[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gestational stress (GS) produces profound behavioural impairments in the offspring and may permanently programme hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. We investigated whether or not GS produced changes in the maternal behaviour of rat dams, and measured depression-like behaviour in the dam, which might contribute to effects in the progeny. We used the Porsolt test, which measures immobility in a forced-swim task, and models depression in rodents, while monitoring maternal care (arched-back nursing, licking/grooming, nesting/grouping pups). Pregnant rats underwent daily restraint stress (1 h/day, days 10-20 of gestation), or were left undisturbed (control). On post-parturition days 3 and 4, dams were placed into a swim tank, and time spent immobile was measured. GS significantly elevated immobility scores by approximately 25% above control values on the second test day. Maternal behaviours, in particular arched-back nursing and nesting/grouping pups, were reduced in GS dams over post-natal days 1-10. Adult offspring showed increased immobility in the Porsolt test, and also hypersecreted ACTH and CORT in response to an acute stress challenge. These data show that GS can alter maternal behaviour in mothers, and this might contribute to alterations in the offspring. GS may be an important factor in maternal post-natal depression, which may in turn detrimentally effect the offspring because depressed mothers do not sufficiently care for their offspring.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 5-HT(3)-receptor antagonists are highly selective competitive inhibitors of the 5-HT(3)-receptor with negligible affinity for other receptors. They are potent, rapidly absorbed and easily penetrate the blood-brain barrier; metabolized by the cytochrome P450-system with half-life varying from 3-10 hours. The compounds investigated so far do not modify normal behaviour in animals or man and are well tolerated over wide dose ranges, the most common side effects being headache or constipation. Clinical efficacy was first established in chemotherapy-induced emesis (and then in radiotherapy-induced and post-operative emesis), where 5-HT(3)-receptor antagonists set a new standard of antiemetic efficacy and tolerability. The 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists, via a central and / or peripheral action, have been shown to reduce secretion and motility in the gut and possess clinical utility in irritable bowel syndrome, and possibly other visceral pain disorders. Their value in fibromyalgia is being evaluated. In preclinical behavioural assays they induce effects consistent with anxiolysis, improved cognition, anti-dopaminergic activity and use in drug abuse and withdrawal. There is some evidence that ondansetron may reduce alcohol consumption in moderate alcohol abusers but overall, 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists seem to be of limited use in psychiatric disorders: where effects have been seen, they seem to be unusually sensitive to dose and stage of disease. Nevertheless, their antiemetic potential has been of great benefit to cancer patients and the possible extension of their use to bowel disorders may yet fulfil their initial exciting promise.
Current Drug Targets - CNS & Neurological Disorders 03/2004; 3(1):27-37. DOI:10.2174/1568007043482624
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study we report on the effects of mobile phone exposure on short- and long-term memory in male and female subjects. Subjects were university undergraduate students, and consisted of right-handed, males (n = 33) and females (n = 29). Individuals were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: no phone exposure; inactive phone exposure; and active phone exposure. They were provided with a series of words to learn, structured in a two-dimensional shape, and given 3 min to memorise the words. After a 12 min distraction task, they were then asked to draw the shape (spatial) and place the correct words (semantic) into the appropriate boxes. One week later the same subjects were brought back to again redraw the shape and words. Error scores were determined and analysed by non-parametric techniques. The results show that males exposed to an active phone made fewer spatial errors than those exposed to an active phone condition, while females were largely unaffected. These results further indicate that mobile phone exposure has functional consequences for human subjects, and these effects appear to be sex-dependent.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine was examined on the 5-HT4 receptor-mediated relaxation in the rat isolated ileum. Fluoxetine unsurmountably antagonized the relaxation to exogenous 5-HT with abolition of the response at 10 microM. Fluoxetine (10 microM) also caused a gradual loss of the resting tension. These effects of fluoxetine were prevented by a prior addition of the 5-HT4 receptor selective antagonist GR113808 (100 nM), which itself caused a contraction of the tissues when administered alone. Fluoxetine (10 microM) also failed to prevent the relaxation due to exogenous 5-HT and the 5-HT4 receptor agonist 5-methoxytryptamine in tissues taken from the rats treated with para-chlorophenylalanine (300 mg kg-1) for 3 and 6 days, which reduced the 5-HT level in the mucosa by 88 and 97.5% respectively. The contraction of the tissues with GR113808 indicates the presence of an endogenous 5-HT tone at the 5-HT4 receptor in the rat ileum. It is hypothesized that in the presence of fluoxetine, the concentration of endogenous 5-HT at the receptor was increased sufficiently to reduce or abolish the relaxation to 5-HT added exogenously. The inability of fluoxetine to prevent the relaxation to 5-HT in the presence of GR113808 or after the p-CPA treatment supports this hypothesis.
British Journal of Pharmacology 06/2002; 136(1):150-6. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjp.0704694 · 4.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological evidence suggests that nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may retard the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we have chronically treated adult (4-5 months old) and aged (20+ months) rats with water adulterated with aspirin, and examined spatial learning in a swim maze. Adult rats (n=40) and aged rats (n=20) were divided into separate groups assigned to receive either normal drinking water or water with 2 mg/ml of aspirin dissolved in it. For 6 weeks, we monitored daily water and/or drug intake before testing all rats in a standard swim maze over an 8-day period. On average, each rat drank approximately 25 ml of water/day with no apparent control versus aspirin group differences. There was no effect of aspirin in young adult rats except during a visible platform trial where aspirin-treated rats performed better than controls. In contrast, aspirin markedly improved performance in the aged rats during hidden and visible platform trials. Such group differences abated by the eighth test day when all rats performed equally well. The improvements in performance were not correlated with changes in swim speeds indicating that the enhancement was not due to facilitated motor output. These data reveal that a modest, 6-week treatment regimen with aspirin in aged rats is sufficient to induce improvements in both speed of learning and strength of the learned response. We have yet to address the key question as to underlying physiological mechanism(s) that might underpin this augmented cognitive performance. Moreover, it would be useful to ascertain whether or not chronic NSAID treatment might reduce the extent of learning impairments in aged, cognitively impaired animals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In addition to their role in cellular metabolic activity, thyroid hormones (THs), also regulate neural development; the central nervous system is particularly dependent on TH for normal maturation and function. Specifically, there appears to be extensive inter-reliance between TH and acetylcholine (Ach), nerve growth factor and hippocampal function. These associations led us to investigate the possible effects of thyroxine (L-T4) on performance of a spatial learning task, where cholinergic activity and hippocampal function are known to be important. Groups of rats (n=20) received saline (controls) or L-T4 at 2.5 or 5mg/kg daily for 4 days as a sub-chronic treatment, or 0, 5 or 10mg/kg doses administered every third day for 28 days prior to testing as a chronic regimen. Rats were assessed in a water maze for their ability to find a submerged or visible platform. Forty minutes prior to water maze testing, half the animals in each group received 1mg/kg scopolamine to elicit a cognitive deficit. Following testing, rats were decapitated, blood samples taken, and the frontal cortex and hippocampus were dissected out for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) assay. The results showed that L-T4 treatment, administered both sub-chronically and chronically, significantly enhanced the ability of rats to learn a spatial memory task, compared with controls. Moreover, both short-term and long-term L-T4 treatment reduced the cognitive-impairing effects of scopolamine. Improvements in performance were shown to occur alongside significantly increased cholinergic activity in frontal cortex and in the hippocampus of treated animals. These findings demonstrate an augmentative effect of L-T4 upon cognitive function, possibly mediated by an enhancement of cholinergic activity. The results support previous findings of a relationship between L-T4 and acetylcholine, and underscore possible mechanisms by which disorders of thyroid function may be associated with cognitive decline.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some features of Parkinson's disease are exacerbated by stress and anxiety and it is important to understand the effects of dopamine receptor agonists on measures of anxiety. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist ropinirole in models of anxiety and depression in the rat, mouse and marmoset.
In the rat elevated plus-maze test, ropinirole (0.01-1 mg/kg, i.p.) produced an inverted-U dose-response curve in the percentage time spent in the open arms. Compared with vehicle, ropinirole (0.1 mg/kg) had a significant anxiolytic-like effect, which was similar to that observed with 1.5 mg/kg diazepam. This effect was found at doses that did not affect motor behaviour or induce stereotypy. In the mouse black and white box test of anxiety, ropinirole (0.1-10 mg/kg, i.p.) increased both the rearing time and number of line crosses in the white section. This effect reached statistical significance for both measures at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg and suggests an anxiolytic-like action of the compound. By contrast, the dopamine agonist bromocriptine (0.1-10 mg/kg, i.p.) did not produce significant changes in these behaviours. In the marmoset human threat test, ropinirole (0.01-10 microg/kg, s.c.) reduced the number of postures at all doses tested and this reached statistical significance at 10 microg/kg. Ropinirole did not compromise the effect of amitriptyline in the Porsolt test of depression and in itself produced antidepressant-like effects.
These data demonstrate that systemic administration of ropinirole produces anxiolytic-like effects in three separate models in the mouse, rat and marmoset. This may predict an action of ropinirole in man that would provide a superior profile of action over other presently available anti-parkinsonian agents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is becoming increasingly clear that environmental stimuli play a critical role in the maintenance of drug taking behaviour. This has led to investigations into the neural mechanisms by which environmental stimuli can come to control behaviour using paradigms such as conditioned reinforcement. The majority of this work has involved the use of food-paired conditioned stimulus rodent paradigms. Relatively few studies have attempted to investigate the neuropharmacology of behaviour maintained by presentation of a stimulus paired with ethanol drinking. Several lines of research support an important role for brain serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter systems in the control of alcohol drinking behaviour. The aim of the present study was, initially, to establish a procedure in which rats respond for an ethanol-paired conditioned stimulus, and second, to study the effects of a range of serotonergic compounds previously shown to be effective in reducing oral ethanol self-administration, on responding for this conditioned stimulus. Results showed that the 5-HT releaser d-fenfluramine, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2[di-n-propylamino]tetralin, the partial 5-HT1A receptor agonist buspirone, and the 5-HT1B/5-HT2C receptor agonist 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine, but not the 5-HT2A/5-HT2C receptor agonist 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenylaminopropane)-2, selectively reduced responding on a lever leading to presentation of an ethanol paired conditioned stimulus. In addition the non-specific D1/D2 dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol was active in this paradigm. Results are consistent with involvement of the dopaminergic and 5-HT systems, in particular activation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptor subtypes, in mediation of the conditioned or secondary reinforcing properties of ethanol.
Journal of Psychopharmacology 02/2000; 14(4):340-6. DOI:10.1177/026988110001400402 · 2.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous work has shown that dopaminergic systems are involved in cognitive function in the common marmoset. The present study investigated the role of dopamine D3 receptors in cognitive performance in the marmoset. The effects of the putative dopamine D3 receptor agonist, 7-OH-DPAT, on performance of a same-day reversal visual object discrimination task were assessed using a miniature Wisconsin General Test Apparatus (WGTA). Within the same test session marmosets acquired a two-choice object discrimination initial task and a reversal task to criterion. 7-OH-DPAT (6-10 microg/kg) significantly impaired reversal task performance only, without affecting acquisition of the initial task. A higher dose of 25 microg/kg 7-OH-DPAT impaired initial task acquisition as well as reversal task acquisition, possibly as a consequence of a nonspecific influence on motor function. The dopamine D2 receptor antagonist (-)sulpiride (5-10 microg/kg) and the alpha2-receptor antagonist yohimbine (50 microg/kg) failed to attenuate the effects of 7-OH-DPAT (6 microg/kg) in this task. In contrast, the dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonist raclopride (50 microg/kg) significantly attenuated the 7-OH-DPAT-induced impairment of reversal task performance. These results suggest that activation of dopamine D3 receptors produces a selective impairment of aspects of cognitive function in the marmoset.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hippocampal theta activity is a large amplitude, sinusoidal wave that occurs during attentive immobility and exploratory behaviour in the rat, and it is thought to be involved in memory formation. Recent reports suggest that corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) has pro-mnemonic effects in rodents. Because memory-enhancing substances/manipulations generally alter either theta frequencies or amplitudes, these variables were monitored in urethane-anaesthetised rats following intrahippocampal infusions of CRH. Adult male, Lister hooded rats were implanted with a hippocampal recording electrode and a guide cannula, both aimed at the dentate gyrus. When CRH was infused into the hippocampus, the main change in the hippocampal EEG was a slow onset increase in the amplitude of spontaneous theta and, paradoxically, a significant decrease in the amount of time spent displaying theta. These data suggest that CRH has the ability to modulate ongoing hippocampal theta, but, considering the slow effect, the involvement of hippocampal CRH receptors is suspect. Regardless of locus, the described electrophysiological changes suggest that hippocampal cholinergic systems may play a role in the memory-enhancing effects of CRH.
Brain Research Bulletin 05/1999; 48(6):603-7. DOI:10.1016/S0361-9230(99)00039-8 · 2.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dopamine (DA) systems are activated by stress, and this response has as a corollary the induction of stress-related behaviors such as anxiety. In mice, D2 receptor blockade produces an apparent anxiogenic effect, although locomotor impairments might have been present. We investigated the effects of D1 and D2 antagonists on a variety of anxiety-like behaviors induced by the black-white box in rats and carefully screened for any locomotor deficits. Adult male Lister hooded rats were injected with either the D1 antagonist SCH23390 (0. 0.1. or 0.25 mg/kg i.p.) or the D2 antagonist raclopride (0, 0.05, or 0.10 mg/kg i.p.) 20 min prior to being placed into the white chamber of the black-white box (n = 8-10/group). Rats were videotaped and the tapes were scored for latency to exit the white chamber, latency to reenter the white chamber, time spent in the white chamber, intercompartmental crossing, and locomotor activity. ANOVA revealed no effect of the D1 antagonist SCH23390 on any behavioral measure. However, the raclopride-treated rats left the white area sooner than control rats (p < 0.01). Raclopride-treated rats also exhibited delayed reentry times to the white chamber compared to control rats (p < 0.01) and spent significantly less time in the white chamber (p < 0.05). Neither SCH23390 nor raclopride affected locomotor activity in a manner that confounded these behaviors. These results confirm that D2 receptor blockade enhances anxiety in rats tested in the black-white box.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pharmacological manipulation leading to altered 5-HT function has been widely demonstrated to reduce ethanol intake in free choice tests. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a range of compounds known to influence 5-HT neurotransmission, including selective 5-HT receptor agonists and antagonists, on ethanol ingestion and maintained behaviour in an operant self-administration paradigm. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to respond for 8% ethanol (v/v) in a 60-min test by a previously described technique. The number of responses and ethanol reinforcers (dipper deliveries), ethanol consumption (g/kg of body weight), and locomotor activity (LMA) were measured following administration of 5-HT agonists (5-HT, d-fenfluramine, fluoxetine, buspirone, TFMPP, and DOI) and antagonists (metergoline, ritanserin, and ondansetron) 30 min prior to testing. d-Fenfluramine, fluoxetine, buspirone, TFMPP, and DOI all produced a reduction in ethanol ingestion and maintained behaviour at doses that failed to reduce LMA. Conversely, metergoline and ritanserin only reduced ethanol self-administration at doses that concomitantly reduced LMA. 5-HT and ondansetron were without effect on any measure. These results demonstrate that, under the present experimental conditions, activation of central 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT2 receptors reduced ethanol intake and reinforced behaviour in an operant paradigm.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, we reported that intrahippocampal cholinergic blockade increased corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) secretion induced by restraint stress. These data suggested to us that CORT may modify hippocampal cholinergic function as part of the negative-feedback control of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Hippocampal cholinergic theta is a rhythmic, sinusoidal waveform that occurs in alert, immobile rats presented with threatening stimuli and is reliably expressed in urethanized rats. We reasoned that if hippocampal cholinergic systems regulate HPA axis activity, perhaps CORT acts to modulate theta activity. In the present study we have examined the effects of blocking mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR) on theta activity in urethane-anesthetized rats. Adult male, Lister hooded rats (n=15) were anesthetized with urethane, and a theta recording electrode was positioned in the hippocampus adjacent to an infusion cannula. A bipolar stimulating electrode was placed in the dorsomedial posterior hypothalamus (DMPH) to activate theta. Baseline recordings of DMPH-stimulated activity (0.1-0.5 mA) were obtained. Rats were then administered either the MR antagonist spironolactone or the GR antagonist RU 38486 (150 ng), and DMPH-stimulated activities were monitored for 45 min. Changes in theta frequency (Hz) and amplitude (mV; energy at peak theta frequency) were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni t-tests. Neither drug affected hippocampal theta frequencies elicited by DMPH stimulation. However, GR blockade produced marked increases in theta amplitudes of approximately 100% above predrug levels. Alternatively, MR blockade produced exactly the opposite response, as amplitude values fell to approximately 50% of predrug levels. Hippocampal cholinergic theta activity is modulated by CORT acting through MR and GR, and the rapidity of the response suggests a nongenomic mechanism. These data raise the possibility that hippocampal cholinergic systems, and theta activity, are involved in CORT-mediated negative-feedback control of the HPA axis.
Brain Research Bulletin 05/1998; 45(6):631-5. DOI:10.1016/S0361-9230(97)00462-0 · 2.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postweaning social isolation can influence the sensitivity of rats to several effects of drugs of abuse. The present study investigated the influence of postweaning housing conditions on the sensitivity of rats to the aversive effects of a number of psychoactive agents using a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) test procedure. Development of a CTA was assessed by pairing administration of the drug with the consumption of a 0.05% (weight/volume) saccharin solution in water-deprived (18 h) rats in a 20 min drinking period. Saccharin consumption was then measured in 20 min test sessions over the next 4 consecutive days. Consumption of saccharin solution was significantly reduced in both isolated and enriched rats following administration of d-amphetamine (2 mg/kg), cocaine (30 mg/kg), morphine (10 mg/kg), nicotine (1.0 mg/kg), caffeine (20 mg/kg), alcohol (1.5 g/kg), and LiCl (0.15 M, 4 ml/kg). There was no significant effect of housing conditions on the CTA induced by cocaine, nicotine, alcohol, or LiCl; however, isolation-reared rats were found to be less sensitive to the aversive effects of d-amphetamine, morphine, and caffeine in this paradigm. These results suggest that rearing rats in social isolation induces an attenuation in sensitivity to the aversive effects of some psychoactive agents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hippocampal cholinergic projections mediate attention to arousing stimuli as demonstrated by behavioral, electrophysiological, and endocrine studies. We recently reported that peripheral injections of the cholinergic antagonist scopolamine (SCOP) increased anxiety-like behaviour (ALB) in rats and we sought to investigate if this response might be hippocampally mediated. Adult male, Lister Hooded rats were implanted bilaterally with hippocampal cannulae 3 weeks prior to testing. On the test day, rats were injected with vehicle (VEH; artificial CSF at 3 microl), 15 or 30 microg SCOP, 20 min prior to being placed into the white chamber of the black-white box (n = 10/group). Rats were scored for latencies to exit and reenter the white chamber, total time spent in the white chamber, intercompartmental crossings, and activity. SCOP at 30 microg significantly reduced time to exit the white arena, while both doses of SCOP elevated latencies to reenter the white chamber. There were no effects of SCOP on intercompartmental crossing, time spent in the white chamber, or on activity levels. Loss of hippocampal cholinergic function impairs processing of threatening stimuli that manifests itself as increased ALB.
Brain Research Bulletin 02/1998; 45(1):89-93. DOI:10.1016/S0361-9230(97)00311-0 · 2.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anxiolytic potential of the selective sigma2 ligand 1-[4-[1-(4-Fluorophenyl)-1H-indol-3-yl]-1-butyl]spiro[isobenzofuran-1(3H),4-piperidine] [corrected] (Lu 28-179) was assessed in various animal models of anxiety in rodents. Lu 28-179 facilitated the exploratory behavior of mice and rats in the black and white two-compartment box over a large dose range. In the rat, the minimal effective dose (MED) was 0.18 nmol/kg (0.1 microg/kg), and in the mouse, the MED was 0.00018 nmol/kg (0.1 ng/kg). The anxiolytic-like effect was maintained after treatment with 1 microg/kg/day for up to 14 days, and no anxiogenic-like effects were seen upon withdrawal from repeated treatment. Lu 28-179 increased the time that pairs of rats spent in active social interaction (unfamiliar high-light conditions), MED = 0.1 ng/kg. Daily treatment with Lu 28-179 (1.8 nmol/kg = 1 microg/kg/day) for up to 4 weeks increased the social interaction time significantly compared with controls, and no anxiogenic-like effects were seen upon withdrawal. Furthermore, Lu 28-179 reversed shock-induced suppression of drinking in the rat (MED = 18,000 nmol/kg = 10 mg/kg). Lu 28-179 did not inhibit footshock-induced ultrasonic vocalization in the rat or isolation-induced aggressive behavior in the mouse. Lu 28-179 was over 100 times more potent than diazepam in the rat and mouse black and white test box and the rat social interaction test, whereas the potency of Lu 28-179 was comparable to that of lorazepam in reversal of shock-induced suppression of drinking. Lu 28-179 neither induced sedation nor impaired motor coordination, even at high doses (70,000 nmol/kg = 40 mg/kg). In conclusion, Lu 28-179 exerts potent and long-lasting anxiolytic-like effects in rodents without inducing sedation and withdrawal anxiogenesis.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 01/1998; 283(3):1323-32. · 3.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. The ability of 5-HT2 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists to modify the disinhibitory profile of diazepam and other agents was investigated in male BKW mice in the light/dark test box. 2. The 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptor antagonists ritanserin, MDL11939 and RP62203 and also methysergide, which failed to modify mouse behaviour when administered alone, caused dose-related enhancements (4 to 8 fold) in the potency of diazepam to disinhibit behavioural responding to the aversive situation of the test box. 3. Ritanserin was shown to enhance the disinhibitory potency of other benzodiazepines, chlordiazepoxide (4 fold), temazepam (10 fold) and lorazepam (10 fold), the 5-HT1A receptor ligands, 8-OH-DPAT (25 fold), buspirone (100 fold) and lesopitron (500 fold), the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, ondansetron (100 fold) R(+)-zacopride (100 fold) and S(-)-zacopride (greater than a 1000 fold), the substituted benzamides, sulpiride (10 fold) and tiapride (5 to 10 fold) and the cholecystokinin (CCK)A receptor antagonist, devazepide (100 fold). It also reduced the onset of action of disinhibition following treatment with the 5-HT synthesis inhibitor parachlorophenylalanine. Ritanserin failed to enhance the disinhibitory effects of the CCKB receptor antagonist CI-988, the angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist losarten or the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor ceranapril. 4. The 5-HT4 receptor antagonists SDZ205-557, GR113808 and SB204070 caused dose-related reductions in the disinhibitory effect of diazepam, returning values to those shown in vehicle treated controls. The antagonists failed to modify mouse behaviour when administered alone. 5. GR113808 was also shown to cause a dose-related antagonism of the disinhibitory effects of chlordiazepoxide, lorazepam, 8-OH-DPAT, buspirone, lesopitron, ondansetron, R(+)-zacopride, sulpiride, tiapride, devazepide, CI-988, losarten, ceranapril and parachlorophenylalanine. 6. It was concluded that in BKW mice (a) the failure of 5-HT2 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists when administered alone to modify behaviour in the light/dark test indicates an absence of an endogenous 5-HT tone at the 5-HT2 and 5-HT4 receptors and (b) the enhancement by the 5-HT2 receptor antagonists and attenuation by the 5-HT4 receptor antagonists of drug-induced disinhibition indicates a plurality of 5-HT receptor involvement in the mediation of drug-induced disinhibitory profiles in the mouse.
British Journal of Pharmacology 12/1997; 122(6):1105-18. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjp.0701513 · 4.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The neurochemical consequences of aversive behavior based on novelty, rat social interaction, have been assessed in various rat brain regions utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an electrochemical detector (HPLC-ECD) technique. The present studies indicated that compared to animals from the home cage, those exposed to the high-light aversive unfamiliar test condition, had significantly increased levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), the metabolite of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), in the tested brain regions including amygdala, entorhinal cortex, frontal cortex, temporal cortex, tuberculum olfactorium, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, and striatum. The levels of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), the metabolites of dopamine (DA), were increased in tuberculum olfactorium, nucleus accumbens, and striatum. When compared to the low-light familiar test condition (LF), the levels, following exposure to the highlight unfamiliar situation, of 5-HIAA were significantly increased in the amygdala, entorhinal cortex, tuberculum olfactorium, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens, while the 5-HIAA levels remained unchanged in the frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and striatum. The DOPAC and HVA levels were also increased by the HU situation in the amygdala, tuberculum olfactorium, and nucleus accumbens. An increase was also found for the levels of DA in the amygdala. Such effects were prevented by diazepam or the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron. It is concluded that the aversive test condition of the social interaction test (HU) increases 5-HT and DA turnover throughout the rat brain. Such effects might be related to the sensitivity to novel anxiolytic drug of the social interaction test.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In general, the administration of dopamine (DA) antagonists has been shown to result in the attenuation of reward processes. Recently, however, it has been suggested that low doses of DA antagonists can enhance the incentive value of a primary reinforcer. The present study examined the effect of DA receptor antagonists on responding for a conditioned stimulus (CS) and compared their effects to that produced by d-amphetamine. For 12 days, food-deprived rats were trained to associate a CS with a food reward. In the test phase, the CS was presented following a response on one of two levers (CR), whereas responding on the other lever (NCR) had no consequence. Low doses of d-amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg), sulpiride (4 mg/kg), pimozide (0.025 mg/kg), and raclopride (0.05 mg/kg) selectively enhanced responding on CR. A low dose of haloperidol (0.01 mg/kg) led to a nonspecific increase in lever responding. Treatment with larger doses of these compounds as well as with the D1 antagonist SCH23390 attenuated responding on CR. Both CR and NCR responding were reduced following administration of higher doses of d-amphetamine. Results indicate that responding for a conditioned reinforcer is potentiated following administration of low doses of D2 receptor antagonists, suggesting that D2 receptor blockade can facilitate incentive motivation.