with. In this study, we measured the serum capacity that promotes cellular cholesterol efflux and the plasma PLTP activity in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) (n = 35), those without CAD (n = 24), and 35 healthy subjects as a sex- and age-matched control. In patients with CAD, plasma triglyceride level was higher compared to controls (p < 0.01) and HDL-cholesterol was lower (p < 0.01 vs control and the patients without CAD). In diabetic patients with or without CAD, PLTP activity was consistently increased, compared to controls, while cellular cholesterol efflux activity was decreased by 20% (p < 0.001) or 13.5% (p < 0.01), respectively. In conclusion, plasma PLTP activity was increased in type 2 diabetic patients with or without CAD, which could impair cellular cholesterol removal and might accelerate atherosclerosis in diabetic patients.
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 10/2007; 213(2):129-37. · 1.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein A-V (Apo A-V) gene has recently been identified as a new apolipoprotein involved in triglyceride metabolism. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP3) located in the gene promoter (-1131) was associated with triglyceride variation in healthy subjects. In type 2 diabetes the triglyceride level increased compared to healthy subjects. Hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for coronary artery disease. We aimed to examine the interaction between SNP3 and lipid profile and coronary artery disease (CAD) in Tunisian type 2 diabetic patients.
The genotype frequencies of T/T, T/C and C/C were 0.74, 0.23 and 0.03 respectively in non diabetic subjects, 0.71, 0.25 and 0.04 respectively in type 2 diabetic patients. Triglyceride level was higher in heterozygous genotype (-1131 T/C) of apo A-V (p = 0.024). Heterozygous genotype is more frequent in high triglyceride group (40.9%) than in low triglyceride group (18.8%); p = 0.011. Despite the relation between CAD and hypertriglyceridemia the SNP 3 was not associated with CAD.
In type 2 diabetic patients SNP3 is associated with triglyceride level, however there was no association between SNP3 and coronary artery disease.
Lipids in Health and Disease 02/2005; 4:1. · 2.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) facilates the exchange of triglycerides (TG) and cholesteryl ester between lipoproteins particles. Diabetic subjects have been reported to have higher TG levels and lower high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels which contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk observed in some of these patients. The CETP activity was shown to be more important in a group of 93 non insulino-dependant diabetics with coronary artery disease than in a group of 92 healthy subjects (p = 0.033). Several polymorphisms have been reported in the CETP gene. The common Taq IB polymorphism is associated with decreased CETP activity and increased HDL-C. We have observed a frequency of 0.31 for B2 allele in deference to those reported in subjects from Caucasian population. An association between the presence of the B2B2 genotype, decreased CETP activity and increased of plasma HDL-C was observed in healthy subjects but not in diabetics with coronary artery disease.