[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite high levels of homology, transcription coactivators p300 and CREB binding protein (CBP) are both indispensable during embryogenesis. They are largely known to regulate the same genes. To identify genes preferentially regulated by p300 or CBP, we performed an extensive genome-wide survey using the ChIP-seq on cell-cycle synchronized cells. We found that 57% of the tags were within genes or proximal promoters, with an overall preference for binding to transcription start and end sites. The heterogeneous binding patterns possibly reflect the divergent roles of CBP and p300 in transcriptional regulation. Most of the 16 103 genes were bound by both CBP and p300. However, after stimulation 89 and 1944 genes were preferentially bound by CBP or p300, respectively. Target genes were found to be primarily involved in the regulation of metabolic and developmental processes, and transcription, with CBP showing a stronger preference than p300 for genes active in negative regulation of transcription. Analysis of transcription factor binding sites suggest that CBP and p300 have many partners in common, but AP-1 and Serum Response Factor (SRF) appear to be more prominent in CBP-specific sequences, whereas AP-2 and SP1 are enriched in p300-specific targets. Taken together, our findings further elucidate the distinct roles of coactivators p300 and CBP in transcriptional regulation.
Nucleic Acids Research 09/2010; 38(16):5396-408. · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gene activation in eukaryotes requires chromatin remodeling, in part via histone modifications. To study the events at the promoter of a mitogen-inducible gene, we examined the induction of expression of the collagenase gene. It has been established that the collagenase gene can be activated by c-Jun and c-Fos and that the transcriptional coactivator p300 is involved in the activation. As expected, we found histone acetyltransferase activity at the collagenase promoter during activation. Interestingly, we also found histone methyltransferase and kinase activity. Strikingly, the first modification observed is methylation of histone H3 lysine 4, which correlates with the binding of the SET9 methyltransferase and the assembly of a complex consisting of c-Jun, c-Fos, TATA binding protein, and RNA polymerase II. The assembly of the preinitiation complex also shows an ordered binding of the acetyltransferase p300, the RSK2 kinase, and the SWI/SNF component Brg-1. Our results suggest that collagenase gene activation involves a dynamic recruitment of different factors and that in addition to acetylation, histone H3 lysine 4 di- and trimethylation and histone H3 serine 10 phosphorylation are important steps in the activation of this gene.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 04/2003; 23(5):1808-16. · 5.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disruption of one copy of the human CREB binding protein (CBP or CREBBP) gene leads to the Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS), a developmental disorder characterized by retarded growth and mental functions, broad thumbs, broad big toes and typical facial abnormalities. The CREB binding protein (CBP) is an essential transcriptional coactivator for many different transcription factors. CBP has the intrinsic ability to acetylate histones and other proteins, which is regarded as an important step in transcription activation. In vitro studies have shown that this enzymatic activity critically depends on the integrity of a plant homeodomain (PHD)-type zinc finger in the HAT domain of CBP. We therefore investigated whether PHD finger mutations are present in RTS patients. Mutational analysis of 39 patients revealed eight novel heterozygous mutations in the HAT domain of CBP, one of which alters a conserved PHD finger amino acid (E1278K), while a second mutation deletes exon 22, which encodes the central region of the PHD finger. Functional analysis of these RTS-associated PHD finger mutants showed that they lacked in vitro acetyltransferase activity towards histones and CBP itself and displayed reduced coactivator function for the transcription factor CREB. Importantly, in EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cells from the exon 22 deletion patient we found approximately 50% less endogenous CBP HAT activity. These findings therefore underscore the functional importance of the PHD finger in vivo and imply that reduction of CBP HAT activity, as exemplified here by disruption of the PHD finger, is sufficient to cause RTS.
Human Molecular Genetics 03/2003; 12(4):441-50. · 7.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenovirus type 12 (Ad12)-transformed baby rat kidney (BRK) cells are oncogenic in syngeneic immunocompetent rats in contrast to adenovirus type 5 (Ad5)-transformed BRK cells, which are not oncogenic in these animals. A significant factor contributing to the difference in oncogenicity may be the low levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I membrane expression in Ad12-transformed BRK cells as compared with those in Ad5-transformed BRK cells, which presumably results in escape from killing by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Here we show that, in addition to the decreased levels of expression of the MHC class I heavy chain and the peptide transporter Tap-2, the expression levels of the chaperone Tapasin and the immunoproteasome components MECL-1, PA28-alpha, and PA28-beta also are much lower in Ad12- than in Ad5-transformed BRK cells. The low expression levels of these proteins may contribute to the escape from killing by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, because the generation of optimal peptides and loading of these peptides on MHC class I require these components. Increased levels of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 protein and expression of IFN regulatory factor-7 were found in Ad5- versus Ad12-transformed BRK cells. Therefore, the critical alteration leading to the plethora of differences may be an interferon (-related) effect.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2003; 278(1):139-46. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) such as CBP and p300 are regarded as key regulators of RNA polymerase II-mediated transcription, but the critical structural features of their HAT modules remain ill defined. The HAT domains of CBP and p300 are characterized by the presence of a highly conserved putative plant homeodomain (PHD) (C4HC3) type zinc finger, which is part of the functionally uncharacterized cysteine-histidine-rich region 2 (CH2). Here we show that this region conforms to the PHD type zinc finger consensus and that it is essential for in vitro acetylation of core histones and the basal transcription factor TFIIE34 as well as for CBP autoacetylation. PHD finger mutations also reduced the transcriptional activity of the full-length CBP protein when tested on transfected reporter genes. Importantly, similar results were obtained on integrated reporters, which reflect a more natural chromatinized state. Taken together, our results indicate that the PHD finger forms an integral part of the enzymatic core of the HAT domain of CBP.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 05/2002; 22(7):1961-70. · 5.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transcriptional coactivator p300 regulates transcription by binding to proteins involved in transcription and by acetylating histones and other proteins. These transcriptional effects are mainly at promoter and enhancer elements. Regulation of transcription also occurs through scaffold/matrix attachment regions (S/MARs), the chromatin regions that bind the nuclear matrix. Here we show that p300 binds to the S/MAR binding protein scaffold attachment factor A (SAF-A), a major constituent of the nuclear matrix. Using chromatin immunoprecipitations, we established that both p300 and SAF-A bind to S/MAR elements in the transiently silent topoisomerase I gene prior to its activation at G(1) during cell cycle. This binding is accompanied by local acetylation of nucleosomes, suggesting that p300-SAF-A interactions at S/MAR elements of nontranscribed genes might poise these genes for transcription.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 05/2002; 22(8):2598-606. · 5.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adenovirus E1A protein regulates transcription of cellular genes via its interaction with the transcriptional coactivators p300/CBP. The collagenase promoter activated by the c-Jun protein is repressed by E1A. Here we show that E1A repression is specific for c-Jun, as E1A does not repress the collagenase promoter activated by the homologous transcription factor EB1. Using chimeras of c-Jun and EB1, we demonstrate that a 12 amino acid region in the basic region of the c-Jun DNA-binding domain is essential for repression by E1A. Since repression requires the binding of p300 to E1A, we studied the involvement of p300 acetyltransferase activity in the repression mechanism. We demonstrate that c-Jun is acetylated in vivo, and mutational analysis identified Lys271 in the c-Jun basic region to be essential for repression of the collagenase promoter by E1A. In addition, Lys271 is acetylated both in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that the specific repression of the collagenase promoter by E1A involves acetylation of c-Jun.
The EMBO Journal 10/2001; 20(21):6095-6103. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proteins encoded by non-oncogenic adenovirus type 5 and oncogenic adenovirus type 12 differentially affect expression of a number of cellular genes. We have used cDNA micro array analysis to identify a cellular gene that is expressed in Ad12- but not in Ad5-transformed cells. This cellular gene was found to be the gene encoding follistatin-related protein, a TGF-beta inducible gene. Consistently, a constitutive factor binding to Smad binding elements was found in adenovirus type 12-transformed cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inactive nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) complexes are retained in the cytoplasm by binding to inhibitory proteins, such as IkappaBalpha. Various stimuli lead to phosphorylation and subsequent processing of IkappaBalpha in the 26S proteasome and import of the active NF-kappaB transcription factor into the nucleus. In agreement with our previous finding that p90(rsk1) is essential for TPA-induced activation of NF-kappaB in Adenovirus 5E1-transformed Baby Rat Kidney cells, we now report that the MEK/ERK/p90(rsk1) inhibitor U0126 efficiently blocks TPA-induced IkappaBalpha processing in these cells. However, in U2OS cells, the cytokine-inducible IkappaB kinase complex (IKK) is the essential component of the TPA signal transduction pathway. Activation of the IKK complex in response to TPA is mediated by PKC-alpha, since both the PKC inhibitor GF109203 and a catalytically inactive PKC-alpha mutant inhibit activation of endogenous IKK by TPA, but not by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). We conclude that IKK is an integrator of TNF-alpha and TPA signal transduction pathways in U2OS cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inactive nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) complexes are retained in the cytoplasm by binding to inhibitory proteins, such as IκBα. Various stimuli lead to phosphorylation and subsequent processing of IκBα in the 26S proteasome and import of the active NF-κB transcription factor into the nucleus. In agreement with our previous finding that p90rsk1 is essential for TPA-induced activation of NF-κB in Adenovirus 5E1-transformed Baby Rat Kidney cells, we now report that the MEK/ERK/p90rsk1 inhibitor U0126 efficiently blocks TPA-induced IκBα processing in these cells. However, in U2OS cells, the cytokine-inducible IκB kinase complex (IKK) is the essential component of the TPA signal transduction pathway. Activation of the IKK complex in response to TPA is mediated by PKC-α, since both the PKC inhibitor GF109203 and a catalytically inactive PKC-α mutant inhibit activation of endogenous IKK by TPA, but not by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). We conclude that IKK is an integrator of TNF-α and TPA signal transduction pathways in U2OS cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adenovirus E1A proteins activate the c-jun promoter through two Jun/ATF-binding sites, jun1 and jun2. P300, a transcriptional coactivator of several AP1 and ATF transcription factors has been postulated to play a role in this activation. Here, we present evidence that p300 can control c-jun transcription by acting as a cofactor for ATF2: (1) Over-expression of p300 was found to stimulate c-jun transcription both in the presence and absence of E1A. (2) Like E1A, p300 activates the c-jun promoter through the junl and jun2 elements and preferentially activates the N-terminal domain of ATF2. (3) Co-immunoprecipitation assays of crude cell extracts indicate that endogenous p300/CBP(-like) proteins and ATF2 proteins are present in a multiprotein complex that can bind specifically to the jun2 element. We further demonstrate that the Stress-Activated-Protein-Kinase (SAPK) target sites of ATF2, Thr69 and Thr71 are not required for the formation of the p300/CBP-ATF2 multiprotein complex. These data indicate that E1A does not inhibit all transcription activation functions of p300, and, in fact, cooperates with p300 in the activation of the ATF2 N-terminus.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cdk-inhibitor p21(CIP1/WAF1) inhibits the activities of cyclin-dependent kinases and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, thereby repressing cell-cycle progression and DNA replication. Transforming oncogenes, such as E1A of human adenovirus 5 (Ad5), may interfere with such growth-inhibitory proteins. In this study, we show that in various Ad5E1-transformed cells, p21(CIP1/WAF1) is expressed and that, in general, expression is not downregulated. In addition, colony-formation assays show that in Ad5E1-transformed cells highly overexpressed p21(CIP1/WAF1) can still cause growth inhibition. FACS experiments indicate, however, that a G1 arrest induced by moderate overexpression of p21(CIP1/WAF1) can be overcome by E1A. The E1A proteins may interfere with the function of p21(CIP1/WAF1) by binding. Indeed, p21(CIP1/WAF1) binds with its cyclin/cdk-binding N terminus to the transforming N-terminal and CR1 region of the E1A proteins. Together, these results lend support to the model that E1A can interfere directly with p21(CIP1/WAF1) function and thereby stimulates cell growth.
Journal of General Virology 03/1999; 80 ( Pt 2):381-90. · 3.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The activity of transcription factor NFkappaB is regulated by its subcellular localization. In most cell types, NFkappaB is sequestered in the cytoplasm due to binding of the inhibitory protein IkappaB alpha. Stimulation of cells with a wide variety of agents results in degradation of IkappaB alpha which allows translocation of NFkappaB to the nucleus. Degradation of IkappaB alpha is triggered by phosphorylation of two serine residues, i.e. Ser32 and Ser36, by as yet unknown kinases. Here we report that the mitogen-activated 90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p90rsk1) is an IkappaB alpha kinase. p90rsk1 phosphorylates IkappaB alpha at Ser32 and it physically associates with IkappaB alpha in vivo. Moreover, when the function of p90rsk1 is impaired by expression of a dominant-negative mutant, IkappaB alpha degradation in response to mitogenic stimuli, e.g. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), is inhibited. Finally, NFkappaB cannot be activated by TPA in cell lines that have low levels of p90rsk1. We conclude that p90rsk1 is an essential kinase required for phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of IkappaB alpha in response to mitogens.
The EMBO Journal 07/1997; 16(11):3133-44. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cellular transcription co-activators p300 and the CREB-binding protein CBP are cellular targets for transformation by the E1A proteins of non-oncogenic adenovirus 5 (Ad5). In this study, we show that the E1A proteins of oncogenic Ad12, like those of Ad5, can also bind to CBP and that this interaction is direct. In addition, we show that the Ad12 E1A proteins can also bind directly to p300. These results suggest that E1A can modulate the function of proteins of the p300 family via direct protein-protein interactions.
Journal of General Virology 03/1997; 78 ( Pt 2):423-6. · 3.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expression of the gene encoding the cell cycle regulator cyclin D1 is strongly repressed in adenovirus type 5 E1 (Ad5E1)-transformed cells. Since cyclin D1 is a regulator of cell proliferation, modulation of its abundance may affect cell cycle control. Therefore, we studied the importance of cyclin D1 repression for cell transformation by Ad5E1. We found that forced expression of cyclin D1 does not affect the transforming potential of Ad5E1. Similarly, cyclin D1 overexpression did not affect the efficiency of colony formation, the proliferation rate, or the cell cycle distribution of Ad5E1-transformed cell lines, whereas the colony formation of untransformed cell lines was strongly inhibited. Thus, repression of cyclin D1 expression is not required for initiation or maintenance of cell transformation by Ad5E1. In addition, we show that the growth-suppressive effect of cyclin D1 correlates with cyclin D1 binding to cdk4 rather than to proliferating cell nuclear antigen PCNA.
Journal of Virology 12/1996; 70(11):7804-10. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adenovirus 12S E1A protein can stimulate the activity of the c-jun promoter through a conserved region 1 (CR1)-dependent mechanism. The effect is mediated by two AP-1/ATF-like elements, jun1 and jun2, that preferentially bind c-Jun-ATF-2 heterodimers. In this study, we show that the ATF-2 component of the c-Jun-ATF-2 heterodimer is the primary target for 12S E1A: 12S E1A can enhance the transactivating activity of the N terminus of ATF-2 when fused to a heterologous DNA-binding domain, whereas the transactivating activity of the c-Jun N terminus is not significantly affected. Activation of the ATF-2 N terminus by 12S E1A is dependent on CR1. In the context of the 13S E1A protein, CR1 and CR3 can both contribute to activation of ATF-2, and their relative contributions are dependent on the cell type. In contrast to activation of ATF-2 by stress-inducing agents, CR1-dependent activation of ATF-2 was found not to depend strictly on the presence of threonines 69 and 71 in the N terminus of ATF-2, which are targets for phosphorylation by stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs). In agreement with this observation, we did not observe phosphorylation of threonines 69 and 71 or constitutively enhanced SAPK activity in E1A- plus E1B-transformed cell lines. These data suggest that CR1-dependent activation of ATF-2 by 12S E1A does not require phosphorylation of threonines 69 and 71 by SAPK.
Journal of Virology 10/1996; 70(9):5852-9. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenovirus E1A proteins modulate the expression of a large variety of genes in transformed cells by either stimulating or repressing their promoters. For example, the E1A proteins inhibit the collagenase promoter, whereas they activate the c-jun promoter. Both effects are mediated through AP-1/ATF-binding sites. Repression of transcription of the collagenase gene requires the amino-terminus and conserved region 1 (CR1) of Ad5 E1A, two regions that are also crucial for interaction of E1A with the recently isolated transcriptional adaptor protein p300. We show here that overexpressed p300 can counteract the repressive effect of E1A on the collagenase promoter. Using the CREB-binding protein (CBP), which is highly homologous to p300, the same results were obtained. The domains in E1A required for binding to p300 are also essential for E1A-mediated cell transformation. We therefore tested the effect of p300 and CBP on the transforming potential of Ad5 E1 in baby rat kidney (BRK) cells. It was found that E1A-induced focus formation was strongly inhibited by overexpression of p300 or CBP. Moreover the BRK cell colonies, obtained after cotransfection with Ad5E1 and p300, could not be established. These results indicate that one of the mechanisms by which E1A modulates transcription and transforms cells is via transcriptional adaptors like p300 and CBP.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adenovirus (Ad) E1A proteins alter the expression level and activity of AP-1/ATF transcription factors. Previously we have shown that in AdE1-transformed cells cJun is hyperphosphorylated in its N-terminal transactivation domain, which parallels enhanced transactivation function. To find out whether the interaction between cJun and other cellular proteins is altered, we have searched for proteins which would physically associate with cJun. In this report we show that in AdE1-transformed cells cJun specifically associates with two proteins of 21 and 23 kD. These proteins are not expressed at detectable levels in the parental cells or in cells transformed by oncogenes other than AdE1. The cJun-associated proteins represent different forms of the bZIP transcription factor ATF3, the human homolog of rat LRF1. The expression of ATF3 is induced in AdE1-transformed cells and is a direct effect of the expression of E1A. Through induction of ATF3 expression and the subsequent formation of cJun/ATF3 heterodimers, E1A alters the repertoire of AP-1/ATF factors and may thereby redirect the corresponding gene-expression program. Since the induction of ATF3 is a function of sequences within the transforming 12S-ElA protein, cJun/ATF3 complexes might be involved in establishing cellular transformation by AdE1A.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenovirus-transformed cells were tested for their ability to synthesize DNA in the presence of cell cycle inhibitory drugs. We show that transformed cells are completely resistant to the mitotic inhibitor colcemid, partly resistant to lovastatin, mimosine, aphidicolin and genistein but not to hydroxyurea or thymidine. When treated with colcemid, AdE1-transformed cells continue to synthesize DNA but do not divide and, therefore, become highly polyploid. This effect is dependent on the presence of both E1A and E1B.
Virus Research 03/1996; 40(2):185-90. · 2.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many neurons in the developing nervous system undergo programmed cell death, or apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon is largely unknown. In the present report, we present evidence that the cell cycle regulator cyclin D1 is involved in the regulation of neuronal cell death. During neuronal apoptosis, cyclin D1-dependent kinase activity is stimulated, due to an increase in cyclin D1 levels. Moreover, artificial elevation of cyclin D1 levels is sufficient to induce apoptosis, even in non-neural cell types. Cyclin D1-induced apoptosis, like neuronal apoptosis, can be inhibited by 21 kDa E1B, Bcl2 and pRb, but not by 55 kDa E1B. Most importantly, however, overexpression of the cyclin D-dependent kinase inhibitor p16INK4 protects neurons from apoptotic cell death, demonstrating that activation of endogenous cyclin D1-dependent kinases is essential during neuronal apoptosis. These data support a model in which neuronal apoptosis results from an aborted attempt to activate the cell cycle in terminally differentiated neurons.
The EMBO Journal 02/1996; 15(1):46-54. · 9.82 Impact Factor