Pertteli Salmenperä

University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Province of Southern Finland, Finland

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Publications (20)64.88 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We previously showed cell-cell contacts of human dermal fibroblasts to induce expression of the hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF) in a process designated as nemosis. Now we report on nemosis initiation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Because BMSCs are being used increasingly in cell transplantation therapy we aimed to demonstrate a functional effect and benefit of BMSC nemosis for wound healing. Nemotic and monolayer cells were used to stimulate HaCaT keratinocyte migration in a scratch-wound healing assay. Both indicators of nemosis, HGF production and cyclooxygenase-2 expression, were induced in BMSC spheroids. When compared with a similar amount of cells as monolayer, nemotic cells induced keratinocyte in vitro scratch-wound healing in a concentration-dependent manner. The HGF receptor, c-Met, was rapidly phosphorylated in the nemosis-stimulated keratinocytes. Nemosis-induced in vitro scratch-wound healing was inhibited by an HGF-neutralizing antibody as well as the small molecule c-Met inhibitor, SU11274. HGF-induced in vitro scratch-wound healing was inhibited by PI3K inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294002, while LY303511, an inactive structural analogue of LY294002, had no effect. Inhibitors of the mitogen-activated protein kinases MEK/ERK1/2 (PD98059 and U0126), and p38 (SB203580) attenuated HGF-induced keratinocyte in vitro scratch-wound healing. We conclude that nemosis of BMSCs can induce keratinocyte in vitro scratch-wound healing, and that in this effect signaling via HGF/c-Met is involved.
    Wound Repair and Regeneration 07/2009; 17(4):569-77. · 2.76 Impact Factor
  • Antti Vaheri, Anna Enzerink, Kati Räsänen, Pertteli Salmenperä
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    ABSTRACT: Malignant cells when grown in suspension, as a rule, proliferate and can form spheroids that have been used as a model of tumor nodules, micrometastases and avascular tumors. In contrast, normal adherent cells cannot be stimulated to grow as multicellular aggregates. Now, recent results show that normal fibroblasts if forced to cluster (spheroid formation) do not grow but undergo a new pathway of cell activation (nemosis) leading to a massive proinflammatory, proteolytic and growth factor response. The clustering and activation are initiated by fibronectin-integrin interaction. The activated fibroblasts are able to modulate the behavior of cancer cells and, furthermore malignant cells boost this activation even further. In this model, the activation of fibroblasts terminates in programmed necrosis-like cell death. Activation of the tumor stroma, especially of fibroblasts, is of critical importance for tumor progression, although mechanisms leading to their activation are still largely uncharacterized. In summary, our results suggest that this kind of fibroblast activation (nemosis) may be involved in pathological conditions such as inflammation and cancer.
    Experimental Cell Research 04/2009; 315(10):1633-8. · 3.56 Impact Factor
  • Anna Enzerink, Pertteli Salmenperä, Esko Kankuri, Antti Vaheri
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    ABSTRACT: Fibroblasts can acquire an immunoregulatory phenotype and they play an important role in triggering and upholding inflammation. Yet, the mechanism of this immunoactivation remains unknown. Previously we showed that spheroid formation by human fibroblasts leads to nemosis: activation through upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2, production of growth factors, and proteolysis. We now show that clustering of fibroblasts to spheroids leads to a significant induction of chemotactic cytokines able to attract various leukocyte subtypes. The mRNA contents of several chemokines (CCL2-5, CXCL1-3, and CXCL8) were 6-169-fold higher in fibroblast spheroids than in monolayer controls 36 h after spheroid formation. Similarly, CCL3, CCL5 and CXCL8 levels in spheroid medium were significantly higher than in monolayer medium. Conditioned fibroblast spheroid medium induced chemotaxis of primary human neutrophils and monocyte-like THP-1 cells, and the effects were significantly inhibited by antibodies against CXCL8 and the chemokine receptor CCR1, respectively. The decreased levels of IkappaB alpha and presence of DNA-binding nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) after spheroid formation indicate NF-kappaB activity. In conclusion, clustering of fibroblasts provides an experimental model to study their activation and is sufficient to induce substantial proinflammatory chemokine secretion functionally promoting leukocyte migration, and the mechanism seems to involve the NF-kappaB signalling pathway.
    Molecular Immunology 03/2009; 46(8-9):1787-95. · 2.65 Impact Factor
  • Mona Augustin, Pertteli Salmenperä, Ari Harjula, Esko Kankuri
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    ABSTRACT: Myoblast transplantation can functionally restore muscle tissues damaged by ischemic or other insults. Despite promising results in clinical trials, however, myoblast transplantation still presents several challenges, with effective differentiation under harsh conditions of the host tissue being one of the most demanding. In keeping with a straightforward clinical application, heat shock (HS) pretreatment as a nonviral method can be utilized with promising results in cell therapy. The aim of this study was to demonstrate whether HS-pretreated cells would receive a differentiation benefit under hypoxic conditions. We studied HS preconditioning of C2C12 myoblasts in relation to their differentiation- and apoptosis-associated responses under normoxia or 1% hypoxia. HS induced long-lasting expression of Hsp70/72 and Hsp90. Although myoblast differentiation proceeded in HS-pretreated and control cells under both normoxia and hypoxia, expression of differentiation-associated troponin was enhanced in HS-preconditioned cells under hypoxia. This effect persisted when differentiation was inhibited by Z-DEVD-FMK, a caspase-3 inhibitor. HS preconditioning enhances expression of myoblast differentiation-associated troponin and may reduce dependence of differentiation on caspase-3.
    Journal of Surgical Research 02/2009; 161(1):62-8. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor-stroma reaction is associated with activation of fibroblasts. Nemosis is a novel type of fibroblast activation. It leads to an increased production of growth factors and proinflammatory and proteolytic proteins, while at the same time cytoskeletal proteins are degraded. Here we used paired normal skin fibroblasts and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) and primary and recurrent oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells to study the nemosis response. Fibroblast nemosis was analyzed by protein and gene expression and the paracrine regulation with colony formation assay. One of the normal fibroblast strains, FB-43, upregulated COX-2 in nemosis, but FB-74 cells did not. In contrast, CAF-74 spheroids expressed COX-2 but CAF-43 cells did not. Alpha-SMA protein was expressed in both CAF strains and in FB-74 cells, but not in FB-43 fibroblasts. Its mRNA levels were downregulated in nemosis, but the CAFs started to regain the expression. FSP1 mRNA was downregulated in normal fibroblasts and CAF-74 cells, but not in CAF-43 fibroblasts. Serine protease FAP was upregulated in all fibroblasts, more so in nemotic CAFs. VEGF, HGF/SF and FGF7 mRNA levels were upregulated to variable degree in nemosis. CAFs increased the colony formation of primary tumor cell lines UT-SCC-43A and UT-SCC-74A, but normal fibroblasts inhibited the anchorage-independent growth of recurrent UT-SCC-43B and UT-SCC-74B cells. Nemosis response, as observed by COX-2 and growth factor induction, and expression of CAF markers alpha-SMA, FSP1 and FAP, varies between fibroblast populations. The expression of CAF markers differs between normal fibroblasts and CAFs in nemosis. These results emphasize the heterogeneity of fibroblasts and the evolving tumor-promoting properties of CAFs.
    PLoS ONE 02/2009; 4(9):e6879. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cell-cell clustering of fibroblasts, called nemosis, leads to a massive growth factor, proteolytic and proinflammatory response. Culturing fibroblasts in conditioned medium collected from HaCaT keratinocyte cell panel representing different stages of skin carcinogenesis had a differential effect on fibroblast nemosis. Non-malignant keratinocytes had a nemosis-inhibiting effect on fibroblasts as seen by inhibition of COX-2 protein expression. Conditioned medium from malignant cells promoted fibroblast nemosis by inducing higher levels of COX-2, HGF/SF and VEGF. Even a small amount of malignant medium converted the inhibitory effect of benign medium, whereas non-malignant medium neutralized the nemosis-promoting effect of malignant medium. In collagen co-cultures benign keratinocytes caused a nemosis-inhibiting effect on fibroblast spheroids by inhibiting COX-2 induction, while with malignant keratinocytes myofibroblastic differentiation of fibroblasts was seen.
    Molecular oncology 01/2009; 2(4):340-8. · 6.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of myoblast transplantation on left ventricular function, perfusion, and scar formation after compromised coronary flow. A coronary vessel with Ameroid-induced stenosis was ligated and skeletal muscle was biopsied for isolation and cultivation of myoblasts. Two weeks after ligation, animals were randomly selected to receive intramyocardial injections of 2 x 10(6) myoblasts or vehicle. Fifteen animals survived the whole study period (n=9 and n=6, respectively). All animals underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography pretreatment and four weeks posttreatment. Peak filling rate of the left ventricle improved in the myoblast group (p=0.0048), but not in the control group. Peak ejection rate and duration of diastole improved only in the myoblast group (p=0.049 and p=0.0039, respectively). Ejection fraction or local thickening did not change. Fibrosis and perfusion were similar in both groups, but more microvessels were present histologically in the myoblast group. In this preclinical study, autologous myoblast transplantation improved ischemic heart function via enhanced diastolic filling of the left ventricle.
    Scandinavian cardiovascular journal: SCJ 12/2008; 43(2):100-9. · 1.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clustering of fibroblasts into spheroids induces a massive proinflammatory, proteolytic and growth-factor response, named nemosis, which promotes tumor cell invasiveness and differentiation of leukemia cells. We have now sought to investigate mechanisms leading to the formation of multicellular spheroids and subsequent activation of fibroblasts (nemosis). Cell lines either lacking fibronectin expression (FN-/-) or expressing FN with a mutated integrin-binding site (FNRGE/RGE) were unable to form compact spheroids. Furthermore, inhibition of FN synthesis by siRNA or functional inhibition of FN or its integrins impaired spheroid formation (alpha5, beta1) and quenched fibroblast activation (alphaV). The integrin ligand GRGDSP hexapeptide interfered with spheroid formation and induced activation of fibroblasts. Surprisingly, a 70 kDa FN fragment, which prevents deposition of FN matrix but does not interfere with FN-integrin interaction, prevented spheroid formation only marginally and did not block the activation. Our results present a new mechanism of fibroblast activation, which is initiated by interaction of FN with its integrin receptors.
    Experimental Cell Research 10/2008; 314(19):3444-52. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nitrosation of enzyme regulatory cysteines is one of the key posttranslational modification mechanisms of enzyme function. Frequently such modifications are readily reversible; however, cysteine proteases, such as cathepsin B, have been shown to be covalently and permanently inactivated by nitroxyl (HNO), the one-electron reduction product of NO. Owing to the high reactivity of HNO with NO, endogenous NO production could provide direct protection for the less reactive protein cysteines by scavenging HNO. Additionally, endogenous cellular production of NO could rescue enzyme function by protective nitrosation of cysteines prior to exposure to HNO. Thus, we studied the effect of endogenous NO production, induced by LPS or IFN-gamma, on inhibition of cysteine protease cathepsin B in RAW macrophages. Both LPS and IFN-gamma induce iNOS with generation of nitrate up to 9 muM in the media after a 24-h stimulation, while native RAW 264.7 macrophages neither express iNOS nor generate nitrate. After the 24-h stimulation, the HNO-releasing Angeli's salt (0-316 microM) caused dose-dependent and DTT-irreversible loss of cathepsin B activity, and induction of iNOS activity did not protect the enzyme. The lack of protection was also verified in an in vitro setup, where papain, a close structural analogue of cathepsin B, was inhibited by Angeli's salt (2.7 microM) in the presence of the NO donor DEA/NO (0-316 microM). This clearly showed that a high molar excess of DEA/NO (EC(50) 406 microM) is needed to protect papain from the DTT-irreversible covalent modification by HNO. Our results provide first evidence on a cellular level for the remarkably high sensitivity of active-site cysteines in cysteine proteases for modification by HNO.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 07/2008; 45(6):749-55. · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interactive signaling between cancer cells and stroma plays an important role in determining tumor development. We recently found tumor cell-derived factors to induce fibroblast clustering, and that the high amounts of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) produced by these cell-cell contact-activated fibroblasts enhanced the invasiveness of c-Met-expressing cancer cells. We now observed that leukemia cells lacking c-Met respond to this novel type of fibroblast activation, nemosis, with growth arrest and differentiation to a dendritic cell-like phenotype. This effect was counteracted by introduction of c-Met expression into these cells. Moreover, those leukemia cell lines harboring properly processed c-Met showed no effect in response to nemosis. We propose this effect to be mediated by nemosis-derived cytokine signals, and present the potential candidates induced in the nemotic fibroblasts: interleukins-1, -6, -8, -11, leukemia inhibitory factor and granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor. Our results emphasize the role of activated stromal fibroblasts in controlling progression of certain hematologic malignancies in a c-Met expression-dependent manner.
    International Journal of Cancer 04/2008; 122(6):1243-52. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cysteinyl leukotrienes play a part in inflammatory processes such as inflammatory bowel diseases. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of the cys-LT-1 receptor antagonist montelukast on a mild colitis model in rats. Colitis was induced by administrating 4% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS, MW 45,000) in drinking water for 9 days. Montelukast (10 mg/kg/day) or vehicle was given by gastric gavage once daily simultaneously with DSS administration. A healthy control group receiving water as drinking fluid and vehicle by gastric gavage was included. Body weight loss, consistency of faeces (loose/diarrhoea) and occult blood in the faeces/ gross bleeding were assessed on days 6 - 9. After sacrifice, the following were assessed: colonic histology, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, macrophage/monocyte marker ED1, cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2, as well as the production of leukotriene B(4) and E(4), prostaglandin E(2), its metabolite bicyclic-prostaglandin E(2) and thromboxane B(2) in the colonic tissue incubation in vitro. Rats receiving DSS exhibited bloody diarrhoea from day 6 onwards. Montelukast significantly reduced the occult blood in the faeces/ gross bleeding, maintained normal body weight gain and tended to decrease the ratio of leukotriene B(4)/ prostaglandin E(2) production in the colon in vitro. The results indicate that montelukast has some potential to ameliorate mild experimental colitis induced by DSS.
    Journal of physiology and pharmacology: an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society 10/2007; 58(3):455-67. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously showed that the one-electron reduction product of nitric oxide (NO), nitroxyl (HNO), irreversibly inhibits the proteolytic activity of the model cysteine protease papain. This result led us to investigate the differential effects of the nitrogen oxides, such as nitroxyl (HNO), NO, and in situ-generated peroxynitrite on cysteine modification-sensitive cellular proteolytic enzymes. We used Angeli's salt, diethylaminenonoate (DEA/NO), and 3-morpholinosydnoniminehydrochloride (SIN-1), as donors of HNO, NO, and peroxynitrite, respectively. In this study we evaluated their inhibitory activities on the lysosomal mammalian papain homologue cathepsin B and on the cytosolic 26S proteasome in THP-1 monocyte/macrophages after LPS activation or TPA differentiation. HNO-generating Angeli's salt caused a concentration-dependent (62 +/- 4% at 316 muM) inhibition of the 26S proteasome activity, resulting in accumulation of protein-bound polyubiquitinylated proteins in LPS-activated cells, whereas neither DEA/NO nor SIN-1 showed any effect. Angeli's salt, but not DEA/NO or SIN-1, also caused (94 +/- 2% at 316 muM) inhibition of lysosomal cathepsin B activity in LPS-activated cells. Induction of macrophage differentiation did not significantly alter the inhibitory effect of HNO on lysosomal cathepsin B activity, but protected the proteasome from HNO-induced inhibition. The protection awarded by macrophage differentiation was associated with induction of the GSH synthesis rate-limiting enzyme gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, as well as with increased intracellular GSH. In conclusion, HNO abrogates both lysosomal and cytosolic proteolysis in THP-1 cells. Macrophage differentiation, associated with upregulation of antioxidant defenses such as increased cellular GSH, does not protect the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin B from inhibition.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 08/2006; 41(1):120-31. · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We recently found that direct homotypic cell-cell contacts between human dermal fibroblasts induce a novel form of cell activation leading to non-apoptotic programmed cell death. As the major features of this process we identified massive induction of cyclo-oxygenase-2 and production of inflammatory prostaglandins. On the surface of the decomposing spheroids, activation of the major extracellular proteolytic cascade, plasminogen activation, associated with surface exposure of alpha-enolase, took place. To further characterize pericellular proteolysis by cell-cell contact-activated fibroblasts we studied the role of the other major extracellular proteolytic system, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMP expression in fibroblast clusters and monolayers was compared using mRNA microarrays and immunoblot analyses. The activities of MMPs were confirmed using MMP inhibitors and caseinolysis. In microarrays MMP-1, -10, and -14 (MT1-MMP) were induced 5.8-, 106-, and 5.6-fold, respectively. These findings were confirmed by immunoblotting. Radial caseinolysis showed low level of proteolytic activity in spheroid-conditioned media; ilomastat, a general inhibitor of MMPs, suppressed 50% of the proteolytic activity thus confirming it to be at least in part due to MMPs. A cocktail of tetracycline-derived MMP inhibitors suppressed lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release only 11%, and if combined with aprotinin 28%. Cell-cell contact activation of fibroblasts induced MMP-1, -10, and MT1-MMP expression, suggesting similar signaling to that in inflammation and cancer.
    Annals of Medicine 02/2006; 38(3):212-20. · 5.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the role of IFN-gamma and MAPKs on the expression and activity of the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-beta (C/EBP beta) in the T84 colon epithelial cell line. IFN-gamma induced the expression and activity of C/EBP beta and subsequently increased the secretion of IL-6 from these cells. Treatment with the p38 inhibitor SB-203580, the MEK1 and MEK2 inhibitor U-0126, or the translational inhibitor cycloheximide inhibited the induction of C/EBP beta and IL-6 by IFN-gamma, whereas the MEK1 inhibitor PD-98059 or the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein had no effect. These results suggest a role for MEK2 and p38 in IFN-gamma-mediated signal transduction and induction of C/EBP beta expression and activity associated with interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion in colon epithelial cells.
    AJP Cell Physiology 06/2003; 284(5):C1133-9. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In ulcerative colitis (UC), inflammatory damage is associated with increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide through the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) pathway. In an animal model of acute experimental colitis we have previously shown amelioration of inflammation with the highly selective iNOS inhibitor 1400W. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of selective iNOS inhibition on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by the colon mucosa in UC. Inflamed and uninflamed mucosa from patients with severe UC were incubated with a highly selective iNOS inhibitor N-[3-(aminomethyl)benzyl]acetamidine (1400W), with a relatively selective cNOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-esther (L-NAME), or with an NO-donor, S-nitroso-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP). Cytokine concentrations in the incubation medium were quantitated with ELISA. Compared to uninflamed mucosa there was an increase in iNOS protein and nitrotyrosine levels in inflamed mucosal samples. Immunolocalization of iNOS and nitrotyrosine showed their expression in inflammatory cells in the lamina propria. Expression of iNOS was also found in the epithelial brush border. Selective inhibition of iNOS suppressed the release of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha, by 66%) and interleukin-6 (IL-6, by 27%). The NO-donor, SNAP, augmented the secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-1-beta (by 62%, 52% and 175%, respectively) and decreased the release of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra, by 34%) by the inflamed mucosa. Moreover, in uninflamed samples, 1400W suppressed the production of TNF-alpha (by 69%) and incubation with SNAP decreased IL-6 concentrations by 48%. The cNOS over iNOS selective inhibitor L-NAME had no significant effects on the accumulation of cytokines. Selective inhibition of iNOS suppresses mucosal TNF-alpha and IL-6 release in active UC, whereas NO seems to exacerbate the inflammatory response. These results suggest that selective iNOS inhibition may have therapeutic promise in the treatment of UC.
    Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2003; 38(2):186-92. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway participates in the physiology and in many pathological processes in the eye, such as glaucoma. The aim of the present study was to compare the ocular hypotensive effect of different NO-donors, and to get more information on the role of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) in this process. The test compounds were administered topically or intravitreally in the eye of a normotensive rabbit. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured with a pneumatonometer after topical anesthesia. The metabolites of NO (nitrite, nitrate, NOx) and cGMP were assayed from the aqueous humor and plasma. NO-synthase (NOS) protein expression was assayed in the ciliary body by Western blotting. The maximal lowering of IOP was achieved as follows: atriopeptin III (concentration 78 (microM, decrease in IOP 50%), atriopeptin II (84 (microM 37%). 8-Br-cGMP (90 mM, 37%), zaprinast + 8-Br-cGMP (1 mM + 90 mM, 34%), L-arginine (1 mM, 29%), SNP (40 mM, 28%), nitrosocaptopril (100 mM, 28%), S-nitrosothiol (SNOG) (10 mM, 27%), YC-1 (10 (microM, 25%), zaprinast + SNP (1 mM + 40 mM, 22%), spermine NONOate (100 mM, 20%) [corrected]. The decrease in IOP lasted for 2-5 hr, except with atriopeptin II and III, when IOP values were first normalized in 6 hr and 2 days, respectively. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that by increasing the activity of L-arginine/NO/cGMP-pathway it is possible to lower IOP in rabbits equally to the currently used antiglaucomatous drugs.
    Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 03/2002; 18(1):11-23. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cysteinyl leukotrienes play a part in inflammatory reactions such as inflammatory bowel diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of a cys-leukotriene-1 receptor antagonist, montelukast, on trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Montelukast (5, 10 or 20 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, zileuton (50 or 100 mg kg(-1) day(-1), a positive control), or the vehicle was administered intracolonically to the rats twice daily throughout the study, starting 12 h before the induction of colitis with TNBS. The severity of colitis (macroscopic and histological assessment, as well as myeloperoxidase activity), the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2, and eicosanoid production in colonic tissue incubation were assessed 24 and 72 h after colitis induction. Montelukast increased prostaglandin E(2) production at 24 h and tended to reduce the cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression at 72 h, but did not influence the severity of colitis. Zileuton failed to decrease the inflammatory reaction in spite of reduced leukotriene B(4) production at 72 h. The results suggest that drugs that block cysteinyl leukotriene receptors have limited potential to ameliorate acute TNBS-induced colitis, but that they exert some beneficial effects which make them capable of modulating the course of colitis.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 11/2001; 429(1-3):309-18. · 2.59 Impact Factor
  • R Holma, P Salmenperä, J Lohi, H Vapaatalo, R Korpela
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    ABSTRACT: Certain lactobacilli reduce the severity of experimental colitis. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a human strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and a rat strain Lactobacillus reuteri R2LC on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus reuteri R2LC or sulphasalazine were given orally to the rats. Colitis was assessed 72 h after induction with acetic acid. Lactobacillus reuteri R2LC significantly antagonized body weight loss caused by inflammation compared with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and sulphasalazine, and oedema formation in the colon compared with sulphasalazine. Lactobacillus reuteri R2LC reduced the median value of macroscopic ulceration and the protein content of inducible nitric oxide synthase by 50% and the median of the protein content of inducible cyclooxygenase by 30% compared with that of the colitis control group, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reduced the median of inducible nitric oxide protein content by 40% and increased the median of inducible cyclooxygenase protein content by 30% compared with the median value of the colitis control group, but these differences were not statistically significant. The rat strain Lactobacillus reuteri R2LC, but not the human strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, is of benefit in reducing the severity of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. These results suggest that it is not the total amount of Lactobacillus but the particular species or strain of Lactobacillus that is important in attenuating experimental colitis.
    Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 07/2001; 36(6):630-5. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Functional and morphological changes of blood vessels in cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced hypertension and nephrotoxicity were studied in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The role of the L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the importance of oxidative stress in CsA toxicity were also assessed. SHR (7-8 week old) on a high-sodium diet were treated with CsA (5 mg kg(-1) d(-1) s.c.) for 6 weeks. A proportion of the rats were treated concomitantly with the NO precursor L-arginine (1.7 g kg(-1)d(-1) p.o.). CsA elevated blood pressure and caused renal dysfunction and morphological nephrotoxicity. CsA also impaired mesenteric and renal arterial function and caused structural damage to intrarenal and extrarenal small arteries and arterioles. Medial atrophy of the mesenteric resistance vessels and decreased viability of smooth muscle cells of the thoracic aorta were observed. Renal and arterial damage was associated with the presence of inflammatory cells. CsA did not affect markers of the L-arginine-NO pathway (urinary cyclic GMP excretion or endothelial or inducible NO synthase expression in kidney, aorta or heart) or oxidative stress (urinary excretion of 8-isoprostaglandin F2alpha, plasma urate concentration or total radical trapping capacity). Concomitant L-arginine treatment did not affect CsA-induced changes in blood pressure or histological findings but tended to alleviate the arterial dysfunction. The renal and cardiovascular toxicity of CsA was associated with arterial dysfunction and morphological changes in small arteries and arterioles in SHR on a high-sodium diet. The findings did not support the role of oxidative stress or a defect in the L-arginine-NO pathway.
    Journal of physiology and pharmacology: an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society 04/2001; 52(1):21-38. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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