[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During native subsistence hunts from 1987 to 2007, blubber and liver samples from 50 subadult male northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) were collected on St. Paul Island, Alaska. Samples were analyzed for legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs), recently phased-out/current-use POPs, and vitamins. The legacy POPs measured from blubber samples included polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, DDT (and its metabolites), chlorobenzenes, chlordanes, and mirex. Recently phased-out/current-use POPs included in the blubber analysis were the flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and hexabromocyclododecanes. The chemical surfactants, perfluorinated alkyl acids, and vitamins A and E were assessed in the liver samples. Overall, concentrations of legacy POPs are similar to levels seen in seal samples from other areas of the North Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea. Statistically significant correlations were seen between compounds with similar functions (pesticides, flame retardants, vitamins). With sample collection spanning two decades, the temporal trends in the concentrations of POPs and vitamins were assessed. For these animals, the concentrations of the legacy POPs tend to decrease or stay the same with sampling year; however, the concentrations of the current-use POPs increased with sampling year. Vitamin concentrations tended to stay the same across the sampling years. With the population of northern fur seals from St. Paul Island on the decline, a detailed assessment of exposure to contaminants and the correlations with vitamins fills a critical gap for identifying potential population risk factors that might be associated with health effects.
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00244-015-0179-y · 1.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The identification of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as priority pollutants by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1976 has been a primary driver for analytical methods development for the determination of PAHs. In this article, the historical development of methods in liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) to separate these 16 PAHs is discussed. In LC a significant effort was the search for and the fundamental understanding of the unique stationary phase capable of achieving the desired separation of the 16 EPA PAHs. For GC methods, the focus on stationary phase development has been the separation of critical isomers with a broader scope than the 16 EPA PAHs. The current routine LC and GC methods for the 16 EPA PAHs are well established; however, new advances in analytical techniques beyond LC and GC are discussed. Many analysts are now interested in more than just the 16 EPA PAHs (e.g., higher molecular mass PAHs and alkyl-substituted PAHs) and analytical methods have emerged to address these needs. Reference materials and their use in the determination of PAHs are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The stability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorinated pesticides in frozen mussel tissue Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) stored at -80 °C was assessed by analyzing samples of SRM 1974, SRM 1974a, and SRM 1974b Organics in Mussel Tissue (Mytilus edulis) periodically over 25 y, 20 y, and 12 y, respectively. The most recent analyses were performed during the certification of the fourth release of this material, SRM 1974c. Results indicate the concentrations of these persistent organic pollutants have not changed during storage at -80 °C. In addition, brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) were quantified in each of the materials during this study. The stability information is important for on-going monitoring studies collecting large quantities of samples for future analyses (i.e., formally established specimen banking programs). Since all four mussel tissue SRMs were prepared from mussels collected at the same site in Dorchester Bay, MA, USA, the results provide a temporal trend study for these contaminants over a 17 year period (1987 to 2004).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), SRM 3672 Organic Contaminants in Smokers’ Urine (Frozen) and SRM 3673 Organic Contaminants in Non-Smokers’ Urine (Frozen), have been developed in support of studies for assessment of human exposure to select organic environmental contaminants. Collaborations among three organizations resulted in certified values for 11 hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and reference values for 11 phthalate metabolites, 8 environmental phenols and parabens, and 24 volatile organic compound (VOC) metabolites. Reference values are also available for creatinine and the free forms of caffeine, theobromine, ibuprofen, nicotine, cotinine, and 3-hydroxycotinine. These are the first urine Certified Reference Materials characterized for metabolites of organic environmental contaminants. Noteworthy, the mass fractions of the environmental organic contaminants in the two SRMs are within the ranges reported in population survey studies such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). These SRMs will be useful as quality control samples for ensuring compatibility of results among population survey studies and will fill a void to assess the accuracy of analytical methods used in studies monitoring human exposure to these organic environmental contaminants.
Metabolites of PAHs, Phthalates, Phenols, Parabens, and VOCs in Urine SRMs
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health (NIH), has developed a Standard Reference Material (SRM) to support technology development in metabolomics research. SRM 1950 Metabolites in Human Plasma is intended to have metabolite concentrations that are representative of those found in adult human plasma. The plasma used in the preparation of SRM 1950 was collected from both male and female donors, and donor ethnicity targets were selected based upon the ethnic makeup of the U.S. population. Metabolomics research is diverse in terms of both instrumentation and scientific goals. This SRM was designed to apply broadly to the field, not towards specific applications. Therefore, concentrations of approximately 100 analytes, including amino acids, fatty acids, trace elements, vitamins, hormones, selenoproteins, clinical markers, and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), were determined. Value assignment measurements were performed by NIST and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). SRM 1950 is the first reference material developed specifically for metabolomics research.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) have recently received much attention in discussions regarding the negative impacts of particulate matter (PM) on human health and the environment. The National Institute of Standards and Technology provides several environmental matrix standard reference materials (SRMs) with certified and reference values for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated PAHs. In this study, the concentrations of oxygenated PAHs are determined in three air PM SRMs (1649b, 1648a, and 2786) and three diesel PM SRMs (1650b, 2975, and 1975) using two independent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. Concentrations of oxy-PAHs were at the milligrams per kilogram level with higher overall concentrations in diesel PM (up to 50 mg/kg for 9,10-anthraquinone). One of the highest oxy-PAH concentrations (up to 5 mg/kg) measured in the air particulate SRMs was for 7,12-benz[a]anthracenquinone. These results suggest that oxygenated PAHs should not be neglected in the analysis of PM as their concentrations can be as high as those of some PAHs and are one to two orders of magnitude higher than those for nitro-PAHs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The National Institute of Standards and Technology administers quality assurance programs devoted to improving measurements of nutrients and related metabolites in foods, dietary supplements, and serum and plasma samples. These programs have been developed in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health to assist measurement communities in their efforts to achieve accurate results that are comparable among different laboratories and over time. Targeted analytes include micronutrients, botanical markers, nutritional elements, contaminants, fatty acids, and vitamin D metabolites.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is an increasing demand to accurately measure the quality of biofuel products (e.g. biodiesel and bio-ethanol). This demand is driven in Europe by directives promoting the use of renewable sources of energy and worldwide by national and international legislation setting out quality requirements for these fuels. Until now, there has been no international consensus on the minimum technical specifications to ensure biofuel quality. Furthermore, it is unclear which reference materials and measurement techniques are needed to provide the quality assurance and quality control framework to underpin these legislative requirements. As part of the European Commission’s 7th Framework Programme, the BIOREMA project (REference MAterials for BIOfuel specifications) demonstrated the feasibility of preparing biodiesel and bio-ethanol reference materials with reference values traceable to the international system of units for a range of parameters at levels relevant to technical specifications. However, the project concluded also that further research is needed to improve the current measurement capabilities for some parameters. Within the BIOREMA project, two global interlaboratory comparisons were carried out, using the biodiesel and bio-ethanol test materials prepared during the feasibility stage of the project, as well as two biodiesel standard reference materials from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA). The exercises showed that the measurement capabilities of the field laboratories were in many cases satisfactory, whereas for other laboratories the availability and regular use of certified reference materials would likely enhance the measurement capabilities for many of the parameters studied. A general overview of the BIOREMA project is presented in this paper. The details of the production of the two types of BIOREMA reference materials, and the results of the interlaboratory comparison for the bio-ethanol and biodiesel study materials, are discussed in parts 2 and 3 of this series of papers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As part of a collaboration with the National Institutes of Health's Office of Dietary Supplements and the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3274 Botanical Oils Containing Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids and SRM 3275 Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids in Fish Oil. SRM 3274 consists of one ampoule of each of four seed oils (3274-1 Borage (Borago officinalis), 3274-2 Evening Primrose (Oenothera biennis), 3274-3 Flax (Linium usitatissimum), and 3274-4 Perilla (Perilla frutescens)), and SRM 3275 consists of two ampoules of each of three fish oils (3275-1 a concentrate high in docosahexaenoic acid, 3275-2 an anchovy oil high in docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, and 3275-3 a concentrate containing 60 % long-chain omega-3 fatty acids). Each oil has certified and reference mass fraction values for up to 20 fatty acids. The fatty acid mass fraction values are based on results from analyses using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These SRMs will complement other reference materials currently available with mass fractions for similar analytes and are part of a series of SRMs being developed for dietary supplements.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main objective of the reference materials for biofuel specifications (BIOREMA) project is the development of two test materials (one bio-ethanol material and one biodiesel material) with well-established reference values. Of a series of three papers, this part describes the material preparation, homogeneity study, stability study, and characterisation of the bio-ethanol material. The test material thus obtained was used in an interlaboratory comparison (ILC) to assess current practices and comparability amongst laboratories providing bio-ethanol testing services. Only 13 participants provided data, resulting in a small dataset for evaluation. Further, it appeared that for a number of laboratories, there was not sufficient material for the determination of all requested parameters. In most cases, as far as the data permit, it can be concluded that the consensus values (based on participant’s results) are in good agreement with the reference or the BIOREMA values (obtained by NMIs participating in the project). For three parameters, namely ethanol content, water content, and density, there is good agreement between the reference and consensus values. For these parameters, the reproducibility standard deviation is close to, or even smaller than, the expanded uncertainty associated with the reference value. A number of parameters show very poor reproducibility, for example, pHe, electrolytic conductivity, and acidity. The same applies to sodium and copper content, which are very low and therefore challenging parameters to measure accurately. The results of the ILC underpin the need for certified reference materials and demonstrate the requirement for more robust quality control to improve the precision and trueness of the results from testing laboratories.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been developed to assist in the quality assurance of chemical contaminant measurements required for human biomonitoring studies, SRM 1953 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1954 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1957 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Serum, and SRM 1958 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Serum. These materials were developed as part of a collaboration between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with both agencies contributing data used in the certification of mass fraction values for a wide range of organic contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, chlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners. The certified mass fractions of the organic contaminants in unfortified samples, SRM 1953 and SRM 1957, ranged from 12 ng/kg to 2200 ng/kg with the exception of 4,4'-DDE in SRM 1953 at 7400 ng/kg with expanded uncertainties generally <14 %. This agreement suggests that there were no significant biases existing among the multiple methods used for analysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Drinking yerba maté, common in southern South America, may increase the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In 2006, we found high but variable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content in commercial yerba maté samples from eight Brazilian brands. The PAH content of new samples from the same brands, purchased in 2008, and four brands from a single manufacturer processed in different ways, obtained in 2010, were quantified to determine whether PAH concentration was still high, PAH content variation was brand specific, and whether processing method affects PAH content of commercial yerba maté. Concentrations of individual PAHs were quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with deuterated PAHs as internal standards. Median total PAH concentration was 1500 ng/g (range: 625 to 3710 ng/g) and 1090 ng/g (621 to 1990 ng/g) in 2008 and 2010 samples, respectively. Comparing 2006 and 2008 samples, some brands had high PAH concentrations in both years, while PAH concentration changed considerably in others. Benzo[a]pyrene concentrations ranged from 11.9 to 99.3 ng/g and 5.11 to 21.0 ng/g in 2008 and 2010 samples, respectively. The 2010 sample processed without touching smoke had the lowest benzo[a]pyrene content. These results support previous findings of very high total and carcinogenic PAH concentrations in yerba maté, perhaps contributing to the high incidence of ESCC in southern South America. The large PAH content variation by brand, batch and processing method suggests it may be possible to reduce the content of carcinogenic PAHs in commercial yerba maté, making it a healthier beverage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four particulate matter Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) available from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were used to evaluate the effect of solvent, number of static cycles and static times, pressure, and temperature when using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated-PAHs. The four materials used in the study were SRM 1648a Urban Particulate Matter, SRM 1649b Urban Dust, SRM 1650b Diesel Particulate Matter, and SRM 2975 Diesel Particulate Matter (Industrial Forklift). The results from the study indicate that the choice of solvent, dichloromethane compared to toluene and toluene/methanol mixtures, had little effect on the extraction efficiency. With three to five extraction cycles, increasing the extraction time for each cycle from 5 to 30 min had no significant effect on the extraction efficiency. The differences in extraction efficiency were not significant (with over 95% of the differences being <10%) when the pressure was increased from 13.8 to 20.7 MPa. The largest increase in extraction efficiency occurred for selected PAHs when the temperature of extraction was increased from 100 to 200 °C. At 200 °C naphthalene, biphenyl, fluorene, dibenzothiophene, and anthracene show substantially higher mass fractions (>30%) than when extracted at 100 °C in all the SRMs studied. For SRM 2975, large increases (>100%) are also observed for some other PAHs including benz[a]anthracene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and benzo[b]chrysene when extracted at the higher temperatures; however, similar trends were not observed for the other diesel particulate sample, SRM 1650b. The results are discussed in relation to the use of the SRMs for evaluating analytical methods.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Linzhou, China has one of the highest rates of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in the world. Exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), may have a role in this increased risk. To better understand PAH sources, we measured PAHs in the air and food of 20 non-smokers over multiple days and compared the concentrations with a urinary PAH biomarker, 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG). Sampling occurred over 4 consecutive days. Kitchen air samples (days 2-3) and duplicate diet samples (days 1-4) were analyzed for 14 or more unique PAHs, including BaP. Daily urine samples (days 1-3) were analyzed for 1-OHPG. Mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the associations between air or food PAH concentrations and urine 1-OHPG concentrations. The median kitchen air BaP concentration was 10.2 ng/m(3) (interquartile range (IQR): 5.1-20.2 ng/m(3)). The median daily food BaP concentration and intake were 0.08 ng/g (IQR=0.04-0.16 ng/g) and 86 ng/day (IQR=41-142 ng/day), respectively. The median 1-OHPG concentration was 3.36 pmol/ml (IQR=2.09-6.98 pmol/ml). In mixed-effects models, 1-OHPG concentration increased with same-day concentration of food BaP (P=0.07). Although PAH concentrations in air were not associated with 1-OHPG concentrations, the high concentrations of PAHs in both air and food suggest that they are both important routes of exposure to PAHs in this population. Further evaluation of the role of PAH exposure from air and food in the elevated rates of esophageal cancer in this region is warranted.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 18 July 2012; doi:10.1038/jes.2012.73.
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 07/2012; 23(1). DOI:10.1038/jes.2012.73 · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The certification of chemical constituents in natural-matrix Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) can require the use of two or more independent analytical methods. The independence among the methods is generally achieved by taking advantage of differences in extraction, separation, and detection selectivity. This review describes the development of the independent analytical methods approach at NIST, and its implementation in the measurement of organic constituents such as contaminants in environmental materials, nutrients and marker compounds in food and dietary supplement matrices, and health diagnostic and nutritional assessment markers in human serum. The focus of this review is the important and critical role that separation science techniques play in achieving the necessary independence of the analytical steps in the measurement of trace-level organic constituents in natural matrix SRMs.
Journal of Chromatography A 06/2012; 1261:3-22. DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2012.05.093 · 4.17 Impact Factor