Vera Maria Morsch

Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria da Boca do Monte, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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Publications (169)379.48 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Haemonchus contortus (order Strongylida) is a common parasitic nematode infecting small ruminants and causing significant economic losses worldwide. It induces innate and adaptive immune responses, which are essential for the clearance of this nematode from the host. Ecto-adenosine deaminase (E-ADA) is an enzyme that plays an important role in the immune system, while Zinc (Zn) has been found playing a critical role in E-ADA catalysis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of Zn supplementation on E-ADA activity in serum of lambs experimentally infected with H. contortus. To reach this purpose 28 male lambs (in average 25 kg) were used. The animals were divided into four groups: A and B composed of healthy animals (uninfected); C and D, infected with H. contortus. Groups B and D were supplemented with Zn Edetate, subcutaneously with 3 mg kg of live weight, on days 11 and 25 post-infection (PI). Blood and fecal samples were collected on the days 11, 25 and 39 PI, in order to assess hematocrit, seric E-ADA, and eggs per gram (EPG) counting, respectively. The animals of groups C and D showed severe hematocrit reduction (days 25 and 39 PI) and were EPG positive (days 11, 25 and 39 PI). On day 41 PI, three animals each group were subjected to necropsy. This procedure showed that animals of groups A and B did not have helminths in abomasum and intestines, while H. contortus were observed in groups C (5782.5 ± 810.9) and D (6185.0 ± 150.0). Infected and untreated animals (group C) showed a reduction in E-ADA activity, but this was not observed when the animals were supplemented with Zn (Group D). Therefore, based on our results, it was possible to observe that Zn supplementation exercised a positive effect on E-ADA activity in lambs infected with H. contortus, and did not allow a reduction in E-ADA activity, as occurred in the group infected and without supplementation. However, Zn supplementation was not able to prevent the worm burden.
    Experimental Parasitology 01/2015; 151-152. DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.01.010 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the influence of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (ST) associated with resveratrol on the enzymatic activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), adenylate kinase (AK), pyruvate kinase (PK), and creatine kinase (CK) in the brain of mice experimentally infected by Toxoplasma gondii. For that, 60 mice were divided into ten groups with 6 animals each: groups A to D composed by healthy mice and groups E to J consisting of animals infected by T. gondii (VEG strain). Animals started treatment 20 days post-infection for 10 consecutive days with oral doses of 0.5 mg kg-1 of ST (groups B and F), 100 mg kg-1 of free resveratrol (groups C and G) and inclusion complex of resveratrol (nanoparticles containing resveratrol) (groups D and H), as well as with an association of both drugs (groups I and J). The results showed increased (P<0.001) AChE activity on infected animals (groups E-J) when compared to not-infected (A) animals, and also uninfected animals treated with ST (group B) had increased AChE activity. AK activity decreased (P<0.001) in the infected and untreated (group E), differently from the other groups that did not differ. PK activity did not differ between groups (P>0.05). When comparing control groups (uninfected (A) and infected (E)), we verified a significant (P<0.001) increase in CK activity in the brain, and it is noteworthy that the animals treated with resveratrol associated with ST (group I and J) had similar CK activity to those animals from the group A. Treatment with the combination of ST and resveratrol was able to reduce (P<0.05) the number of parasitic cysts in the brain, thus reduced inflammatory infiltrates in the liver, and prevented the occurrence of hepatocytes lesions due to toxoplasmosis in mice. Based on these results, it is possible to conclude that increased AChE and CK activities after T. gondii infection did not change with the treatment of ST-resveratrol association. In addition, decreased AK activity caused by T. gondii infection was normalized by ST-resveratrol treatment. T. gondii infection and treatment does not affect PK activity in brain.
    Microbial Pathogenesis 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.micpath.2015.01.001 · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of iron supplementation on oxidative stress and on the activity of the adenosine deaminase (ADA) in rats experimentally infected by Trypanosoma evansi. For this purpose, twenty rats were divided into four experimental groups with five animals each as follows: groups A and B were composed by healthy animals, while animals from the groups C and D were infected by T. evansi. Additionally, groups B and D received two subcutaneous doses of iron (60 mg kg(-1)) within an interval of five days. Blood samples were drawn on day 8 post infection in order to assess hematological and biochemical variables. Among the main results are: (1) animals from the group C showed reduced erythrogram (with tendency to anemia); however the same results were not observed for the group D; this might be a direct effect of free iron on trypanosomes which helped to reduce the parasitemia and the damage to erythrocytes caused by the infection; (2) iron supplementation was able to reduce NOx levels by inhibiting iNOS, and thus, providing an antioxidant action and, indirectly, reducing the ALT levels in the groups B and D; (3) increase FRAP levels in the group D; (4) reduce ADA activity in serum and erythrocytes in the group C; however, this supplementation (5) increased the protein oxidation in groups B and D, as well as group C (positive control). Therefore, iron showed antioxidant and oxidant effects on animals that received supplementation; and it maintained the activity of E-ADA stable in infected/supplemented animals.
    Experimental Parasitology 10/2014; 147. DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2014.09.002 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes is associated with long-term complications in the brain and reduced cognitive ability. Vitamin D3 (VD3 ) appears to be involved in the amelioration of hyperglycaemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Our aim was to analyse the potential of VD3 in avoiding brain damage through evaluation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Na(+) K(+) -adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and delta aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activities and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels from cerebral cortex, as well as memory in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Animals were divided into eight groups (n = 5): control/saline, control/metformin (Metf), control/VD3 , control/Metf + VD3 , diabetic/saline, diabetic/Metf, diabetic/VD3 and diabetic/Metf + VD3 . Thirty days after treatment, animals were submitted to contextual fear-conditioning and open-field behavioural tests, after which they were sacrificed and the cerebral cortex was dissected. Our results demonstrate a significant memory deficit, an increase in AChE activity and TBARS levels and a decrease in δ-ALA-D and Na(+) K(+) -ATPase activities in diabetic rats when compared with the controls. Treatment of diabetic rats with Metf and VD3 prevented the increase in AChE activity when compared with the diabetic/saline group. In treated diabetic rats, the decrease in Na(+) K(+) -ATPase was reverted when compared with non-treated rats, but the increase in δ-ALA-D activity was not. VD3 prevented diabetes-induced TBARS level and improved memory. Our results show that VD3 can avoid cognitive deficit through prevention of changes in important enzymes such as Na(+) K(+) -ATPase and AChE in cerebral cortex in type 1 diabetic rats. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Cell Biochemistry and Function 08/2014; 32(6). DOI:10.1002/cbf.3044 · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ex vivo and in vitro effects of quercetin on NTPDase, adenosine deaminase (ADA), and acetycholinesterase (AChE) activities in lymphocytes, as well as the effects of quercetin on butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity in serum and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in plasma were determined in rats. For the ex vivo experiment, animals were orally exposed to Cadmium (Cd) for 45 days. Animals were divided into eight groups: saline/ethanol, saline/Querc 5 mg/kg, saline/Querc 25 mg/kg, saline/Querc 50 mg/kg, Cd/ethanol, Cd/Querc 5 mg/kg, Cd/Querc 25 mg/kg, and Cd/Querc 50 mg/kg. The ex vivo data showed an increase in the ATP and ADP hydrolysis and ADA activity in Cd-exposed rats when compared to the control group. The treatment with quercetin 25 and 50 mg/kg prevented this increase in the ATP and ADP hydrolysis, while the treatment with quercetin 5, 25, and 50 mg/kg prevented the increase in the ADA activity. AChE, BChE, and MPO activities ex vivo presented an increase in the Cd-exposed group when compared to the control group, and the treatment with quercetin 5, 25, and 50 mg/kg prevented this increase caused by Cd exposure. The in vitro experiment showed that quercetin 5, 10, 25, or 50 µM decreased the ADA activity proportionally to the increase of the concentrations of quercetin when compared to the control group. Thus, we can suggest that the quercetin is able to modulate NTPDase, ADA, AChE, and MPO activities and contribute to maintain the levels of ATP, adenosine, and acetylcholine normal, respectively, exhibiting potent pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory actions.
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 07/2014; 396(1-2). DOI:10.1007/s11010-014-2155-7 · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the effects of quercetin on the impairment of memory and anxiogenic - like behavior induced by cadmium (Cd) exposure. We also investigated possible alterations in acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and δ - aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activities as well as in oxidative stress parameters in the CNS. Rats were exposed to Cd (2.5mg/Kg) and quercetin (5, 25 or 50mg/Kg) by gavage for 45days. Animals were divided into eight groups (n=10-14): saline/control, saline/Querc 5mg/kg, saline/Querc 25mg/kg, saline/Querc 50mg/kg, Cd/ethanol, Cd/Querc 5mg/kg, Cd/Querc 25mg/kg and Cd/Querc 50mg/kg. Results demonstrated that Cd impaired memory and has anxiogenic effect.Quercetin prevented these harmful effects induced by Cd. AChE activity decreased in cerebral cortex and hippocampus and increased in hypothalamus of Cd-exposed rats. The Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity decreased in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus of Cd-exposed rats. Quercetin prevented these effects in AChE and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activities. Reactive oxygen species production, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels, protein carbonyl content and double - stranded DNA fractions increased in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus of Cd-exposed rats. Quercetin prevents totally or partially these effects caused by Cd. Total thiols (T-SH), reduced glutathione (GSH), reductase glutathione (GR) activities decreased and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity increased Cd exposure rats. Co-treatment with quercetin prevented reduction in T-SH, GSH, GR activities and the rise of GST activity. The present findings show that quercetin prevents alterations in oxidative stress parameters as well as AChE and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activities, consequently preventing memory impairment and anxiogenic-like behavior displayed by Cd exposure. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the neuroprotective role of quercetin, emphasizing the influence of this flavonoid in the diet for human health, possibly preventing brain injury associated with Cd intoxication.
    Physiology & Behavior 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.06.008 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activity in whole blood as well as the parameters of oxidative stress, such as reactive species (RS) levels in serum, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, as well as total thiols (T-SH) and non-protein thiols (NPSH) levels in platelets. Moreover, the content of vitamin C and E in plasma and serum, respectively, in lung cancer patients was also investigated. We collected blood samples from patients (n = 28) previously treated for lung cancer with chemotherapy. Patients were classified as stage IIIb and IV according to the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC). Results showed a decrease of 37% in δ-ALA-D activity in patients with lung cancer when compared to the control group. RS and TBARS levels were 8% and 99% higher in the patient group, respectively. The activity of SOD and CAT as well as the vitamin C content were 41%, 35% and 127% lower in patients when compared with controls, respectively. However, T-SH and vitamin E levels were 27% and 44% higher in lung cancer patients, respectively. Results show that the overproduction of reactive species in patients with lung cancer may be interfering with the activity of δ-ALA-D. Likewise, the decrease in the activity of this enzyme may be contributing for the oxidative stress.
    Biomedecine [?] Pharmacotherapy 06/2014; 68(5). DOI:10.1016/j.biopha.2014.04.005 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Platelets plays a central role in hemostatic processes and consequently are similarly involved in pathological processes, such as arterial thrombosis and atherosclerosis. In this study we investigate the effect of aqueous crude extracts of Scutia buxifolia on NTPDase and 5'-nucleotidase activity on platelets and lymphocytes as well as the profile of the platelet aggregation. The effect of the aqueous crude extract obtained from S. buxifolia leaves (SbL) and stem bark (SbS) on enzymatic activities and platelet aggregation was investigated by in vitro tests. The platelets and lymphocytes were exposed to aqueous extracts of S. buxifolia at concentrations 1-200 mg/mL in the presence of ATP, ADP, AMP as substrates. The results showed that SbS and SbL potentially inhibited the NTPDase and 5'-nucleotidase in platelets and lymphocytes. Moreover, we found that ADP-induced aggregation was only inhibited by the SbS. This data suggest the existence of compounds in S. buxifolia that may decrease the NTPDase and 50-nucleotidase activity, causing peripheral alterations in adenine nucleotide levels and protection against ADP-induced platelet aggregation.
    Journal of applied biomedicine 05/2014; 12(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jab.2014.05.001 · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the purine levels and E-ADA activity in the brain of mice (BALB/c) experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii. In experiment I (n=24) the mice were infected with RH strain of T. gondii, while in experiment II (n=36) they were infected with strain ME-49 of T. gondii. Our results showed that, for RH strain (acute phase), an increase in both periods in the levels of ATP, ADP, AMP, adenosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine (only on day 6 PI) and uric acid (only on day 6 PI). By the other hand, the RH strain led, on days 4 and 6 PI, to a reduction in the concentration of inosine. ME-49, a cystogenic strain, showed some differences in acute and chronic phase, since on day 6 PI the levels of ATP and ADP were increased, while on day 30 these same nucleotides were reduced. On day 60 PI, ME-49 induced a reduction in the levels of ATP, ADP, AMP, adenosine, inosine and xanthine, while uric acid was increased. A decrease of E-ADA activity was observed in brain on days 4 and 6 PI (RH), and 30 PI (ME-49); however on day 60 PI E-ADA activity was increased for infection by ME-49 strain. Therefore, it was possible to conclude that infection with T. gondii changes the purine levels and the activity of E-ADA in brain, which may be associated with neurological signs commonly observed in this disease.
    Experimental Parasitology 04/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2014.04.008 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in lymphocytes of lambs experimentally infected by Haemonchus contortus. A total of 14 healthy lambs were used, divided into two groups of seven animals each. Group A (negative control) represented the uninfected animals, and Group B (positive control) was formed by animals infected with 15,000 larvae of H. contortus. Blood was drawn on the days 15, 45 and 75 post-infection (PI) in order to perform the white blood cells (WBC) count, as well as the evaluation of AChE activity in lymphocytes. Parasitological stool exam (eggs per gram of feces - EPG) was performed on the same days to follow up the evolution of the infection. On day 15 PI it was verified negative EPG; however, on days 45 and 75 PI it was observed positive EPG only in the animals of group B. In the three evaluated periods was observed a lower number of leukocytes, associated with decreased lymphocytes and neutrophils in lambs infected by this gastrointestinal nematodes. Lambs infected with H. contortus showed significant (P<0.01) lower AChE activity in lymphocytes compared uninfected. Statistically, there was a positive correlation (P<0.05) between AChE activity in lymphocytes and number of lymphocytes (r=0.69). The lymphocytes are cells with direct participation in the cholinergic system; therefore, based on these results, it can be concluded that the experimental infection with H. contortus influences the number of lymphocytes, and consequently the AChE activity in these cells.
    Experimental Parasitology 04/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2014.02.006 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the efficacy of rosmarinic acid (RA) in preventing lipid peroxidation and increased activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the brain of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The animals were divided into six groups (n = 8): control, ethanol, RA 10 mg/kg, diabetic, diabetic/ethanol and diabetic/RA 10 mg/kg. After 21 days of treatment with RA, the cerebral structures (striatum, cortex and hippocampus) were removed for experimental assays. The results demonstrated that the treatment with RA (10 mg/kg) significantly reduced the level of lipid peroxidation in hippocampus (28%), cortex (38%) and striatum (47%) of diabetic rats when compared with the control. In addition, it was found that hyperglycaemia caused significant increased in the activity of AChE in hippocampus (58%), cortex (46%) and striatum (30%) in comparison with the control. On the other hand, the treatment with RA reversed this effect to the level of control after 3 weeks. In conclusion, the present findings showed that treatment with RA prevents the lipid peroxidation and consequently the increase in AChE activity in diabetic rats, demonstrating that this compound can modulate cholinergic neurotransmission and prevent damage oxidative in brain in the diabetic state. Thus, we can suggest that RA could be a promising compound in the complementary therapy in diabetes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Cell Biochemistry and Function 04/2014; 32(3). DOI:10.1002/cbf.3014 · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess whether α-tocopherol administration prevented alterations in the ectonucleotidase activities and platelet aggregation induced by high-fat diet in rats. Thus, we examined four groups of male rats which received standard diet, high-fat diet (HFD), α-tocopherol (α-Toc), and high-fat diet plus α-tocopherol. HFD was administered ad libitum and α-Toc by gavage using a dose of 50 mg/kg. After 3 months of treatment, animals were submitted to euthanasia, and blood samples were collected for biochemical assays. Results demonstrate that NTPDase, ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase, and 5'-nucleotidase activities were significantly decreased in platelets of HFD group, while that adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity was significantly increased in this group in comparison to the other groups (P < 0.05). When rats that received HFD were treated with α-Toc, the activities of these enzymes were similar to the control, but ADA activity was significantly increased in relation to the control and α-Toc group (P < 0.05). HFD group showed an increased in platelet aggregation in comparison to the other groups, and treatment with α-Toc significantly reduced platelet aggregation in this group. These findings demonstrated that HFD alters platelet aggregation and purinergic signaling in the platelets and that treatment with α-Toc was capable of modulating the adenine nucleotide hydrolysis in this experimental condition.
    Journal of physiology and biochemistry 03/2014; DOI:10.1007/s13105-014-0327-2 · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the main chronic inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) that cause functional disability in young adults. It has unknown etiology characterized by the infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages into the brain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in lymphocytes and whole blood, as well as butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities in serum. We also checked the levels of nucleotides, nucleosides, biomarkers of inflammation such as cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum from 29 patients with the relapsing-remitting form of MS (RRMS) and 29 healthy subjects as the control group. Results showed that AChE in lymphocytes and whole blood as well as BChE, and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities in serum were significantly increased in RRMS patients when compared to the control group (P<0.05). In addition, we observed a decrease in ATP levels and a significant increase in the levels of ADP, AMP, adenosine and inosine in serum from RRMS patients in relation to the healthy subjects (P<0.05). Results also demonstrated an increase in the IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 and CRP (P<0.05) and a significant decrease in the IL-10 (P<0.0001) in RRMS patients when compared to control. Our results suggest that alterations in the biomarkers of inflammation and hydrolysis of nucleotides and nucleosides may contribute to the understanding of the neurological dysfunction of RRMS patients.
    Neuroscience 02/2014; · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with brain alterations that may contribute to cognitive dysfunctions. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and caffeine (CA), abundant in coffee (CF), are natural compounds that have showed important actions in the brain. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of CGA, CA, and CF on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activities and TBARS levels from cerebral cortex, as well as memory and anxiety in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Animals were divided into eight groups (n = 5-10): control; control/CGA 5 mg/kg; control/CA 15 mg/kg; control/CF 0.5 g/kg; diabetic; diabetic/CGA 5 mg/kg; diabetic/CA 15 mg/kg; and diabetic/CF 0.5 g/kg. Our results demonstrated an increase in AChE activity and TBARS levels in cerebral cortex, while δ-ALA-D and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities were decreased in the diabetic rats when compared to control water group. Furthermore, a memory deficit and an increase in anxiety in diabetic rats were observed. The treatment with CGA and CA prevented the increase in AChE activity in diabetic rats when compared to the diabetic water group. CGA, CA, and CF intake partially prevented cerebral δ-ALA-D and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity decrease due to diabetes. Moreover, CGA prevented diabetes-induced TBARS production, improved memory, and decreased anxiety. In conclusion, among the compounds studied CGA proved to be a compound which acts better in the prevention of brain disorders promoted by DM.
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 12/2013; DOI:10.1007/s11010-013-1919-9 · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anthocyanins are a group of natural phenolic compounds responsible for the colour to plants and fruits. These compounds might have beneficial effects on memory and have antioxidant properties. In the present study we have investigated the therapeutic efficacy of anthocyanins in an animal model of cognitive deficits, associated to Alzheimer's disease, induced by scopolamine. We evaluated whether anthocyanins protect the effects caused by SCO on nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase and acethylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus (of rats. We used 4 different groups of animals: control (CTRL), anthocyanins treated (ANT), scopolamine-challenged (SCO), and scopolamine+anthocyanins (SCO+ANT). After seven days of treatment with ANT (200mg/kg; oral), the animals were SCO injected (1mg/kg; IP) and were performed the behavior tests, and submitted to euthanasia. A memory deficit was found in SCO group, but ANT treatment prevented this impairment of memory (P<0.05). The ANT treatment per se had an anxiolitic effect. AChE activity was increased in both in cortex and hipoccampus of SCO group, this effect was significantly attenuated by ANT (P<0.05). SCO decreased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities in hippocampus, and ANT was able to significantly (P<0.05) prevent these effects. No significant alteration was found on NOx levels among the groups. In conclusion, the ANT is able to regulate cholinergic neurotransmission and restore the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities, and also prevented memory deficits caused by scopolamine administration.
    International journal of developmental neuroscience: the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience 12/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2013.12.006 · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze if the pre-administration of anthocyanin on memory and anxiety prevented the effects caused by intraceberoventicular streptozotocin (icv-STZ) administration-induced sporadic dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT) in rats. Moreover, we evaluated whether the levels of nitrite/nitrate (NOx), Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase and acethylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in the cerebral cortex (CC) and hippocampus (HC) are altered in this experimental SDAT. Male Wistar rats were divided in 4 different groups: control (CTRL), anthocyanin (ANT), streptozotocin (STZ) and streptozotocin+anthocyanin (STZ+ANT). After seven days of treatment with ANT (200mg/kg; oral), the rats were icv-STZ injected (3mg/kg), and four days later were performed the behavior parameters and submitted to euthanasia. A memory deficit was found in STZ group, but ANT treatment showed to prevent this impairment of memory (P<0.05). Our results showed a higher anxiety in icv-STZ group, but the treatment with ANT showed a per se effect and prevented the anxiogenic behavior induced by STZ. Our results reveal that ANT (100μM) tested diplace the specific binding of [H(3)] flunitrazepam to benzodiazepinic site of GABAA receptors. AChE, Ca(+)-ATPase activities and NOx levels were found to be increased in HC and CC in STZ group, which was attenuated by ANT (P<0.05). STZ decreased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and ANT was able to prevent these effects (P<0.05). In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that ANT is able to regulate ions pump activity and cholinergic neurotransmission, as well as able to enhance memory and act as anxiolytic compound in animals with SDAT.
    Life sciences 11/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2013.11.014 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Changes in carbohydrate and protein metabolism were studied in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen exposed to cadmium (0; 0.236 or 0.414mg/L) during 7 and 14 days. After exposure time the fish were exposed to recovery period (water without cadmium), during 7 and 14 days. Different alterations in the metabolic parameters were observed such as an increase in lactate, protein, amino acid and ammonia levels as well as a reduction in glucose values after the exposure periods in liver. In muscle, glycogen and glucose values enhanced after cadmium exposure at both concentrations for 7 days; however, at 0.414mg/L cadmium, protein levels decreased while amino acids and ammonia levels enhanced. An increase in the lactate values was found in plasma after 7 days of exposure and a reduction in the lactate, glucose and protein levels occurred after 14 days of exposure. Results indicated that the metabolic alterations after cadmium exposure were dependent on the tissue type and exposure time. Cadmium exposure for 14 days and recovery period also of 14 days seem to be less harmful to the liver and muscle. However, even after recovering from some changes, fish health may be affected making them more sensitive to some environmental changes.
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 11/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2013.11.004 · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Candida dubliniensis, a new species of Candida that has been recovered from several sites in healthy people, has been associated with recurrent episodes of oral candidiasis in AIDS and HIV-positive patients. This species is closely related to C. albicans. The enzymatic activity of C. dubliniensis in response to oxidative stress is of interest for the development of drugs to combat C. dubliniensis. Methods Fluconazole- and amphotericin B-resistant strains were generated as described by Fekete-Forgács et al. (2000). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase assays were performed as described by McCord and Fridovich (1969) and Aebi (1984), respectively. Results We demonstrated that superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the fluconazole- and amphotericin B-resistant strains of C. dubliniensis and C. albicans than in the sensitive strains. The catalase and SOD activities were also significantly (p<0.01) higher in the sensitive and resistant C. albicans strains than in the respective C. dubliniensis strains. Conclusions These data suggest that C. albicans is better protected from oxidative stress than C. dubliniensis and that fluconazole, like amphotericin B, can induce oxidative stress in Candida; oxidative stress induces an adaptive response that results in a coordinated increase in catalase and SOD activities.
    Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 11/2013; 46(6):752-8. DOI:10.1590/0037-8682-0190-2013 · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neosporosis is an infectious disease primarily of dogs and cattle which has been found in many countries around the world. Neospora caninum causes an important immune response (cellular and humoral) in animals that it infects. Since the participation of the cholinergic system in the immune response is well documented, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between N. caninum infection and activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) during the acute and chronic phase of infection. For that, tachyzoites of N. caninum (Nc-1 strain) were inoculated intraperitoneally in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), which were separated in two experiments, I and II, differing in infective doses of tachyzoites, aiming to reach an acute phase as well as chronic phase, respectively. Samples were collected on day 7 post infection (PI) for Experiment I and on days 15 and 30 PI for experiment II. AChE activity was evaluated on whole blood and brain, while BChE was evaluated in plasma. On day 7 a reduction of AChE in total blood and brain was observed, along with reduction of BChE in plasma of infected animals when compared with non-infected. In Experiment II, AChE activity increased in total blood on day 30 PI; however, maintaining, during the same period, the AChE activity has a reduced in brain tissue. BChE activity was significantly increased on day 30 PI. Based on the results obtained, it was possible to observe a response of the cholinergic system, providing different grades of AChE and BChE activities, in response to the acute and chronic infection of gerbils experimentally infected with N. caninum. These results will serve as initial points to further studies of our research group about the relationship between the infection/disease and the cholinergic system.
    Experimental Parasitology 10/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.exppara.2013.10.002 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the oxidative stress caused by aluminum (Al) toxicity is a symptom that can trigger root growth inhibition in oat genotype seedlings. Oat seedlings were grown in a nutrient solution (pH4.0) with 0 and 370μM Al. At 12, 24, and 36h after Al addition, growth (root length) and biochemical parameters (catalase - CAT, ascorbate peroxidase - APX, and superoxide dismutase - SOD activities, lipid peroxidation, ascorbic acid (ASA) and non-protein thiol group (NPSH) concentration) were determined. The aluminum content was measured in oat seedlings. Regardless of the exposure time, root of the tolerant genotype grew normally with any Al treatments. Al supply caused lipid peroxidation only in the Al-sensitive genotype in roots and shoots (at 12, 24, and 36h). In sensitive genotype seedlings, CAT, APX, and SOD were activated only at 24 or 36h. In tolerant and intermediate genotypes, CAT, APX, and SOD were activated at 12, 24, and 36h. Data for root growth and lipid peroxidation suggested that lipid peroxidation in the sensitive genotype may be an effect of Al toxicity on root growth. Therefore, the tolerant, intermediate, and sensitive genotypes differ in the expression of the amount, type of antioxidants, and speed of activation of antioxidant system, suggesting a varying capacity of these genotypes to deal with oxidative stress, which resulted in varying sensitivity and tolerance to Al.
    Journal of inorganic biochemistry 07/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2013.07.025 · 3.25 Impact Factor

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2k Citations
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Institutions

  • 1996–2015
    • Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • Centre of Natural and Exact Sciences (CCNE)
      • • Department of Chemical Engineering (DEQ)
      Santa Maria da Boca do Monte, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2005–2014
    • Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
      • Departamento de Bioquímica
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2010
    • Centro Universitário Franciscano (Unifra)
      Santa Maria da Boca do Monte, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil