[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Under fasting conditions, increases in circulating concentrations of pancreatic glucagon maintain glucose homeostasis through induction of gluconeogenic genes by the CREB coactivator CRTC2. Hepatic CRTC2 activity is elevated in obesity, although the extent to which this cofactor contributes to attendant increases in insulin resistance is unclear. Here we show that mice with a knockout of the CRTC2 gene have decreased circulating glucose concentrations during fasting, due to attenuation of the gluconeogenic program. CRTC2 was found to stimulate hepatic gene expression in part through an N-terminal CREB binding domain that enhanced CREB occupancy over relevant promoters in response to glucagon. Deletion of sequences encoding the CREB binding domain in CRTC2 (-/-) mice lowered circulating blood glucose concentrations and improved insulin sensitivity in the context of diet-induced obesity. Our results suggest that small molecules that attenuate the CREB-CRTC2 pathway may provide therapeutic benefit to individuals with type 2 diabetes.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2010; 107(7):3087-92. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TORC2 is a major transcriptional coactivator for hepatic glucose production. Insulin impedes gluconeogenesis by inhibiting TORC2 via SIK2-dependent phosphorylation at Ser171. Interruption of this process greatly perturbs hepatic glucose metabolism, thus promoting hyperglycemia in rodents. Here, we show that hyperactivation of TORC2 would exacerbate insulin resistance by enhancing expression of LIPIN1, a mammalian phosphatidic acid phosphatase for diacylglycerol (DAG) synthesis. Diet-induced or genetic obesity increases LIPIN1 expression in mouse liver, and TORC2 is responsible for its transcriptional activation. While overexpression of LIPIN1 disturbs hepatic insulin signaling, knockdown of LIPIN1 ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin resistance by reducing DAG and PKCvarepsilon activity in db/db mice. Finally, TORC2-mediated insulin resistance is partially rescued by concomitant knockdown of LIPIN1, confirming the critical role of LIPIN1 in the perturbation of hepatic insulin signaling. These data propose that dysregulation of TORC2 would further exaggerate insulin resistance and promote type 2 diabetes in a LIPIN1-dependent manner.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During early fasting, increases in skeletal muscle proteolysis liberate free amino acids for hepatic gluconeogenesis in response to pancreatic glucagon. Hepatic glucose output diminishes during the late protein-sparing phase of fasting, when ketone body production by the liver supplies compensatory fuel for glucose-dependent tissues. Glucagon stimulates the gluconeogenic program by triggering the dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of the CREB regulated transcription coactivator 2 (CRTC2; also known as TORC2), while parallel decreases in insulin signalling augment gluconeogenic gene expression through the dephosphorylation and nuclear shuttling of forkhead box O1 (FOXO1). Here we show that a fasting-inducible switch, consisting of the histone acetyltransferase p300 and the nutrient-sensing deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), maintains energy balance in mice through the sequential induction of CRTC2 and FOXO1. After glucagon induction, CRTC2 stimulated gluconeogenic gene expression by an association with p300, which we show here is also activated by dephosphorylation at Ser 89 during fasting. In turn, p300 increased hepatic CRTC2 activity by acetylating it at Lys 628, a site that also targets CRTC2 for degradation after its ubiquitination by the E3 ligase constitutive photomorphogenic protein (COP1). Glucagon effects were attenuated during late fasting, when CRTC2 was downregulated owing to SIRT1-mediated deacetylation and when FOXO1 supported expression of the gluconeogenic program. Disrupting SIRT1 activity, by liver-specific knockout of the Sirt1 gene or by administration of a SIRT1 antagonist, increased CRTC2 activity and glucose output, whereas exposure to SIRT1 agonists reduced them. In view of the reciprocal activation of FOXO1 and its coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha, encoded by Ppargc1a) by SIRT1 activators, our results illustrate how the exchange of two gluconeogenic regulators during fasting maintains energy balance.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic hyperglycemia contributes to the development of diabetes-associated complications. Increases in the concentration of circulating glucose activate the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) and promote the O-glycosylation of proteins by O-glycosyl transferase (OGT). We show that OGT triggered hepatic gluconeogenesis through the O-glycosylation of the transducer of regulated cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) 2 (TORC2 or CRTC2). CRTC2 was O-glycosylated at sites that normally sequester CRTC2 in the cytoplasm through a phosphorylation-dependent mechanism. Decreasing amounts of O-glycosylated CRTC2 by expression of the deglycosylating enzyme O-GlcNAcase blocked effects of glucose on gluconeogenesis, demonstrating the importance of the HBP in the development of glucose intolerance.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During feeding, increases in circulating pancreatic insulin inhibit hepatic glucose output through the activation of the Ser/Thr kinase AKT and subsequent phosphorylation of the forkhead transcription factor FOXO1 (refs 1-3). Under fasting conditions, FOXO1 increases gluconeogenic gene expression in concert with the cAMP responsive coactivator TORC2 (refs 4-8). In response to pancreatic glucagon, TORC2 is de-phosphorylated at Ser 171 and transported to the nucleus, in which it stimulates the gluconeogenic programme by binding to CREB. Here we show in mice that insulin inhibits gluconeogenic gene expression during re-feeding by promoting the phosphorylation and ubiquitin-dependent degradation of TORC2. Insulin disrupts TORC2 activity by induction of the Ser/Thr kinase SIK2, which we show here undergoes AKT2-mediated phosphorylation at Ser 358. Activated SIK2 in turn stimulated the Ser 171 phosphorylation and cytoplasmic translocation of TORC2. Phosphorylated TORC2 was degraded by the 26S proteasome during re-feeding through an association with COP1, a substrate receptor for an E3 ligase complex that promoted TORC2 ubiquitination at Lys 628. Because TORC2 protein levels and activity were increased in diabetes owing to a block in TORC2 phosphorylation, our results point to an important role for this pathway in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance is a primary defect in type 2 diabetes characterized by impaired peripheral glucose uptake and insufficient suppression of hepatic glucose output. Insulin signaling inhibits liver glucose production by inducing nuclear exclusion of the gluconeogenic transcription factor FOXO1 in an Akt-dependent manner. Through the concomitant application of genome-scale functional screening and quantitative image analysis, we have identified PTP-MEG2 as a modulator of insulin-dependent FOXO1 subcellular localization. Ectopic expression of PTP-MEG2 in cells inhibited insulin-induced phosphorylation of the insulin receptor, while RNAi-mediated reduction of PTP-MEG2 transcript levels enhanced insulin action. Additionally, adenoviral-mediated depletion of PTP-MEG2 in livers of diabetic (db/db) mice resulted in insulin sensitization and normalization of hyperglycemia. These data implicate PTP-MEG2 as a mediator of blood glucose homeostasis through antagonism of insulin signaling, and suggest that modulation of PTP-MEG2 activity may be an effective strategy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Under fasting conditions, the cAMP-responsive CREB coactivator TORC2 promotes glucose homeostasis by stimulating the gluconeogenic program in liver. Following its nuclear translocation in response to elevations in circulating glucagon, TORC2 regulates hepatic gene expression via an association with CREB on relevant promoters. Here, we show that, in parallel with their effects on glucose output, CREB and TORC2 also enhance insulin signaling in liver by stimulating expression of the insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) gene. The induction of hepatic IRS2 during fasting appears critical for glucose homeostasis; knockdown of hepatic IRS2 expression leads to glucose intolerance, whereas hepatic IRS2 overexpression attenuates the gluconeogenic program and reduces fasting glucose levels. By stimulating the expression of IRS2 in conjunction with gluconeogenic genes, the CREB:TORC2 pathway thus triggers a feedback response that limits glucose output from the liver during fasting.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucose homeostasis is regulated systemically by hormones such as insulin and glucagon, and at the cellular level by energy status. Glucagon enhances glucose output from the liver during fasting by stimulating the transcription of gluconeogenic genes via the cyclic AMP-inducible factor CREB (CRE binding protein). When cellular ATP levels are low, however, the energy-sensing kinase AMPK inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis through an unknown mechanism. Here we show that hormonal and energy-sensing pathways converge on the coactivator TORC2 (transducer of regulated CREB activity 2) to modulate glucose output. Sequestered in the cytoplasm under feeding conditions, TORC2 is dephosphorylated and transported to the nucleus where it enhances CREB-dependent transcription in response to fasting stimuli. Conversely, signals that activate AMPK attenuate the gluconeogenic programme by promoting TORC2 phosphorylation and blocking its nuclear accumulation. Individuals with type 2 diabetes often exhibit fasting hyperglycaemia due to elevated gluconeogenesis; compounds that enhance TORC2 phosphorylation may offer therapeutic benefits in this setting.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance is a major hallmark in the development of type 2 diabetes, which is characterized by an impaired ability of insulin to inhibit glucose output from the liver and to promote glucose uptake in muscle. The nuclear hormone receptor coactivator PGC-1 (peroxisome proliferator-activated (PPAR)-gamma coactivator-1) has been implicated in the onset of type 2 diabetes. Hepatic PGC-1 expression is elevated in mouse models of this disease, where it promotes constitutive activation of gluconeogenesis and fatty acid oxidation through its association with the nuclear hormone receptors HNF-4 and PPAR-alpha, respectively. Here we show that PGC-1-deficient mice, generated by adenoviral delivery of PGC-1 RNA interference (RNAi) to the liver, experience fasting hypoglycemia. Hepatic insulin sensitivity was enhanced in PGC-1-deficient mice, reflecting in part the reduced expression of the mammalian tribbles homolog TRB-3, a fasting-inducible inhibitor of the serine-threonine kinase Akt/PKB (ref. 6). We show here that, in the liver, TRB-3 is a target for PPAR-alpha. Knockdown of hepatic TRB-3 expression improved glucose tolerance, whereas hepatic overexpression of TRB-3 reversed the insulin-sensitive phenotype of PGC-1-deficient mice. These results indicate a link between nuclear hormone receptor and insulin signaling pathways, and suggest a potential role for TRB-3 inhibitors in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Nature Medicine 06/2004; 10(5):530-4. · 22.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fasting triggers a series of hormonal cues that promote energy balance by inducing glucose output and lipid breakdown in the liver. In response to pancreatic glucagon and adrenal cortisol, the cAMP-responsive transcription factor CREB activates gluconeogenic and fatty acid oxidation programmes by stimulating expression of the nuclear hormone receptor coactivator PGC-1 (refs 2-5). In parallel, fasting also suppresses lipid storage and synthesis (lipogenic) pathways, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we show that mice deficient in CREB activity have a fatty liver phenotype and display elevated expression of the nuclear hormone receptor PPAR-gamma, a key regulator of lipogenic genes. CREB inhibits hepatic PPAR-gamma expression in the fasted state by stimulating the expression of the Hairy Enhancer of Split (HES-1) gene, a transcriptional repressor that is shown here to be a mediator of fasting lipid metabolism in vivo. The coordinate induction of PGC-1 and repression of PPAR-gamma by CREB during fasting provides a molecular rationale for the antagonism between insulin and counter-regulatory hormones, and indicates a potential role for CREB antagonists as therapeutic agents in enhancing insulin sensitivity in the liver.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When mammals fast, glucose homeostasis is achieved by triggering expression of gluconeogenic genes in response to glucagon and glucocorticoids. The pathways act synergistically to induce gluconeogenesis (glucose synthesis), although the underlying mechanism has not been determined. Here we show that mice carrying a targeted disruption of the cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element binding (CREB) protein gene, or overexpressing a dominant-negative CREB inhibitor, exhibit fasting hypoglycaemia [corrected] and reduced expression of gluconeogenic enzymes. CREB was found to induce expression of the gluconeogenic programme through the nuclear receptor coactivator PGC-1, which is shown here to be a direct target for CREB regulation in vivo. Overexpression of PGC-1 in CREB-deficient mice restored glucose homeostasis and rescued expression of gluconeogenic genes. In transient assays, PGC-1 potentiated glucocorticoid induction of the gene for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), the rate-limiting enzyme in gluconeogenesis. PGC-1 promotes cooperativity between cyclic AMP and glucocorticoid signalling pathways during hepatic gluconeogenesis. Fasting hyperglycaemia is strongly correlated with type II diabetes, so our results suggest that the activation of PGC-1 by CREB in liver contributes importantly to the pathogenesis of this disease.