Valérie Cormier-Daire

Université Paris-Sorbonne - Paris IV, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (323)1651.9 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Hypochondroplasia (HCH) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by disproportionate short stature. The aims of the study are to evaluate efficacy and safety of recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH) therapy in HCH children, when compared with a historical cohort of untreated HCH children. Methods: Nineteen HCH patients with an initial height standard deviation score (SDS) ≤-2 and a mean age of 9.3 ± 3.1 years were treated with a mean r-hGH dose of 0.053 mg/kg/day over 3 years. Growth charts were derived from the historical cohort (n = 40). Results: Height gain in the treated population was +0.62 ± 0.81 SDS greater than in the general population, and +1.39 ± 0.9 SDS greater than in the historical untreated HCH cohort (mean gain of 7.4 ± 6.6 cm gain). A negative correlation between height gain and age at treatment initiation was reported (p = 0.04). There was no significant difference in response between patients with fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 mutations and those without. No treatment-related serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions: r-hGH treatment is well tolerated and effective in improving growth in HCH patients, particularly when started early. The treatment effect varies greatly and must be evaluated for each patient during treatment to determine the value of continued therapy. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Hormone Research in Paediatrics 10/2014; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Marshall-Smith syndrome (MSS) is a very rare malformation syndrome characterized by typical craniofacial anomalies, abnormal osseous maturation, developmental delay, failure to thrive, and respiratory difficulties. Mutations in the nuclear factor 1/X gene (NFIX) were recently identified as the cause of MSS. In our study cohort of 17 patients with a clinical diagnosis of MSS, conventional sequencing of NFIX revealed frameshift and splice-site mutations in 10 individuals. Using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis, we identified a recurrent deletion of NFIX exon 6 and 7 in five individuals. We demonstrate this recurrent deletion is the product of a recombination between AluY elements located in intron 5 and 7. Two other patients had smaller deletions affecting exon 6. These findings show that MSS is a genetically homogeneous Mendelian disorder. RT-PCR experiments with newly identified NFIX mutations including the recurrent exon 6 and 7 deletion confirmed previous findings indicating that MSS-associated mutant mRNAs are not cleared by nonsense mediated mRNA decay. Predicted MSS-associated mutant NFIX proteins consistently have a preserved DNA binding and dimerization domain, whereas they grossly vary in their C-terminal portion. This is in line with the hypothesis that MSS-associated mutations encode dysfunctional proteins that act in a dominant negative manner. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Human Mutation 06/2014; · 5.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Overgrowth conditions are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterised by increased growth and variable features, including macrocephaly, distinctive facial appearance and various degrees of learning difficulties and intellectual disability. Among them, Sotos and Weaver syndromes are clinically well defined and due to heterozygous mutations in NSD1 and EZH2, respectively. NSD1 and EZH2 are both histone-modifying enzymes. These two epigenetic writers catalyse two specific post-translational modifications of histones: methylation of histone 3 lysine 36 (H3K36) and lysine 27 (H3K27). We postulated that mutations in writers of these two chromatin marks could cause overgrowth conditions, resembling Sotos or Weaver syndromes, in patients with no NSD1 or EZH2 abnormalities.
    Journal of medical genetics. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Impairment of the tightly regulated ossification process leads to a wide range of skeletal dysplasias and deciphering their molecular bases has contributed to the understanding of this complex process. Here, we report a homozygous mutation in the mitochondria-associated granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor-signaling gene (MAGMAS) in a novel and severe spondylodysplastic dysplasia. MAGMAS, also referred to as PAM16 (presequence translocase-associated motor 16), is a mitochondria-associated protein involved in preprotein translocation into the matrix. We show that MAGMAS is specifically expressed in trabecular bone and cartilage at early developmental stages and that the mutation leads to an instability of the protein. We further demonstrate that the mutation described here confers to yeast strains a temperature-sensitive phenotype, impairs the import of mitochondrial matrix pre-proteins and induces cell death. The finding of deleterious MAGMAS mutations in an early lethal skeletal dysplasia supports a key role for this mitochondrial protein in the ossification process.
    PLoS Genetics 05/2014; 10(5):e1004311. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CUL7, OBSL1, and CCDC8 genes are mutated in a mutually exclusive manner in 3M and other growth retardation syndromes. The mechanism underlying the function of the three 3M genes in development is not known. We found that OBSL1 and CCDC8 form a complex with CUL7 and regulate the level and centrosomal localization of CUL7, respectively. CUL7 depletion results in altered microtubule dynamics, prometaphase arrest, tetraploidy, and mitotic cell death. These defects are recaptured in CUL7 mutated 3M cells and can be rescued by wild-type, but not by 3M patient-derived CUL7 mutants. Depletion of either OBSL1 or CCDC8 results in defects and sensitizes cells to microtubule damage similarly to loss of CUL7 function. Microtubule damage reduces the level of CCDC8 that is required for the centrosomal localization of CUL7. We propose that CUL7, OBSL1, and CCDC8 proteins form a 3M complex that functions in maintaining microtubule and genome integrity and normal development.
    Molecular cell 04/2014; · 14.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: First described as a variant of Larsen syndrome in Reunion Island (LRS) in the southern Indian Ocean, 'Larsen of Reunion Island syndrome' is characterized by dwarfism, hyperlaxity, multiple dislocations and distinctive facial features. It overlaps with Desbuquois dysplasia, Larsen syndrome and spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with dislocations ascribed to CANT1, FLNB and CHST3 mutations, respectively. We collected the samples of 22 LRS cases. After exclusion of CANT1, FLNB and CHST3 genes, an exome sequencing was performed in two affected second cousins and one unaffected sister. We identified a homozygous missense mutation in B4GALT7, NM_007255.2: c.808C>T p.(Arg270Cys) named p.R270C, in the two affected cases, not present in the unaffected sister. The same homozygous mutation was subsequently identified in the remaining 20 LRS cases. Our findings demonstrate that B4GALT7 is the causative gene for LRS. The identification of a unique homozygous mutation argues in favor of a founder effect. B4GALT7 encodes a galactosyltransferase, required for the initiation of glycoaminoglycan side chain synthesis of proteoglycans. This study expands the phenotypic spectrum of B4GALT7 mutations, initially described as responsible for the progeroid variant of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. It further supports a common physiopathological basis involving proteoglycan synthesis in skeletal disorders with dislocations.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 23 April 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.60.
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 04/2014; · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The phenotypic spectrum of GLI3 mutations includes autosomal dominant Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS) and Pallister-Hall syndrome (PHS). PHS was first described as a lethal condition associating hypothalamic hamartoma, postaxial or central polydactyly, anal atresia and bifid epiglottis. Typical GCPS combines polysyndactyly of hands and feet and craniofacial features. Genotype-phenotype correlations have been found both for the location and the nature of GLI3 mutations, highlighting the bifunctional nature of GLI3 during development. Here we report on the molecular and clinical study of 76 cases from 55 families with either a GLI3 mutation (49 GCPS and 21 PHS), or a large deletion encompassing the GLI3 gene (6 GCPS cases). Most of mutations are novel and consistent with the previously reported genotype-phenotype correlation. Our results also show a correlation between the location of the mutation and abnormal corpus callosum observed in some patients with GCPS. Fetal PHS observations emphasize on the possible lethality of GLI3 mutations and extend the phenotypic spectrum of malformations such as agnathia and reductional limbs defects. GLI3 expression studied by in situ hybridization during human development confirms its early expression in target tissues.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 16 April 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.62.
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 04/2014; · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of severe primary insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) deficiency (IGFD) is unclear. IGFD must be identified promptly as treatment with recombinant human IGF-1 (rhIGF1) is now available. Our objective was to characterize and assess the prevalence of severe primary IGFD in a large cohort of patients evaluated for short stature at a pediatric endocrinology unit in France. Observational study in a prospective cohort. Consecutive patients referred to our unit between 2004 and 2009 for suspected slow statural growth were included. Patients were classified into eight etiological categories. IGFD was defined by height ≤-3 standard deviation score (SD), serum IGF-1 levels< 2.5th percentile, GH sufficiency, and absence of causes of secondary IGFD. Of 2546 included patients, 337 (13.5%) were born small-for-gestational-age and 424 (16.9%) had idiopathic short stature. In these two categories, we identified 30 patients who met our criterion for IGFD (30/2546, 1.2%). In these 30 patients, we assessed the IGF-1 generation test response, time-course of IGF-1 levels, and efficiency of growth hormone replacement therapy. The results indicated that only 4 of the 30 children were definite or possible candidates for rhIGF1 replacement therapy. The prevalence of severe primary IGFD defined using the standard criterion for rhIGF-I treatment was 1.2%, and only 0.2% of patients were eligible for rhIGF1 therapy.
    European Journal of Endocrinology 03/2014; · 3.14 Impact Factor
  • Carine Le Goff, Caroline Michot, Valérie Cormier-Daire
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    ABSTRACT: Myhre syndrome (MS) is a developmental disorder characterized by typical facial dysmorphism, thickened skin, joint limitation and muscular pseudohypertrophy. Other features include brachydactyly, short stature, intellectual deficiency with behavioral problems and deafness. We identified SMAD4 as the gene responsible for MS. The identification of SMAD4 mutations in Laryngotracheal stenosis, Arthropathy, Prognathism and Short stature (LAPS) cases supports that LAPS and MS are a unique entity. The long term follow up of patients shows that these conditions are progressive with life threatening complications. All mutations are de novo and changing in the majority of cases Ile500, located in the MH2 domain involved in transcriptional activation. We further demonstrated an impairment of the transcriptional regulation via TGFβ target genes in patient fibroblasts. Finally the absence of SMAD4 mutations in 3 MS cases may support genetic heterogeneity.
    Clinical Genetics 03/2014; · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Desbuquois dysplasia (DBQD) is a severe condition characterized by short stature, joint laxity, and advanced carpal ossification. Based on the presence of additional hand anomalies, we have previously distinguished DBQD type 1 and identified CANT1 (calcium activated nucleotidase 1) mutations as responsible for DBQD type 1. We report here the identification of five distinct homozygous xylosyltransferase 1 (XYLT1) mutations in seven DBQD type 2 subjects from six consanguineous families. Among the five mutations, four were expected to result in loss of function and a drastic reduction of XYLT1 cDNA level was demonstrated in two cultured individual fibroblasts. Because xylosyltransferase 1 (XT-I) catalyzes the very first step in proteoglycan (PG) biosynthesis, we further demonstrated in the two individual fibroblasts a significant reduction of cellular PG content. Our findings of XYLT1 mutations in DBQD type 2 further support a common physiological basis involving PG synthesis in the multiple dislocation group of disorders. This observation sheds light on the key role of the XT-I during the ossification process.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 02/2014; · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the prevalence of skeletal dysplasias (SD) in patients with idiopathic short stature (ISS) or small-for-gestational-age (SGA) status. Rare Endocrine/Growth Diseases Center in Paris, France. Prospective study on consecutive patients ISS and SGA enrolled prospectively from 2004 to 2009. We used a standardized workup to classify patients into well-established diagnostic categories. Of 713 patients with idiopathic short stature (ISS, n=417) or SGA status (n=296), 50.9% underwent a skeletal survey. We chose as a comparison group patients labeled normal or with a prepubertal slowdown of growth. Diagnosis were ISS (16.9%), SGA (13.5%), normal growth (24.5%), transient growth rate slowing (17.3%), endocrine dysfunction (12%), genetic syndrome (8.9%), chronic disease (5.1%), and known SD (1.8%). SD was found in 20.9% of SGA and 21.8% ISS patients, and in only 13.2% in our comparison group. SD prevalence was significantly higher in ISS than in the comparison group, especially (50%) for patients having at least one parent whose height was <-2 SDS. Dyschondrosteosis and hypochondroplasia were the most frequently identified SD, and genetic anomaly was found in 61.5% and 30% respectively. Subtle SD was found equally in the 3 groups and require long-term growth follow-up to evaluate the impact on final height. SD may explain more than 20% of cases of growth retardation ascribed to ISS or SGA, and this proportion is higher when parental height is <-2 SDS. A skeletal survey should be obtained in patients with delayed growth in a context of ISS or SGA.
    European Journal of Endocrinology 02/2014; · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three overlapping conditions, namely Rothmund-Thomson (RTS), Baller-Gerold (BGS) and RAPADILINO syndromes, have been attributed to RECQL4 mutations. Differential diagnoses depend on the clinical presentation, but the number of known genes remains low, leading to the widespread prescription of RECQL4 sequencing. The aim of our study was therefore to determine the best clinical indicators for the presence of RECQL4 mutations in a series of 39 patients referred for RECQL4 molecular analysis and belonging to the RTS (27 cases) and BGS (12 cases) spectrum. One or two deleterious RECQL4 mutations were found in 10/27 patients referred for RTS diagnosis. Clinical and molecular reevaluation led to a different diagnosis in 7/17 negative cases, including Clericuzio-type Poikiloderma with Neutropenia, hereditary sclerosing poikiloderma, and Craniosynostosis/anal anomalies/porokeratosis. No RECQL4 mutations were found in the BGS group without poikiloderma, confirming that RECQL4 sequencing was not indicated in this phenotype. One chromosomal abnormality and one TWIST mutation was found in this cohort. This study highlights the search for differential diagnoses before the prescription of RECQL4 sequencing in this clinically heterogeneous group. The combination of clinically-defined subgroups and next-generation sequencing will hopefully bring to light new molecular bases of syndromes with poikiloderma, as well as BGS without poikiloderma.
    Clinical Genetics 02/2014; · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on a consanguineous Lebanese family in which two sibs had pre- and post-natal growth retardation, developmental delay, large anterior fontanel, prominent forehead, low-set ears, depressed nasal bridge, short nose, anteverted nares, increased nasal width, prominent abdomen, and short limbs. Radiographs disclosed the presence of wormian bones, platyspondyly, decreased interpedicular distance at the lumbar vertebrae, square iliac bones, horizontal acetabula, trident acetabula, hypoplastic ischia, partial agenesis of the sacrum, ribs with cupped ends, short long bones with abnormal modeling, slight widening of the distal femoral metaphyses, and delayed epiphyseal ossification. Both sibs had a severe cardiomegaly and died at around 24 months from a heart failure. Differential diagnosis suggests that this is a second family presenting a newly described early lethal chondrodysplasia first reported by [Mégarbané et al. (2008); Am J Med Genet Part A 146A:2916-2919]. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 01/2014; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myhre syndrome is characterized by short stature, brachydactyly, facial features, pseudomuscular hypertrophy, joint limitation and hearing loss. We identified SMAD4 mutations as the cause of Myhre syndrome. SMAD4 mutations have also been identified in laryngotracheal stenosis, arthropathy, prognathism and short stature syndrome (LAPS). This study aimed to review the features of Myhre and LAPS patients to define the clinical spectrum of SMAD4 mutations. We included 17 females and 15 males ranging in age from 8 to 48 years. Thirty were diagnosed with Myhre syndrome and two with LAPS. SMAD4 coding sequence was analyzed by Sanger sequencing. Clinical and radiological features were collected from a questionnaire completed by the referring physicians. All patients displayed a typical facial gestalt, thickened skin, joint limitation and muscular pseudohypertrophy. Growth retardation was common (68.7%) and was variable in severity (from -5.5 to -2 SD), as was mild-to-moderate intellectual deficiency (87.5%) with additional behavioral problems in 56.2% of the patients. Significant health concerns like obesity, arterial hypertension, bronchopulmonary insufficiency, laryngotracheal stenosis, pericarditis and early death occurred in four. Twenty-nine patients had a de novo heterozygous SMAD4 mutation, including both patients with LAPS. In 27 cases mutation affected Ile500 and in two cases Arg496. The three patients without SMAD4 mutations had typical findings of Myhre syndrome. Myhre-LAPS syndrome is a clinically homogenous condition with life threatening complications in the course of the disease. Our identification of SMAD4 mutations in 29/32 cases confirms that SMAD4 is the major gene responsible for Myhre syndrome.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 15 January 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.288.
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 01/2014; · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The natural history of CVJ stenosis in achondroplastic children is only partially known. Achondroplastic children have a foramen magnum that is significatively smaller at birth, and it does not follow the normal growth during the first 18 months of life, leading to CVJ stenosis and, for the most severe of them, to neurological and developmental impairment and delay and even sudden death due to cervicomedullary narrowing. We reviewed our experience based on 37 patients operated for cervicomedullary decompression between 1970 and 2010 and performed a literature review. The indication for surgery should be taken on very strict clinical and radiological parameters as well as sleep studies. Under those criteria, surgical decompression of CVJ leads to neurological and developmental improvement, despite non-negligible mortality and morbidity.
    Advances and technical standards in neurosurgery 01/2014; 40:295-312.
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    ABSTRACT: Dysspondyloenchondromatosis is a rare form of generalized enchondromatosis associated with spinal involvement. This skeletal dysplasia is characterized by multiple enchondromas present in vertebrae as well as in metaphyseal and diaphyseal parts of the long tubular bones, post-natal short stature, and early development of kyphoscoliosis. A novel heterozygous missense mutation in COL2A1 was recently identified in a patient with dysspondyloenchondromatosis. This suggests that dysspondyloenchondromatosis might expand the already broad spectrum of type II collagenopathies. Here, we report on a young girl with features of dysspondyloenchondromatosis, specifically short stature, thoracoscoliosis, and generalized enchondromas lesions. Sanger sequencing failed to detect a mutation in COL2A1. We therefore suggest that dysspondyloenchondromatosis is a genetically heterogeneous condition. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 12/2013; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acromicric dysplasia (AD) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by short stature, short extremities, stiff joint and skeleton features including brachymetacarpia, cone-shaped epiphyses, internal notch of the femoral head, and delayed bone age. Recently, we identified fibrillin 1 (FBN1) as the disease gene of AD. The aim of our study was to further describe the long-term follow up of AD patients with an emphasis on orthopedic management. Nine patients with FBN1 mutations were included in the study ranging in age from 5.5 to 64 years. For all, detailed clinical and radiological data were available. Results: Birth parameters were always normal and patients progressively developed short stature <-3 SD. Carpal tunnel syndrome was observed in four patients. We found discrepancy between the carpal bone age and the radius and ulna epiphysis bone ages, a variable severity of hip dysplasia with acetabular dysplasia, epiphyseal and metaphyseal femoral dysplasia resembling Legg-Perthes-Calvé disease and variable pelvic anteversion and hyperlordosis. Orthopedic surgery was required in two patients for hip dysplasia, in one for limb lengthening and in three for carpal tunnel syndrome. Our observations expand the AD phenotype and emphasize the importance of regular orthopedic survey. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 12/2013; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Weaver syndrome, first described in 1974, is characterized by tall stature, a typical facial appearance, and variable intellectual disability. In 2011, mutations in the histone methyltransferase, EZH2, were shown to cause Weaver syndrome. To date, we have identified 48 individuals with EZH2 mutations. The mutations were primarily missense mutations occurring throughout the gene, with some clustering in the SET domain (12/48). Truncating mutations were uncommon (4/48) and only identified in the final exon, after the SET domain. Through analyses of clinical data and facial photographs of EZH2 mutation-positive individuals, we have shown that the facial features can be subtle and the clinical diagnosis of Weaver syndrome is thus challenging, especially in older individuals. However, tall stature is very common, reported in >90% of affected individuals. Intellectual disability is also common, present in ∼80%, but is highly variable and frequently mild. Additional clinical features which may help in stratifying individuals to EZH2 mutation testing include camptodactyly, soft, doughy skin, umbilical hernia, and a low, hoarse cry. Considerable phenotypic overlap between Sotos and Weaver syndromes is also evident. The identification of an EZH2 mutation can therefore provide an objective means of confirming a subtle presentation of Weaver syndrome and/or distinguishing Weaver and Sotos syndromes. As mutation testing becomes increasingly accessible and larger numbers of EZH2 mutation-positive individuals are identified, knowledge of the clinical spectrum and prognostic implications of EZH2 mutations should improve.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 12/2013; 161(12):2972-80. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Congenital poikiloderma is characterized by a combination of mottled pigmentation, telangiectasia, and epidermal atrophy in the first few months of life. We have previously described a South African European-descent family affected by a rare autosomal-dominant form of hereditary fibrosing poikiloderma accompanied by tendon contracture, myopathy, and pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we report the identification of causative mutations in FAM111B by whole-exome sequencing. In total, three FAM111B missense mutations were identified in five kindreds of different ethnic backgrounds. The mutation segregated with the disease in one large pedigree, and mutations were de novo in two other pedigrees. All three mutations were absent from public databases and were not observed on Sanger sequencing of 388 ethnically matched control subjects. The three single-nucleotide mutations code for amino acid changes that are clustered within a putative trypsin-like cysteine/serine peptidase domain of FAM111B. These findings provide evidence of the involvement of FAM111B in congenital poikiloderma and multisystem fibrosis.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 11/2013; · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Geleophysic dysplasia (GD) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by acromelic dysplasia. Mutations in ADAMTSL2 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin repeats-like 2) and fibrillin 1 (FBN1) have been recently identified in the autosomal recessive and dominant forms. Here, we present the clinical and histopathologic findings in a child with GD with newly identified ADAMTSL2 mutations. The first mutation was probably a pathogenic one c.[1934G>A] p.[Arg645His] located in exon 13, the second, in intron 8, probably changing a splice site. Even though the light and electron microscopic findings were similar to the previously described, hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis might be a new associated finding in these patients. This child with these 2 novel mutations also had an aggressive clinical course with early onset progressive cardiac valvular disease.
    Pediatric and Developmental Pathology 11/2013; · 0.86 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7k Citations
1,651.90 Total Impact Points


  • 2012–2014
    • Université Paris-Sorbonne - Paris IV
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • University Medical Center Utrecht
      • Division Biomedical Genetics
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands
    • Eli Lilly
      • Medical Department
      Indianapolis, IN, United States
  • 2011–2014
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      • Laboratoire de Génétique, Reproduction et Développement GRED U1103
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille
      Lille, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France
  • 2008–2014
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 2005–2014
    • Université René Descartes - Paris 5
      • • Faculté de Médecine
      • • Faculté de Médecine
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2013
    • University of Burgundy
      Dijon, Bourgogne, France
  • 2003–2013
    • Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2009–2012
    • Université Paris Descartes
      • Faculté de Médecine
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • American Hospital of Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • University of Campinas
      Conceição de Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2010–2011
    • Assaf Harofeh Medical Center
      Ayun Kara, Central District, Israel
    • Ghent University
      • Center for Medical Genetics
      Gent, VLG, Belgium
  • 2001–2008
    • Hôpital Universitaire Necker
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Saint Joseph University, Lebanon
      • Faculty of Dentistry
      Beyrouth, Beyrouth, Lebanon
    • University of Melbourne
      • Department of Paediatrics
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    • Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
      • Cedars Sinai Medical Center
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 2006
    • Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
    • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Rennes
      Roazhon, Brittany, France
    • Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin
      • Institute of Medical Genetics and Human Genetics
      Berlin, Land Berlin, Germany
  • 2000
    • Hôpital Saint-Vincent-de-Paul – Hôpitaux universitaires Paris Centre
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Hôpital Bichat - Claude-Bernard (Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris Nord Val de Seine)
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France