F Mondon

Institut Cochin, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (63)228.86 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Preeclampsia (PE) is a common human-specific pregnancy disorder defined by hypertension and proteinuria during gestation and responsible for maternal and fetal morbimortality. STOX1, encoding a transcription factor, was the first gene associated with PE as identified by positional cloning approaches. Its overexpression in choriocarcinoma cells mimics the transcriptional consequences of PE in the human placenta. Here, we created transgenic mouse strains overexpressing human STOX1. Wild-type female mice crossed with transgenic male mice reproduce accurately the symptoms of severe PE: gestational hypertension, proteinuria, and elevated plasma levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and soluble endoglin. Placental and kidney histology were altered. Symptoms were prevented or alleviated by aspirin treatment. STOX1-overexpressing mice constitute a unique model for studying PE, allow testing therapeutic approaches, and assessing the long-term effects of the preeclamptic syndrome.
    Hypertension 01/2013; · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genomic imprinting characterizes genes with a monoallelic expression, which is dependent on the parental origin of each allele. Approximately 150 imprinted genes are known to date, in humans and mice but, though computational searches have tried to extract intrinsic characteristics of these genes to identify new ones, the existing list is probably far from being comprehensive. We used a high-throughput strategy by diverting the classical use of genotyping microarrays to compare the genotypes of mRNA/cDNA vs. genomic DNA to identify new genes presenting monoallelic expression, starting from human placental material. After filtering of data, we obtained a list of 1,082 putative candidate monoallelic SNPs located in more than one hundred candidate genes. Among these, we found known imprinted genes, such as IPW, GRB10, INPP5F and ZNF597, which contribute to validate the approach. We also explored some likely candidates of our list and identified seven new imprinted genes, including ZFAT, ZFAT-AS1, GLIS3, NTM, MAGI2, ZC3H12Cand LIN28B, four of which encode zinc finger transcription factors. They are, however, not imprinted in the mouse placenta, except for Magi2. We analyzed in more details the ZFAT gene, which is paternally expressed in the placenta (as ZFAT-AS1, a non-coding antisense RNA) but biallelic in other tissues. The ZFAT protein is expressed in endothelial cells, as well as in syncytiotrophoblasts. The expression of this gene is, moreover, downregulated in placentas from complicated pregnancies. With this work we increase by about 10% the number of known imprinted genes in humans.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 09/2012; 7(9):1079-90. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: SERPINA3 (Serpin peptidase inhibitor clade A member 3), also known as a1-antichymotrypsin, is a serine protease inhibitor involved in a wide range of biological processes. Recently, it has been shown to be up-regulated in human placental diseases in association with a hypomethylation of the 5' region of the gene. In the present study, we show that the promoter of SERPINA3 is transcriptionally activated by three transcription factors (TFs) (SP1, MZF1 and ZBTB7B), the level of induction being dependent on the rs1884082 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located inside the promoter, the T allele being consistently induced to a higher level than the G, with or without added TFs. When the promoter was methylated, the response to ZBTB7B was allele specific (the G allele was strongly induced, while the T allele was strongly down-regulated). We propose an adaptive model to explain the interest of such a regulation for placental function and homeostasis. Overexpression of SERPINA3 in JEG-3 cells, a trophoblast cell model, decreased cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix and to neighboring cells, but protects them from apoptosis, suggesting a way by which this factor could be deleterious at high doses. In addition, we show in different human populations that the T allele appears to predispose to Intra Uterine Growth Restriction (IUGR), while a G allele at a second SNP located in the second exon (rs4634) increases the risk of preeclampsia. Our results provide mechanistic views inside the involvement of SERPINA3 in placental diseases, through its regulation by a combination of epigenetic, genetic and TF-mediated regulations.
    Human Molecular Genetics 01/2012; 21(9):1968-78. · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is defined as the loss of three or more consecutive pregnancies during the first trimester of embryonic intrauterine development. This kind of human infertility is frequent among the general population since it affects 1 to 5% of women. In half of the cases the etiology remains unelucidated. In the present study, we used interspecific recombinant congenic mouse strains (IRCS) in the aim to identify genes responsible for embryonic lethality. Applying a cartographic approach using a genotype/phenotype association, we identified a minimal QTL region, of about 6 Mb on chromosome 1, responsible for a high rate of embryonic death (∼30%). Genetic analysis suggests that the observed phenotype is linked to uterine dysfunction. Transcriptomic analysis of the uterine tissue revealed a preferential deregulation of genes of this region compared to the rest of the genome. Some genes from the QTL region are associated with VEGF signaling, mTOR signaling and ubiquitine/proteasome-protein degradation pathways. This work may contribute to elucidate the molecular basis of a multifactorial and complex human disorder as RSA.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e43356. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Preeclampsia (PE) and vascular intra-uterine growth restriction (vIUGR) are two pathological obstetrical conditions originating from placental dysfunction. Recently, methylation changes at the placental level have been shown to be indicative of these diseases. The alteration of such epigenetic marks is therefore a novel pathway that might be critical for these pathologies. Here, we identified a region located in the distal promoter of the T-box-containing transcription factor TBX15 that is differentially methylated in pathological placentas. The level of methylation correlated significantly with the weight and stature of the newborn. The promoter was found to be hypomethylated in vIUGR coinciding with the down-regulation of its expression. PDX1, a transcription factor important for the regulation of insulin metabolism regulation was able to repress the TBX15 promoter in a methylation-dependent manner, which might, at least partially, explain the specific mRNA decrease of TBX15 observed in vIUGR placentas. Overall, the data presented herein suggest that TBX15 might be involved in the pathophysiology of placental diseases.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 02/2011; 6(2):247-55. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A low-protein diet applied during pregnancy in the rat results in intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) fetuses. In humans, IUGR is associated with increased perinatal morbidity, higher incidence of neuro-developmental defects and increased risk of adult metabolic anomalies, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Development and function of many organs are affected by environmental conditions such as those inducing fetal and early postnatal growth restriction. This phenomenon, termed "fetal programming" has been studied unconnectedly in some organs, but very few studies (if any) have investigated at the same time several organs, on a more comparative basis. However, it is quite probable that IUGR affects differentially most organ systems, with possible persistent changes in gene expression. In this study we address transcriptional alterations induced by IUGR in a multi-organ perspective, by systematic analysis of 20-days rat fetuses. We show that (1) expressional alterations are apparently stronger in organs functioning late in foetal or postnatal life than in organs that are functioning early (2) hierarchical classification of the deregulations put together kidney and placenta in one cluster, liver, lungs and heart in another; (3) the epigenetic machinery is set up especially in the placenta, while its alterations are rather mild in other organs; (4) the genes appear deregulated in chromosome clusters; (5) the altered expression cascades varies from organ to organ, with noticeably a very significant modification of the complement and coagulation cascades in the kidney; (6) we found a significant increase in TF binding site for HNF4 proteins specifically for liver genes that are down-regulated in IUGR, suggesting that this decrease is achieved through the action of HNF transcription factors, that are themselves transcriptionnally induced in the liver by IUGR (x 1.84 fold). Altogether, our study suggests that a combination of tissue-specific mechanisms contributes to bring about tissue-driven modifications of gene cascades. The question of these cascades being activated to adapt the organ to harsh environmental condition, or as an endpoint consequence is still raised.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(6):e21222. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology - J MINIM INVASIVE GYNECOL. 01/2011; 18(6).
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    ABSTRACT: Several lines of evidence indicate that endometriosis could be partially due to selective epigenetic deregulations. Promoter hypermethylation of some key genes, such as progesterone receptor and aromatase, has been associated with the silencing of these genes and might contribute to the disease. However, it is unknown whether global alterations in DNA methylation patterns occur in endometriosis and to what extent they are involved in its pathogenesis. We conducted a whole-genome scanning of methylation status in more than 25,000 promoters, using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation with hybridization to promoter microarrays. We detailed the methylation profiles for each subtype of the disease (superficial endometriosis, endometriomas, and deep infiltrating endometriosis) and compared them with the profile obtained for the eutopic endometrium. In line with the current theory of the endometrial origin of endometriosis, the overall methylation profile was highly similar between the endometrium and the lesions. It showed promoter regions consistently hypomethylated or hypermethylated (more than 1.5-times, as compared with endometrium) and others specific to one given subtype. Albeit there was no systematic correlation between promoter methylation and expression of nearby genes, 35 genes had both methylation and expressional alterations in the lesions. These genes, reported here for the first time, might be of interest in the development of endometriosis. In addition, hypermethylated regions were located at the ends of the chromosomes, whereas hypomethylated regions were randomly distributed all along the chromosomes. We postulated that this original observation might participate to the chromosomal stability and protect the endometriotic lesion against malignancy.
    Molecular Endocrinology 09/2010; 24(9):1872-85. · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genomic imprinting regulates the expression of a group of genes monoallelically expressed in a parent-of-origin specific manner. Allele-specific DNA methylation occurs at differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of these genes. We have previously shown that in vitro fertilization and embryo culture result in methylation defects at the imprinted H19-Igf2 locus at the blastocyst stage. The current study was designed to evaluate the consequences of these manipulations on genomic imprinting after implantation in the mouse. Blastocysts were produced following three experimental conditions: (i) embryos maintained in culture medium after in vivo fertilization or (ii) in vitro fertilization and (iii) a control group with embryos obtained after in vivo fertilization and timed mating. Blastocysts were all transplanted into pseudopregnant females. Embryos and placentas were collected on day 10.5 of development. DNA methylation patterns of the H19, Igf2, Igf2r and Dlk1-Dio3 DMRs were analyzed by quantitative pyrosequencing. In contrast to blastocyst stage, methylation profiles were normal both in embryonic and placental tissues after in vitro fertilization and culture. Expression of a selected set of imprinting genes from the recently described imprinted gene network (IGN) (including Igf2 and H19) was analyzed in placental tissues by quantitative RT-PCR. Placentas obtained after in vitro fertilization and embryo culture displayed significantly disturbed levels of H19 and Igf2 mRNA, as well as of most other genes from the IGN. As embryos were phenotypically normal, we hypothesize that the modulation of a coordinated network of imprinted genes results in a compensatory process capable of correcting potential dysfunction of placenta.
    Human Molecular Genetics 02/2010; 19(9):1779-90. · 7.69 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology - J MINIM INVASIVE GYNECOL. 01/2010; 17(6).
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To evaluate the expression of five members of the neurotrophins family in ovarian endometriotic cyst (endometrioma) (OMA), compared to eutopic endometrium (EE) and to examine the correlation between the levels of induction and the pain intensity.
    Gynecologie Obstetrique & Fertilite - GYNECOL OBSTET FERTIL. 01/2010; 38(7):442-446.
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    ABSTRACT: Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) are increasingly used in humans; however, their impact is now questioned. At blastocyst stage, the trophectoderm is directly in contact with an artificial medium environment, which can impact placental development. This study was designed to carry out an in-depth analysis of the placental transcriptome after ART in mice. Blastocysts were transferred either (1) after in vivo fertilization and development (control group) or (2) after in vitro fertilization and embryo culture. Placentas were then analyzed at E10.5. Six percent of transcripts were altered at the two-fold threshold in placentas of manipulated embryos, 2/3 of transcripts being down-regulated. Strikingly, the X-chromosome harbors 11% of altered genes, 2/3 being induced. Imprinted genes were modified similarly to the X. Promoter composition analysis indicates that FOXA transcription factors may be involved in the transcriptional deregulations. For the first time, our study shows that in vitro fertilization associated with embryo culture strongly modify the placental expression profile, long after embryo manipulations, meaning that the stress of artificial environment is memorized after implantation. Expression of X and imprinted genes is also greatly modulated probably to adapt to adverse conditions. Our results highlight the importance of studying human placentas from ART.
    PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(2):e9218. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/mnut/2009451025. 01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) is defined by a restriction of fetal growth during gestation. It is a prevalent significant public health problem that jeopardizes neonatal health but also that can have deleterious consequences later in adult life. Cullins constitute a family of seven proteins involved in cell scaffold and in selective proteolysis via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Most Cullins are critical for early embryonic development and mutations in some Cullin genes have been identified in human syndromes including growth retardation. Our work hypothesis is that Cullins, particularly CUL4B and CUL7, are involved in placental diseases and especially in IUGR. Thus, expression of Cullins and their cofactors was analyzed in normal and pathological placentas. We show that they present a constant significant over-expression in IUGR placentas, whose extent is dependent on the position of the interrogated fragment along the cDNAs, suggesting the existence of different isoforms of the genes. Particularly, the CUL7 gene is up-regulated up to 10 times in IUGR and 15 times in preeclampsia associated with IUGR. The expression of cofactors of Cullins participating to functional complexes has also been evaluated and showed a similar significant increase in IUGR. Promoters of Cullin genes appeared to be under the control of the SP1 transcription factor. Finally, methylation levels of the CUL7 promoter in placental tissues are modulated according to the pathological conditions, with a significant hypomethylation in IUGR. These results concur to pinpoint the Cullin family as a new set of markers of IUGR.
    Placenta 12/2009; 31(2):151-7. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the expression of five members of the neurotrophins family in ovarian endometriotic cyst (endometrioma) (OMA), compared to eutopic endometrium (EE) and to examine the correlation between the levels of induction and the pain intensity. Twelve Caucasian women in luteal phase, operated for painful stage IV endometriosis were assigned to 2 groups according to a total Visual Analog Scale (tVAS) score above 15 or below 10. tVAS takes into account all VAS scores for dysmenorrhea, deep dyspareunia, non cyclic chronic pelvic pain, gastrointestinal and lower urinary symptoms. Samples of OMA and EE were processed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for NGF, BDNF, NT-3, NT-4/5 and NTRK2 mRNA expression. Expression levels in OMA were compared to those in EE on one hand and between two groups of 6 mild painful and 6 highly painful patients on the other. All neurotrophins were significantly higher expressed in OMA than in EE, in particular NGF and BDNF (induction ratios: 20.6 and 9.7, respectively). In contrast, no correlation was observed between induction ratios and pain intensity. This is the first study reporting an over-expression of all neurotrophins in endometriosis, as only NGF was previously documented. It confirms the central role of this family in the genesis and modulation of pain in endometriosis. Anti-neurotrophin selective therapy might be a promising way of analgesia in the future.
    Gynécologie Obstétrique & Fertilité 11/2009; 38(7-8):442-6. · 0.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The reproductive consequences and mechanisms of action of chronic exposure to low-dose endocrine disruptors are poorly understood. We assessed the effects of a continuous, low-dose exposure to a phytoestrogen (genistein) and/or an antiandrogenic food contaminant (vinclozolin) on the male reproductive tract and fertility. Male rats were exposed by gavage to genistein and vinclozolin from conception to adulthood, alone or in combination, at low doses (1 mg/kg/day) or higher doses (10 and 30 mg/kg/day). We studied a number of standard reproductive toxicology end points and also assessed testicular mRNA expression profiles using long-oligonucleotide microarrays. The low-dose mixture and high-dose vinclozolin produced the most significant alterations in adults: decreased sperm counts, reduced sperm motion parameters, decreased litter sizes, and increased post implantation loss. Testicular mRNA expression profiles for these exposure conditions were strongly correlated. Functional clustering indicated that many of the genes induced belong to the "neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions" family encompassing several hormonally related actors (e.g., follicle-stimulating hormone and its receptor). All exposure conditions decreased the levels of mRNAs involved in ribosome function, indicating probable decreased protein production. Our study shows that chronic exposure to a mixture of a dose of a phytoestrogen equivalent to that in the human diet and a low dose-albeit not environmental-of a common anti-androgenic food contaminant may seriously affect the male reproductive tract and fertility.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 09/2009; 117(8):1272-9. · 7.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Preeclampsia is a common disease of pregnancy, characterized by high blood pressure and proteinuria appearing from the second trimester of gestation. Preeclampsia has been shown to have a strong genetic component. In 2005 a positional cloning project led to the discovery of the STOX1 transcription factor, and mutations of this gene were proposed as causal for preeclampsia in Dutch families. Despite the publication of three contradictory studies, we have shown by analyzing the functional effects of STOX1 that its overexpression in choriocarcinoma cells recapitulates several transcriptomic aspects of preeclampsia. In this review, the current literature is analyzed to evaluate the possible involvement of STOX1 in the pathogenesis of this disease. While preeclampsia obviously cannot be considered as a disease caused by mutation in a single gene, we argue that STOX1 may be at the center of common pathways leading to preeclampsia.
    Journal of Reproductive Immunology 08/2009; 82(2):174-81. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endometriosis is a common gynecological disorder characterized by pain and infertility, where the lesions disseminate everywhere in the body with a preference for the pelvis. In that, it could be regarded as a benign metastatic disease, because its issue is not fatal. However, the molecular bases of this intriguing clinical condition are not well known. The objective of this study is to characterize the transcriptome differences between eutopic vs. ectopic endometrium with a special interest in pathways involved in cancerogenesis. We performed two hybridizations in technical replicate on highly specific long oligonucleotides microarrays (NimbleGen), with cDNA prepared from six-patients pools, where the same patient provided both eutopic and ectopic endometrium (endometriomas). To confirm the expression microarrays data, quantitative RT-PCR validation was performed on 12 individuals for 20 genes. Over 8000 transcripts were significantly modified (more than twice) in the lesions corresponding to 5600 down- or up-regulated genes. These were clustered through DAVID Bioinformatics Resources into 55 functional groups. The data are presented in a detailed and visual way on 24 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways implemented with induction ratios for each differentially expressed gene. An outstanding control of the cell cycle and a very specific modulation of the HOX genes were observed and provide some new evidence on why endometriosis only very rarely degenerates into cancer. The study constitutes a noteworthy update of gene profiling in endometriosis, by delivering the most complete and reliable list of dysregulated genes to date.
    Molecular Endocrinology 10/2008; 22(11):2557-62. · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in STOX1 were proposed to be causal for predisposing to preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder originating from placental defects, affecting up to 10% of human pregnancies. However, after the first study published in 2005 three other groups have dismissed the polymorphism described in the first paper as a causal mutation. In the present study, we have produced a choriocarcinoma cell line overexpressing STOX1. This overexpression results in transcriptional modification of 12.5% of the genes, some of them being direct targets as shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation. STOX1 overexpression correlates strongly and specifically with transcriptomic alterations in preeclamptic placentas (r = 0.30, p = 9.10(-7)). Numerous known key modulators of preeclampsia (such as Endoglin, Syncytin, human chorionic gonadotrophin -hCG-, and Glial Cell Missing Homolog -GCM1-) were modified in these transformed choriocarcinoma cells. Our results contribute to reconcile contradictory data concerning the involvement of STOX1 in preeclampsia. In addition, they strongly suggest that anomalies in STOX1 expression are associated with the onset of preeclampsia, thus indicating that this gene should be the target of future studies. Our cellular model could constitute an invaluable resource for studying specific aspects of this human disease.
    PLoS ONE 02/2008; 3(12):e3905. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a frequent disease, affecting up to 10% of human pregnancies and responsible for increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. Moreover, low birth weight is an important cause of the metabolic syndrome in the adult. Protein depletion during the gestation of rat females has been widely used as a model for human IUGR. By transcriptome analysis of control and protein-deprived rat placentas, we were able to identify 2543 transcripts modified more than 2.5 fold (1347 induced and 1196 repressed). Automatic functional classification enabled us to identify clusters of induced genes affecting chromosome structure, transcription, intracellular transport, protein modifications and apoptosis. In particular, we suggest the existence of a complex balance regulating apoptosis. Among repressed genes, we noted several groups of genes involved in immunity, signalling and degradation of noxious chemicals. These observations suggest that IUGR placentas have a decreased resistance to external aggression. The promoters of the most induced and most repressed genes were contrasted for their composition in putative transcription factor binding sites. There was an over-representation of Zn finger (ZNF) proteins and Pdx1 (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox protein 1) putative binding sites. Consistently, Pdx1 and a high proportion of ZNF genes were induced at the transcriptional level. A similar analysis of ZNF promoters showed an increased presence of putative binding sites for the Tata box binding protein (Tbp). Consistently again, we showed that the Tbp and TBP-associated factors (Tafs) were up-regulated in IUGR placentas. Also, samples of human IUGR and control placentas showed that human orthologous ZNFs and PDX1 were transcriptionally induced, especially in non-vascular IUGR. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased expression of PDX1 in IUGR human placentas. In conclusion, our approach permitted the proposition of hypotheses on a hierarchy of gene inductions/repressions leading to massive transcriptional alterations in the IUGR placenta, in humans and in rodents.
    The Journal of Pathology 12/2007; 213(3):337-46. · 7.59 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

659 Citations
228.86 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2013
    • Institut Cochin
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2010–2012
    • Université Paris Descartes
      • Faculté de Médecine
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1997–2012
    • Université René Descartes - Paris 5
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2007
    • Centre National de Génotypage
      Évry-Petit-Bourg, Île-de-France, France
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1985–2007
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 1996–2005
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France