[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the efficacy and safety of gefitinib given concomitantly and/or as maintenance therapy to standard cisplatin/radiotherapy for previously untreated, unresected, stage III/IV non-metastatic SCCHN.
In this phase II, double-blind, study, 226 patients were randomized to gefitinib 250mg/day, 500mg/day or placebo in two phases: a concomitant phase (gefitinib or placebo with chemoradiotherapy), followed by a maintenance phase (gefitinib or placebo alone). Primary endpoint was local disease control rate (LDCR) at 2years; secondary endpoints were LDCR at 1year, objective response rate, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety and tolerability.
Gefitinib (250 and 500mg/day) did not improve 2-year LDCR compared with placebo either when given concomitantly with chemoradiotherapy (32.7% vs. 33.6%, respectively; OR 0.921, 95% CI 0.508, 1.670 [1-sided p=0.607]) or as maintenance therapy (28.8% vs. 37.4%, respectively; OR 0.684, 95% CI 0.377, 1.241 [1-sided p=0.894]). Secondary efficacy outcomes were broadly consistent with the 2-year LDCR results. In both doses, gefitinib was well-tolerated and did not adversely affect the safety and tolerability of concomitant chemoradiotherapy.
Gefitinib was well-tolerated, but did not improve efficacy compared with placebo when given concomitantly with chemoradiotherapy, or as maintenance therapy alone.
Radiotherapy and Oncology 07/2011; 100(1):62-9. DOI:10.1016/j.radonc.2011.07.008 · 4.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To present the first report of a Phase I trial evaluating concurrent and maintenance erlotinib and reirradiation in patients with recurrent or secondary primary head-and-neck cancer (HNC).
Patients with recurrent or new primary HNC with an interval of at least 6 months since prior radiation were eligible. Patients were treated in 3 sequential cohorts: Cohort I, 100 mg of erlotinib daily with reirradiation at 61.6 Gy in 28 fractions; Cohort II, 150 mg of erlotinib with 61.6 Gy in 28 fractions; and Cohort III, 150 mg of erlotinib with 66 Gy in 30 fractions. Maintenance erlotinib started immediately after reirradiation at 150 mg daily and was continued for 2 years or until disease progression or dose-limiting toxicity. Dose-limiting toxicities were defined as any Grade 4 or 5 toxicity or a toxicity-related delay in radiation therapy of greater than 7 days.
Fourteen patients were accrued, 3 to Cohort I, 4 to Cohort II, and 7 to Cohort III. Thirteen patients were evaluable for toxicity. Median follow-up was 8.4 months overall and 15.1 months for surviving patients. One patient had a dose-limiting toxicity in Cohort III. This patient declined initial percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement, was hospitalized with Grade 3 dysphagia and aspiration, and required a delay in radiation therapy of greater than 7 days. No Grade 4 acute toxicity was observed. Acute Grade 3 toxicity occurred in 9 of 13 patients. No erlotinib-related toxicity of Grade 3 or greater was observed during maintenance therapy. One patient had Grade 5 carotid hemorrhage 6 months after reirradiation, and another patient had Grade 3 osteoradionecrosis.
Reirradiation (66 Gy in 2.2 Gy fractions) with concurrent and maintenance erlotinib (150 mg daily) for recurrent or new primary HNC is feasible.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 03/2010; 78(4):1020-5. DOI:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.09.003 · 4.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the survival and patterns of relapse for patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral tongue.
Between 1999 and 2007, 50 patients with SCC of the oral tongue were treated at the University of Colorado Denver. Of the 50 patients, 38 had newly diagnosed SCC of the oral tongue (13 with stage I-II and 25 with stage III-IV disease), and 12 presented with locally recurrent SCC. Of the 50 patients, 49 were treated with initial surgery and 1 with definitive chemoradiotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy was administered to 42 patients after surgery. Of the 13 patients with newly diagnosed stage I-II disease, 7 did not receive adjuvant therapy. The actuarial locoregional control, freedom from distant relapse, and survival were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method, and comparisons were made using the log-rank test.
The median follow-up was 29 months (range 4 to 95) for living patients. The 2-year locoregional control and freedom from distant relapse rate was 58% and 83%, respectively. Locoregional control was particularly low among patients with stage I-II disease, for whom the 2-year locoregional control rate was only 35%. The median survival time and 2-year survival rate for all patients was 42 months and 65%, respectively. The 2-year survival rate for patients with stage I-II oral tongue cancer was 77% compared with 52% for patients with stage III-IV disease (P = .04).
Despite aggressive therapy, patients with SCC of the oral tongue have a low rate of local tumor control and survival, particularly among those with stage I-II disease. These patients should be considered for inclusion in clinical trials evaluating novel postoperative therapies.
Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons 11/2009; 68(3):584-9. DOI:10.1016/j.joms.2009.03.056 · 1.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of high-dose stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for the treatment of patients with one to three lung metastases.
Patients with one to three lung metastases with cumulative maximum tumor diameter smaller than 7 cm were enrolled and treated on a multi-institutional phase I/II clinical trial in which they received SBRT delivered in 3 fractions. In phase I, the total dose was safely escalated from 48 to 60 Gy. The phase II dose was 60 Gy. The primary end point was local control. Lesions with at least 6 months of radiographic follow-up were considered assessable for local control. Secondary end points included toxicity and survival.
Thirty-eight patients with 63 lesions were enrolled and treated at three participating institutions. Seventy-one percent had received at least one prior systemic regimen for metastatic disease and 34% had received at least two prior regimens (range, zero to five). Two patients had local recurrence after prior surgical resection. There was no grade 4 toxicity. The incidence of any grade 3 toxicity was 8% (three of 38). Symptomatic pneumonitis occurred in one patient (2.6%). Fifty lesions were assessable for local control. Median follow-up for assessable lesions was 15.4 months (range, 6 to 48 months). The median gross tumor volume was 4.2 mL (range, 0.2 to 52.3 mL). Actuarial local control at one and two years after SBRT was 100% and 96%, respectively. Local progression occurred in one patient, 13 months after SBRT. Median survival was 19 months.
This multi-institutional phase I/II trial demonstrates that high-dose SBRT is safe and effective for the treatment of patients with one to three lung metastases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of high-dose stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for the treatment of patients with one to three hepatic metastases.
Patients with one to three hepatic lesions and maximum individual tumor diameters less than 6 cm were enrolled and treated on a multi-institutional, phase I/II clinical trial in which they received SBRT delivered in three fractions. During phase I, the total dose was safely escalated from 36 Gy to 60 Gy. The phase II dose was 60 Gy. The primary end point was local control. Lesions with at least 6 months of radiographic follow-up were considered assessable for local control. Secondary end points were toxicity and survival.
Forty-seven patients with 63 lesions were treated with SBRT. Among them, 69% had received at least one prior systemic therapy regimen for metastatic disease (range, 0 to 5 regimens), and 45% had extrahepatic disease at study entry. Only one patient experienced grade 3 or higher toxicity (2%). Forty-nine discrete lesions were assessable for local control. Median follow-up for assessable lesions was 16 months (range, 6 to 54 months). The median maximal tumor diameter was 2.7 cm (range, 0.4 to 5.8 cm). Local progression occurred in only three lesions at a median of 7.5 months (range, 7 to 13 months) after SBRT. Actuarial in-field local control rates at one and two years after SBRT were 95% and 92%, respectively. Among lesions with maximal diameter of 3 cm or less, 2-year local control was 100%. Median survival was 20.5 months.
This multi-institutional, phase I/II trial demonstrates that high-dose liver SBRT is safe and effective for the treatment of patients with one to three hepatic metastases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the toxicity of daily gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, with concurrent chemoradiation (CRT) in patients with locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma and prospectively evaluate plasma k-ras as a potential marker of response to gefitinib and CRT.
Eleven of 12 eligible patients enrolled received a 7-day induction of gefitinib (250 mg PO) followed by daily gefitinib with concurrent CRT. Patients received 50.4 Gy/28 fractions of external beam radiation with weekly paclitaxel (40 mg/m IV) followed by maintenance on gefitinib. Plasma k-ras codon 12 mutations were detected using a two-stage restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction assay on patients' plasma both before and after therapy. Mutations were confirmed by direct sequencing.
Common adverse events included grade 1 skin rash (63%), grade 1 to 2 gastrointestinal symptoms including anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea occurred in 63% of patients, grade 3 nausea occurred in 45% of patients. Three patients did not complete therapy, only one was possibly associated with study drug. K-ras mutations were detected in the pre-gefitinib plasma of 5/11 patients and in the matched tumor tissue of 3/4 patients. In patients where k-ras mutations were undetectable post-treatment, survival times were favorable.
Combination of daily gefitinib with concurrent CRT in this locally advanced pancreatic cancer population was reasonably tolerated. Rapid changes in serum k-ras may provide critical information as to the efficacy of a novel agent and assist in tailoring treatment for cancers of the pancreas.
American journal of clinical oncology 04/2009; 32(2):115-21. DOI:10.1097/COC.0b013e318180baa3 · 2.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the outcomes of patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with N3 neck nodes treated with definitive chemoradiation.
Thirty-two patients with nonmetastatic locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and N3 neck disease treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy were evaluated. Overall survival, disease- free survival, locoregional control, and distant control were recorded.
Median follow-up for surviving patients was 25 (range, 3-93) months. Seventeen of 32 (53%) patients failed, 13 in distant sites only, 2 in the neck only, 1 in the neck and a distant site, and 1 in the neck and primary site. The absolute rates of locoregional control and distant control were 88% and 56%, respectively. Actuarial overall survival and disease-free survival at 2 years were 51% and 29%, respectively.
Patients with N3 neck disease treated with chemoradiation experience a very high rate of distant failure. Future studies investigating the role of additional systemic therapy in these patients are warranted.
The Laryngoscope 07/2008; 118(6):995-8. DOI:10.1097/MLG.0b013e31816a7120 · 2.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A prospective phase II trial was conducted to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and pathologic response rate of preoperative capecitabine and accelerated synchronous integrated boost (SIB) intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer.
Consenting operable patients with stage II or III adenocarcinoma of the rectum received capecitabine (825 mg/m2 PO BID, 5 days/wk x 5 weeks) and SIB-IMRT delivering 55 Gy (2.2 Gy/fraction) to the gross tumor while simultaneously delivering 45 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction) to the regional lymph nodes and areas at risk for harboring microscopic disease. Total mesorectal excision followed 6 weeks later. A single pathologist analyzed the resected tumor's TNM stage and Mandard regression/response scores. The primary end point was pathologic complete response (pCR) rate.
Ten subjects were enrolled, 2 of which were ineligible (1 screening failure and 1 unrelated cerebrovascular accident occurring early in treatment). The remaining 8 patients were evaluable. All 8 completed chemoradiation with strict compliance to the protocol schedule and then went on to surgical resection. At a median follow-up of 26 months (range, 15-40), all patients were alive without evidence of recurrent disease. The crude pCR rate was 38% with 50% achieving down-staging. Of 3 patients who had tumors within 5 cm of the anal verge, 2 underwent sphincter-sparing procedures. Grade 4 diarrhea occurred in 1 of 8 (13%) patients. The remaining toxicities were grade 1 or 2.
Preoperative chemoradiation with capecitabine and SIB-IMRT is well tolerated and results in an encouraging pCR rate for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer.
American journal of clinical oncology 06/2008; 31(3):264-70. DOI:10.1097/COC.0b013e318161dbd3 · 2.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the toxicity and outcomes of three radiotherapy techniques-three-dimensional conformal (3D-RT), accelerated fractionation with concomitant boost (AFxCB), and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)-in the combined modality treatment of stage III-IV squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oropharynx.
Between 1998 and 2007, a total of 87 patients were treated; 23 were treated with 3D-RT, 32 with AFxCB, and 32 with IMRT. Systemic therapy consisted of platinum-based chemotherapy in 81 and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR)-targeted therapy in 6 cases. Median radiotherapy doses were 70Gy with 3D-RT, 72Gy with AFxCB, and 69.3Gy with IMRT. Locoregional control, survival outcomes, and feeding tube (PEG) dependence were compared using log-rank method. The incidence of acute mucositis and skin reaction, and grade > or = 2 xerostomia at 6, 12, and 18 months after radiotherapy was compared using Fisher's exact test.
Median follow-up was 24 months (range 3 to 103 months) for living patients. Two-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and locoregional control (LRC) were 77.3%, 69.5%, and 86.4%, respectively. There was a trend toward improvement in LRC in patients treated with IMRT. Acute grade > or = 3 skin and mucosal toxicity were significantly lower with IMRT compared to AFxCB (P < .001). Grade > or = 2 xerostomia was significantly reduced with IMRT compared to AFxCB and 3D-RT (P < .001). There was no difference in the actuarial rate of PEG dependence (P = .96).
Compared to AFxCB and 3D-RT, IMRT confers an improvement in toxicity and appears to have similar efficacy in patients with SCC of the oropharynx.
The Laryngoscope 04/2008; 118(4):635-9. DOI:10.1097/MLG.0b013e31815fdf0e · 2.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To establish the safety and toxicity profile of daily gefitinib with radiation alone or with concurrent chemoradiotherapy in previously untreated patients with locally advanced squamous cell head and neck cancer (LAHNC).
Patients with intermediate-stage LAHNC were treated with concomitant boost radiation (RT) alone with escalating doses of daily gefitinib (250 or 500 mg; cohort I). Once a safety profile was determined with RT alone, patients with high-risk disease were then treated with daily gefitinib (250 or 500 mg), weekly cisplatin (CDDP; 30 mg/m2), and once-daily RT (cohort II). Patients also received post-RT gefitinib at 250 mg daily for a period of up to 2 years.
Twenty-three patients were enrolled and assessable for toxicity. No dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were observed in patients treated in cohort I at either 250 or 500 mg of gefitinib daily with concomitant boost RT to 72 Gy. In patients receiving chemoradiotherapy and gefitinib (cohort II), DLTs included one grade 4 diarrhea and one grade 4 neutropenic fever. Fifteen patients started maintenance gefitinib, and eight (53%) experienced grade 1 to 2 acne-like skin rash and diarrhea, but no grade 3 or 4 toxicity occurred.
Gefitinib (250 or 500 mg daily) was well tolerated with concomitant boost RT or concurrent chemoradiotherapy with weekly CDDP. Protracted administration of gefitinib for up to 2 years at 250 mg daily was also tolerated well.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fusion of state-of-the-art tumor imaging with precision radiation treatment delivery systems provides the technical platform from which stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has arisen. SBRT offers an opportunity to depart from classic radiation therapy paradigms involving many weeks of treatment toward more efficient and more potent treatment schedules in a variety of clinical settings. Here, the history of SBRT is briefly reviewed, and a projection of the anticipated role of SBRT within the context of multimodality cancer treatment regimens of the future is presented.
Frontiers of radiation therapy and oncology 02/2007; 40:340-51. DOI:10.1159/0000106045
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung metastases. Methods and Materials: A Phase I clinical trial was conducted. Eligible patients had one to three pulmonary metastases from a solid tumor, cumulative tumor diameter =}1.0 L). The planning target volume (PTV) was typically constructed from the gross tumor volume (GTV) by adding a 5-mm radial and 10-mm craniocaudal margin. The first cohort received 48 Gy to the PTV in three fractions (F). SBRT dose was escalated in subsequent cohorts up to a preselected maximum of 60 Gy/3 F. The percent of normal lung receiving more than 15 Gy (Vââ) was restricted to less than 35%. Respiratory control and a dynamic conformal arc SBRT technique were used. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) included acute Grade 3 lung or esophageal toxicity or any acute Grade 4 toxicity within 3 months. After the Phase I dose escalation, the trial continued as a Phase II study, and patients in this cohort are included to increase the number of patients evaluable for early toxicity assessment. Results: Twenty-five eligible patients have been enrolled to date. In the Phase I component of the trial, there were 12 patients (7 male, 5 female): median age, 55 years (range, 31-83 years); the most common primary site was colorectal (4 patients). Seven patients had two lung lesions, and 1 patient had three lesions. The median aggregate volume of all GTVs was 18.7 mL (range, 2-40 mL). No patient experienced a DLT, and dose was escalated to 60 Gy/3 F without reaching the MTD; including the additional Phase II cohort patients, 16 patients have been treated to a dose of 60 Gy/3F without experiencing a DLT in the first 3 months. The equivalent uniform dose to the GTV in the highest dose group ranged from 66 to 77 Gy in 3 F. Conclusions: In patients with limited pulmonary metastases, radiobiologically potent doses of SBRT are well tolerated with minimal early toxicity. A Phase II SBRT study of 60 Gy/3 F for lung metastases is ongoing to evaluate local tumor control rates with this regimen and continue surveillance for any late effects.
International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 11/2006; 66(4). DOI:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2006.08.018 · 4.18 Impact Factor