[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) can be successfully performed through the direct anterior (DA) approach. Patient positioning, the surgical approach and specific instruments are important for obtaining adequate exposure. Acetabular exposure can be facilitated by capsular release and correct placement of retractors. Distal and proximal extension of the incision, as well as a femoral extended trochanteric osteotomy (ETO) can be performed to increase femoral exposure. The purposes of this article are to describe the DA approach, provide surgical techniques for revision THA through this approach, and describe the indications, contraindications and complications of this approach.
Annals of translational medicine. 10/2014; 2(10):100.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The direct anterior approach (DAA) to the hip was initially described in the 19th century and has been used sporadically for total hip arthroplasty (THA). In the past decade, enthusiasm for the approach has been renewed because of increased demand for minimally invasive techniques. New surgical instruments and tables designed specifically for use with the DAA for THA have made the approach more accessible to surgeons. Some authors claim that this approach results in less muscle damage and pain as well as rapid recovery, although limited data exist to support these claims. The DAA may be comparable to other THA approaches, but there is no evidence to date that shows improved long-term outcomes for patients. The steep learning curve and complications unique to this approach (fractures and nerve damage) have been well described. However, the incidence of these complications decreases with greater surgeon experience. A question of keen interest to hip surgeons and patients is whether the DAA results in improved early outcomes and long-term results comparable to those of other approaches for THA.
The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 09/2014; 22(9):595-603. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Component selection for revision total hip arthroplasty is important for creating a stable hip, providing offset to maximize joint mechanics, and restoring appropriate leg lengths. On the femoral side, fully porous coated stems, modular tapered stems, and proximal femoral replacements can be used depending on the level of bone loss. For the acetabulum, smaller defects can be contained using second-generation porous coating hemispherical cups, whereas larger acetabular defects can be contained with cup cages, cages, or custom triflange implants. In addition, acetabular liners can improve stability through altered cup version, dual mobility, or constraint of the femoral head.
Orthopedic Clinics of North America 07/2014; 45(3):275-286. · 1.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report our experience with 215 recalled neck modular stems due to corrosion. Among the 195 hips with 2years follow-up, 56% had no clinical symptoms, 26% had groin pain (typical of corrosion), and 17% had other symptoms. Cobalt levels were comparable between asymptomatic (3.4μg/L, range 0.7-7.3μg/L) and symptomatic patients (4.0μg/L range 0-13.2μg/L). Abnormal imaging findings were seen in 46% of symptomatic and 11% of asymptomatic hips (P=0.001). Twenty-six hips (13%) have either undergone revision surgery or have been scheduled. Evidence of corrosion was seen at revision surgery in all patients. Despite modest elevations in serum cobalt levels, abnormal imaging studies were seen in 36%, clinical symptoms were seen in 44%, and revision for corrosion was undertaken or scheduled in 13% of the hips.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Recently, multimodal pain control has been used to manage postoperative pain in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This approach combines numerous modalities, such as opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, local anesthetics, and acetaminophen, in an effort to reduce overall opioid consumption and also to provide better pain control. Gabapentinoids are a class of drugs that have been used as part of multimodal approach, and may be effective in patients who are previous users of chronic pain medication. The hypothesis of this study was that the addition of pregabalin reduces opioid consumption and/or improves pain after TKA, even in patients who are previous users of chronic pain medications. Methods: Using a prospectively collected database, 262 consecutive patients undergoing primary TKA between December 2011 and April 2012 were identified who received multimodal analgesia after surgery that included pregabalin. Using the same database, these patients were compared with 268 patients undergoing TKA from January to December 2010 who also received multimodal analgesia but were not given pregabalin. The clinical records of these patients were reviewed in detail to determine the incidence and nature of postoperative complications, opioid consumption, and visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores. Results: The incidence of respiratory, renal, and hemodynamic complications was significantly lower in the patients who received pregabalin. Gastrointestinal complications, which included nausea, were not significantly different between the groups. Patients receiving pregabalin had a lower average opioid consumption, and their minimum and maximum levels of opioid consumption were also reduced. Previous users of chronic pain medications had higher VAS scores but the same opioid consumption compared with those who were not previous users of chronic pain medications. No difference was seen in the maximum VAS scores between patients who received pregabalin and those who did not. Conclusion: Pregabalin in the context of multimodal pain management may be associated with reduced opioid consumption and other medical complications in patients undergoing TKA, including previous users of chronic pain medications.
The Physician and sportsmedicine 05/2014; 42(2):10-8. · 1.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elevated temperatures after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) are common and can be a source of anxiety both for the patient and the surgical team. Although such fevers rarely are caused by acute infection, many patients are subjected to extensive testing for elevated body temperature after surgery. We recently implemented a multimodal pain management regimen for TJA, which includes acetaminophen, pregabalin, and celecoxib or toradol, and because some of these medications have antipyrexic properties, it was speculated that this protocol might influence the frequency of postoperative pyrexia.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients treated under this protocol were less likely to exhibit postoperative fever after primary TJA, compared with a historical control group, and whether they were less likely to receive postoperative testing as part of a fever workup.
We compared 1484 primary TJAs in which pain was controlled primarily with opioid-based relief from July 2004 to December 2006 with 2417 procedures from July 2009 to December 2011 during which time multimodal agents were used. The same three surgeons were responsible for care in both of these cohorts. Oral temperature readings in the first 5 postoperative days (POD) were drawn from a review of medical records, which also were evaluated for fever workup tests, including urinalysis, urine culture, chest radiograph, and blood culture. Fever was defined by the presence of a temperature measurement over 38.5 °C. Patients having preoperative fever or postoperative fever starting later than POD 5 were excluded. Before surgery, there were no differences between the groups' temperature measurements.
Fewer patients developed fever in the multimodal analgesia group than in the control group (5% versus 25%, p < 0.001). Furthermore, fewer patients underwent workup for fever in the multimodal analgesia cohort (1.8% of patients undergoing 155 individual tests) compared with the control cohort (9.8% of patients undergoing 247 individual tests; p < 0.001).
In addition to fewer adverse effects and better pain control, the multimodal analgesia protocol has the hidden benefit of dampening the temperature response to the surgical insult of TJA. The decreased rate of postoperative fever avoids unnecessary anxiety for the patient and the treating team and reduces healthcare resource use occasioned by working up postoperative fever.
Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 03/2014; · 2.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to identify factors that predict reinfusion following intraoperative blood salvage (IOBS). We retrospectively identified 298 patients who underwent aseptic revision total hip arthroplasty at our institution between February 2005 and January 2007. Of these, 160 (53.7%) received reinfusion from IOBS. In the reinfusion group, an average of 850mL (range, 300-4300) of fluid was collected and an average of 270mL (range, 135-1350) of red blood cells was returned. Exchange of both the femoral and acetabular components, use of a trochanteric osteotomy, increased body mass index, and advanced age were associated with reinfusion. Based on these results, surgeons may consider using IOBS on patients with these preoperative characteristics.
The Journal of arthroplasty 12/2013; · 1.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Corrosion at the modular neck-stem taper junction has become an increasingly important topic as several reports have identified this couple as a possible source for early failure with findings similar to failed metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties. Recently, two different modular stem systems from a single manufacturer were voluntarily recalled due to concerns of failure of the modular taper junction. We discuss how to approach the diagnosis and management of patients with these particular stem systems. We further reviewed the literature to evaluate whether this is a manufacturer-specific defect or indicative of a broader trend. Recent studies appear to implicate the basic design of the neck-stem taper junction, rather than a single manufacturer, which is at high risk for fretting and corrosion.
The Journal of arthroplasty 09/2013; · 1.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is not clear whether type of surgical approach affects the amount of blood loss in one-stage bilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA). This study therefore aims to examine if type of surgical approach can affect peri-operative blood loss and allogeneic blood transfusion in patients undergoing one-stage bilateral THA.
Records of 319 patients who underwent one-stage bilateral THA from January 2004 to June 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups: direct anterior (DA) approach (75 patients) and direct lateral (DL) approach (244 patients). Blood loss was calculated using a previously validated formula. Blood loss and need for allogeneic blood transfusion were compared between the two groups. Additionally, the effects of using cell saver and surgical approach were evaluated in a multivariate analysis.
Compared to the DL approach, calculated blood loss was significantly lower in the DA group (2,813.90 ± 804.13 ml vs 3,617.03 ± 1,148.47 ml) and a significantly lower per cent of patients needed allogeneic blood transfusion in the DA group (26.6 vs 52.4 %). Intra-operative cell saver was used in 36 patients. Compared to the non-cell saver group, mean blood loss was significantly higher in the cell saver group (4,061.0 ± 1,285.55 ml vs 3,347.71 ± 1,083.85 ml), whereas the difference between the two groups regarding allogeneic blood transfusion was not statistically significant. The DA approach was an independent predictor of lower peri-operative blood loss and allogeneic blood transfusion while using cell saver was not.
Our results may be explained by the lower extent of muscular dissection performed in the DA approach. Our findings also indicate that intra-operative cell salvage might not be justified in bilateral THA performed expeditiously.
International Orthopaedics 09/2013; · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this randomized prospective study was to determine whether a urinary catheter is necessary for all patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty under spinal anesthesia.
Consecutive patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty under spinal anesthesia were randomized to treatment with or without insertion of an indwelling urinary catheter. All patients received spinal anesthesia with 15 to 30 mg of 0.5% bupivacaine. The catheter group was subjected to a standard postoperative protocol, with removal of the indwelling catheter within forty-eight hours postoperatively. The experimental group was monitored for urinary retention and, if necessary, had straight catheterization up to two times prior to the placement of an indwelling catheter.
Two hundred patients were included in the study. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the prevalence of urinary retention, the prevalence of urinary tract infection, or the length of stay. Nine patients in the no-catheter group and three patients in the catheter group (following removal of the catheter) required straight catheterization because of urinary retention. Three patients in the catheter group and no patient in the no-catheter group had development of urinary tract infection.
Patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty under spinal anesthesia appear to be at low risk for urinary retention. Thus, a routine indwelling catheter is not required for such patients.
Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 08/2013; 95(16):1498-503. · 3.23 Impact Factor