Ahmet Kalkan

Karadeniz Technical University, Atrabazandah, Trabzon, Turkey

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Publications (40)77.1 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of daptomycin in left-sided infective endocarditis (IE) patients. Fourteen patients with left heart endocarditis, monitored with a diagnosis of IE based on modified Duke criteria between July 2010 and May 2011, and receiving daptomycin as monotherapy, were enrolled. The success of daptomycin in these patients was revealed with improvements in microbiological, biochemical, and radiologic findings, as well as physical examination findings. Patient average age was 63.5 ± 14.2 years (36-80 years); 8 (57 %) were men and 6 (43 %) women. The pathogens methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (71.5 %), Streptococcus mutans (21.5 %), and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (7 %) were isolated from our patients. Daptomycin was used in initial treatment in 5 (36 %) patients; treatment was subsequently modified to daptomycin in 9 (64 %) patients as a consequence of drug serum level insufficiency, agent sensitivity to the drug administered, or drug side effects. Thirteen patients were discharged in a healthy condition, with successful surgical treatment in 5 (36 %). Only 1, an 80-year-old IE patient, was lost from advanced cardiac failure. No significant side effects were seen in any patient receiving daptomycin. The most frequent side effects were minimal rises in serum CPK levels during treatment; these values returned to normal after treatment. Daptomycin can be used successfully in left heart endocarditis with no significant side effects. Studies involving a wider patient series are now needed to support the use of daptomycin in left heart endocarditis.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 01/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne virus of the genus Nairovirus family Bunyaviridae, which are enveloped viruses containing tripartite, negative polarity, single-stranded RNA. CCHF is characterized by high case mortality, occurring in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Europe. Currently, there are no specific treatments or licensed vaccines available for CCHFV. Recently, two research groups have found adult mice with defective interferon responses allowed to lethal CCHFV infection. These mouse models could provide invaluable information for further studies. Efforts to develop a vaccine against CCHFV are being made. To determine the efficacy of vaccine candidates it is important to conduct serological studies that can accurately measure levels of protective antibodies. In the present study, a pseudo-plaque reduction neutralization test (PPRNT) based on enzyme-catalyzed color development of infected cells probed with anti-CCHFV antibodies was used to measure neutralization antibody of CCHFV. METHODS: Sixty-nine human serum samples (20 acute and 49 convalescent) were tested. The presence of CCHFV antibodies was determined and confirmed by a commercial ELISA kit. CCHFV RNA was determined by RT-PCR. All the samples were analyzed by PPRNT and fluorescent focus reduction neutralization test (FFRNT) to measure of CCHFV-neutralizing antibodies. RESULTS: Pseudo-plaque reduction neutralization test showed a high sensitivity (98%), specificity (100%) and agreement (96,6%) in qualitative comparison with those of the FFRNT. There was a high correlation between the titers obtained in PPRNT and FFRNT (R2 = 0.92). The inter- and intra-assay variation of PPRNT revealed good reproducibility and positive cut-off of PPRNT was defined as 1:4 by the geometric mean titers for the individual samples distributed. CONCLUSION: The pseudo-plaque reduction neutralization test described in this study is a fast, reproducible and sensitive method for the measurement of CCHF neutralizing antibodies. This novel assay could serve as useful tools for CCHF research in epidemiology, vaccine development and other studies of immunity. It also provides an alternative to PRNT when viruses with no or poor CPE in cell culture.
    Virology Journal 01/2013; 10(1):6. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a fatal tick-borne zoonosis extensively common in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and the Balkan Peninsula. CCHF has been reported in Turkey with high frequency since 2002. Genetic diversity of CCHF virus (CCHFV) isolates circulating in Turkey were studied by two recent studies from 2006 to the end of 2010. Since CCHFV disease has been an important public health concern in Turkey, it is necessary to continue genetic analysis of CCHFV viruses for the assessment of future patterns of disease. The aim of the present study was to genetic analysis of CCHFV isolates derived from infected patients over a two-year period (2011 and 2012) in several provinces of Turkey. Serum samples (n=10) were selected from CCHFV RNA positive patients and subjected to sequence analysis of the gene region encoding partial M segment. The nucleotide sequence alignments of the 10 partial M segments of CCHFV isolates showed that the nucleic acid relatedness of CCHFV isolates ranged from 94.4% to 100%. Phylogenetic analysis of M segment sequences revealed that CCHFV isolates circulating in Turkey belonged to the European lineage I and were closely related to the viruses previously found in Turkey and in the Eastern European-Russian and Balkan Peninsula. The results of the present study indicated the genetic stability and the lack of the genetic diversity of CCHFV isolates circulating in Turkey.
    Kafkas Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 01/2013; 19 (Suppl-A):147-152. · 0.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A pseudo-plaque assay was developed for detection and quantitation of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus Turkey-Kelkit06. Enzyme-catalyzed color development of infected cells probed with anti-Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus antibodies was used for determining the titer of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever Turkey-Kelkit06 and for its detection in samples from persons infected with the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. The pseudo-plaque assay accuracy was confirmed by comparing pseudo-plaque assay titers with fluorescent immunofocus assay and focus formation assay titers using three stocks of virus. No significant difference in virus titers of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever Turkey-Kelkit06 among the three methods was observed. The pseudo-plaque assay is more sensitive than the fluorescent immunofocus assay for detecting the virus in primary isolates of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus collected from humans, but no difference in sensitivity between the two methods was observed in the cell-adapted strain of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever Turkey-Kelkit06. The pseudo-plaque assay is suitable for titration of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever Turkey-Kelkit06, which does not develop plaques, suggesting it may also be suitable for the detection of other viruses.
    Journal of virological methods 08/2012; · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is the causative agent of a tick-borne disease with high mortality rates in humans. The distribution of CCHFV includes over 30 countries in Asia, the Middle East, southeastern Europe, and Africa. It was first recognized in Turkey in 2002, with an increasing number of cases reported between 2002 and 2009. Recent analysis of complete genome sequences of CCHFV isolates has revealed that the genomic plasticity of the virus is surprisingly high for an arthropod-borne virus. We have determined the complete nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of strain CCHFV Turkey-Kelkit06 isolated from the blood of a patient in an endemic region of Turkey in 2006. The complete sequence length of the CCHFV Turkey-Kelkit06 strain is 19,186 nt, consisting of a 1673 nt S segment, a 5364 nt M segment, and a 12,149 nt L segment. Based on the analysis of S, M, and L segments, CCHFV Turkey-Kelkit06 clustered in Group V, which represents the Europe/Turkey geographic lineage. Although glycoproteins encoded by the M gene are the most variable part of the CCHFV Turkey-Kelkit06 strain, some functional domains of the glycoproteins are well conserved. Here, we report the complete sequence and genome organization of the CCHFV Turkey-Kelkit06 strain and its phylogenetic relationship to other strains of CCHFV. Collecting data on viral sequences among isolates from CCHF epidemics may provide valuable information regarding the molecular basis of the epidemic potential of the virus.
    Virus Research 11/2009; 147(2):288-93. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay followed by partial sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene was performed for the presence of Ehrlichia and/or Anaplasma. A total of 242 ixodid ticks were collected from domestic ruminants and their shelters, as well as humans, and their individual salivary glands were dissected out for DNA. From the 242 ticks analyzed, six (2.47%), comprising three Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, one Rhipicephalus bursa, and two Rhipicephalus sanguineus, were positive. Of these sequenced samples directly obtained from the PCR products, three sequences from H. a. anatolicum were identical to that of the gene of Ehrlichia spp. strains. One sequence identified in R. bursa was closely related to Anaplasma platys. The remaining two sequences detected in R. sanguineus were similar to that of the gene of Anaplasma ovis. The study presented here provides preliminary data regarding the presence of rickettsial pathogens in ticks in Turkey.
    Parasitology Research 03/2009; 104(5):1243-8. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the seroprevalence of toxocariasis in patients diagnosed as schizophrenia. Ninety-eight schizophrenic patients hospitalized at The Elazig Psychiatric Hospital were included in the study. Anti-Toxocara IgG and/or IgM antibodies were determined by using commercial Toxocara canis IgG and/or IgM ELISA kit. Seropositivity for T. canis was detected in 45 (45.9%) of 98 patients and 2 (2.0%) of 100 control subjects the difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). The seroprevalence was 40.4% (19 cases) and 51.0% (26 cases) for female and male subjects, respectively (p=0.3). When the seropositive and seronegative schizophrenic patients were compared with respect to the age group environment they were living in, occupation period of follow up and number of hospitalizations, there were no differences between the two groups (all, p>0.05). In conclusion, the schizophrenic state seems to present a high risk for Toxocara infection in Turkey.
    Yonsei Medical Journal 05/2008; 49(2):224-9. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus is member of the genus Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae. All members of the family Bunyaviridae are enveloped viruses containing tripartite, negative polarity, single-stranded RNA. CCHF is characterized by high case mortality, occurring in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Europe. During recent years, outbreaks have been reported in Turkey. However, little information is available on the genetic diversity of CCHF virus in Turkey. In this study, a total of 1227 adult ticks were collected from domestic ruminants (796 specimens from cattle, 399 specimens from goats and 32 specimens from sheep). The presence of the M segment of CCHF virus was determined in 4 of 40 (10%) Hyalomma marginatum marginatum pools, in 2 of 38 (7.89%) Rhipicephalus bursa pools, and in 1 of 7 (7%) Boophylus annulatus pools. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum pools gave negative RT-PCR result against CCHF virus. Serum samples from seven patients infected with CCHF were selected and subjected to RT-PCR to amplify partial M segment of CCHF virus. This report introduces the first data on partial nucleotide sequences of M RNA segments of CCHF virus strains circulating in Turkey, isolated from ticks.
    Archives of Virology 02/2008; 153(1):37-44. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To demonstrate relationship between herpes simplex virus (HSV) corneal latency and graft survival. Prospective case control study. 28 recipient corneal buttons and donor cornea-scleral remnants were examined for HSV DNA with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). None of the recipient had a history of HSV infection. Serum samples of graft recipients were analyzed for the presence of anti-HSV IgG and IgM with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. All corneas were free of stromal scarring or epithelial defect before sampling and had an endothelial cell density of >2000 cells/mm(2). In twenty three patients (82%) anti-HSV IgG was detected in serum. In none of the recipients anti-HSV IgM was positive. HSV DNA was positive in six out of twenty eight (21%) of the recipient corneal buttons and none of the donor cornea-scleral remnants. In eighteen-months follow-up period three out of six (50%) HSV DNA positive and one out of twenty-two (4.5%) HSV DNA negative patients experienced late endothelial failure that was statistically significantly different (p = 0.022). Even without a history of HSV keratitis, presence of latent HSV virus in recipient cornea is an important risk factor for subsequent graft survival.
    Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.) 07/2007; 1(2):127-31.
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    ABSTRACT: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne virus in the family Bunyaviridae, genus Nairovirus. The virus is transmitted to humans through infected tick bites or from direct contact with viremic animals or humans. In the present study, a total of 1,015 adult ticks were collected from cattle (603 specimens), sheep (17 specimens), and goats (395 specimens) in the Kelkit Valley in Turkey. Four tick species were recognized on the animals in the surveyed region. The most abundant species were Rhipicephalus bursa and Hyalomma marginatum marginatum, at 47.68% (484/1,015) and 46.40% (471/1,015), respectively. Reverse transcriptase PCR was used to recover partial sequences of the CCHFV small (S) genome segment. The presence of CCHFV was determined in 3 of 33 (9.09%) R. bursa pools and in 1 of 31 (3.22%) H. m. marginatum pools. Virus sequences from R. bursa were extremely different from those of the Greek CCHFV strain (U04958) isolated from an R. bursa tick. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the CCHFV isolates obtained in this study clustered in group 5, whose range encompasses southwestern Russian and Kosovo. This is the first evidence of CCHFV in ticks from Turkey. Even though Hyalomma is the main vector for CCHFV, R. bursa may play a role in CCHFV transmission.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 12/2006; 44(11):4120-4. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Molluscum contagiosum has a worldwide occurrence and its primary mode of transmission is via direct human contact including sexual means. The aim of the study was to implement a polymerase chain reaction-based assay for detection and subtyping of Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) in skin lesions diagnosed with molluscum contagiosum in a large regional teaching hospital in Turkey. For this purpose, a total of 61 patients were included in the study. Randomly selected single lesion from each patient was used to extract DNA material and a specific PCR reaction amplifying 393-bp- and 575-bp-long regions from MCV genome was used in the detection. Subtyping was carried out by digestion of the amplified 575-bp product with restriction endonuclease enzyme BamHI. Both amplified and restriction enzyme digested products visualized on agarose gel electrophoresis. All 61 molluscum cases (100%) included in the study contained MCV genetic material as demonstrated by the presence of 393- and 575-bp-long PCR amplified products. Restriction enzyme BamHI digestion of the 575-bp-long amplicon indicated that the infecting subtype in all the cases (100%) was MCV subtype I. Results of this study demonstrate that subtype I is the only infecting strain dominant in our region. Because the only consecutive molluscum patients admitted to our hospital were included in the study, our data do not rule out the possibility that other genotypes might be present in the Turkish population. However, it is not unreasonable to conclude that similar trends exist in the rest of the country. Results also show that a molecular-based diagnostic assay would be feasible in cases where diagnosis was deemed necessary.
    Archives of Medical Research 05/2006; 37(3):388-91. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the first case ofextracranial tuberculous lymphadenitis which paradoxically developed during treatment of intracranial tuberculoma. Our patient, a 15-year-old girl who initially presented with meningitis and intracranial tuberculomas, developed extracranial tuberculomas during treatment for central nervous system tuberculosis. She was followed clinically with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at three monthly intervals. Within 18 months of specific antituberculous treatment, the patient had fully recovered. The course and response to therapy are discussed in light of the current literature.
    Southern Medical Journal 05/2006; 99(4):388-92. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The parasitic trematode Fasciola hepatica is the causative agent of fasciolosis that is common in ruminants especially sheep and cattle and is occasionally found in humans. Fasciolosis has a worldwide distribution including Turkey and causes major economic losses in agricultural industry. Cathepsin L1 is one of the major molecules in the excretory-secretory products of F. hepatica and is involved in tissue penetration, immune evasion and feeding and therefore may be used in vaccination and serological diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate cloning and expression of the cathepsin L1 gene of F. hepatica eucaryotic cells. For this purpose, total RNA was extracted from adult F. hepatica. Cathepsin L1 DNA amplicons were obtained with the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The 981 base-coding gene region of cathepsin L1 was amplified using specific primers to the cathepsin L1 gene. Then, the cathepsin L1 gene was cloned into the pCI-neo mammalian expression vector. The presence of the cathepsin L1 gene was confirmed by PCR screening and enzyme digestion assays. So, the resulting recombinant plasmid was named pFhCL1. Afterwards, the pFhCL1 vector was transiently transfected into Vero cells. The presence of the cathepsin L1 proteins was shown by Western immunoblotting.
    Turkiye parazitolojii dergisi / Turkiye Parazitoloji Dernegi = Acta parasitologica Turcica / Turkish Society for Parasitology 02/2006; 30(1):25-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Monitoring of HBV replication level is very useful for the management of patients with chronic HBV. However, the use of the correct tools to quantify HBV-DNA levels in serum and monitor the replication of HBV is of paramount importance in terms of diagnosis, and antiviral treatment of patients with chronic HBV infection. The aim of this study was to combine the bDNA assay and HBV PCR to improve detection of viremia the patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B infection. In this study, 67 HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients were analyzed to determine viremia level using bDNA and HBV PCR assays. Sixty-four patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B showed positivity by conventional HBV PCR, whereas 56 subjects with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B showed HBV-DNA levels by bDNA. The results indicated that it is reasonable to use the bDNA assay to determine HBV replicative activity first, and use conventional HBV-PCR for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patient samples that are negative in bDNA assay.
    Hepato-gastroenterology 01/2006; 53(67):106-9. · 0.77 Impact Factor
  • N Kilic, M Ozden, A Kalkan
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate levels of lipid peroxidation, indicated by plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), with consideration of clinical status and treatment outcomes in patients with acute brucellosis. Plasma MDA levels were measured in patients with acute brucellosis and healthy subjects. Significantly higher MDA levels were detected in plasma of patients with acute brucellosis compared to controls (P<0.01). Plasma levels of MDA were significantly decreased after the brucellosis treatment (P<0.01). The results of the present study indicate for the first time that a considerable level of lipid peroxidation is involved in acute brucellosis cases and this may be of importance with respect to the understanding of disease pathogenesis and may serve as a target for treatment regime.
    Clinical and Experimental Medicine 10/2005; 5(3):117-21. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the prevalence and genotypic distribution of GB virus-C/hepatitis G virus (GBV-C/HGV) and TT virus (TTV) in blood donors, mentally retarded children and four groups of patients living in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. The prevalence and genetic analysis of TTV were determined by using the primers of the UTR and ORF1 regions of TTV, respectively. Reverse transcription nested (RT-n)-PCR was used to amplify 5' UTR of GBV-C/HGV. Genotyping of HGV was carried out by PCR-based genotyping assay while RFLP was conducted to determine the genotypes of TTV. TTV DNA was detected in 118 of 410 sera tested, giving an overall prevalence of 28.7%; GBV-C/HGV-RNA was detected in only 17 cases, giving an overall prevalence of 4.1%. No significant differences were observed in the number of positive or negative tests for GBV-C/HGV and TTV according to duration of illness or mean duration of institutionalization in any of the groups studied. Although all samples from the study population belonged to genotypes 1 and 4, the most common TTV genotype is G2. In conclusion, our results indicate a low endemicity of GBV-C/HGV and TTV infection in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. The presence of G2 strains reveals the limited genetic diversity of the GBV-C/HGV circulating in Turkey. We suggest that TTV infection of genotypes 1 and 4 is prevalent in the same region.
    Japanese journal of infectious diseases 09/2005; 58(4):222-7. · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    Ahmet Kalkan, Mehmet Ozden, Handan Akbulut
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the neopterin levels and peripheral blood lymphocyte subgroups in HBeAg-positive and -negative chronic hepatitis B patients. A total of 89 patients were included in the study. The mean serum neopterin level of patients with chronic hepatitis B was significantly higher than that of the control group. In HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients, the mean serum neopterin level was significantly higher than that of anti-HBeAb-positive patients. There was no significant correlation between the serum neopterin levels and alanine aminotransferase and HBV-DNA levels in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients. There were no significant differences between the control subjects and patients with HBeAg-positive or anti-HBeAb-positive hepatitis in terms of the percentage of peripheral blood CD4+ or CD8+ or the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ lymphocytes. Our results suggest an association between elevated neopterin concentrations and HBeAg-positivity in patients with chronic hepatitis B. However, there appears to be no association between the neopterin levels and either hepatocyte damage or viral replication status.
    Japanese journal of infectious diseases 05/2005; 58(2):107-9. · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Brucellosis is a zoonosis that affects several organs and has a protean presentation. The authors report the case of a 61-year-old male patient with brucellar spondylodiscitis involving several vertebrae and a paravertebral abscess localized in the erector spinae muscle. Diagnosis was made by positive blood culture and MRI. No relapse was seen with a combined treatment (doxycycline/rifampin) for 3 months, followed by doxycycline alone for 6 months. Almost all radiologic findings disappeared at the end of a 1-year follow-up without any further treatment.
    Southern Medical Journal 03/2005; 98(2):229-31. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease for which immunogenetic susceptibility factors have been defined. The aim of this study was to investigate seroprevalence of Toxocara canis (T. canis) in patients with RA. Forty-five patients with RA who were all diagnosed according to the ACR criteria and 48 health controls were included in this study. The mean age of patients with RA and of controls was 50+/-14 and 49+/-13, respectively. In both groups T. canis IgG antibodies were investigated with ELISA. Toxocara canis seroprevalence in patients with RA (35.6%) was significantly higher than that in the control group (8.3%) (p=0.001). There was no significant difference between patients with RA and control group in terms of behavioral factors (except in frequency of hand washing), demographic and socio-economic factors, while there was a difference in terms of owning dogs and cats or in the duration of ownership. When the patients with RA were divided into seropositive and seronegative, there were no significant differences between both groups in terms of demographic factors, socio-economic factors, behavioral factors, owning dogs and cats or duration of ownership and active or remission state of the illness, duration of disease and disability level in patients with RA (p > 0.05). In view of the present results, it is suggested that Toxocara infection was acquired before RA had developed and that high seroprevalence may result from exposure to pets and soil. It seems that this subject requires further investigations with larger numbers of samples in order to fully evaluate the causes of high seropositivity.
    Turkiye parazitolojii dergisi / Turkiye Parazitoloji Dernegi = Acta parasitologica Turcica / Turkish Society for Parasitology 02/2005; 29(4):251-4.
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    ABSTRACT: To study the prevalence and genotype distribution of hepatitis G virus (HGV) in hemodialysis patients in East Anatolia, Turkey. Eighty-nine hemodialysis patients and 30 healthy individuals were analyzed by using reverse-transcriptase nested polymerase chain reaction with primers specific for 5' untranslated region. HGV genotyping was performed by PCR and three randomly selected HGV-positive samples were sequenced. Of the 89 hemodialysis patients, HGV RNA was detected in 9 (10.2%). All of our isolates were assigned to genotype 2. Our results showed that hemodialysis patients carry the risk for HGV infection in East Anatolia, Turkey.
    Medical Principles and Practice 01/2005; 14(2):102-6. · 0.96 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

311 Citations
77.10 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012
    • Karadeniz Technical University
      • Faculty of Medicine
      Atrabazandah, Trabzon, Turkey
  • 2002–2012
    • Firat University
      • • Department of Virology
      • • Department of Parasitology
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      • • Department of Ophthalmology
      • • Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
      Mezreh, Elazığ, Turkey