[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alcohol, which is predominantly metabolized in the liver, is a major hepatic toxicant that readily induces hepatic steatosis. The expression of CCAAT enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), especially the C/EBP delta variety, is increased in the early phase of adipogenesis. However, the role of C/EBP delta in ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis is unclear.
Male C57BL/6J mice were randomized to one of four groups: a control group, a group receiving orally administered ethanol (4 g ethanol/kg body weight) (EtOH), a high-fat-diet (HF) group and an EtOH+HF group. Mice were sacrificed after 5 or 10 weeks for various measurements. The in vitro effect of ethanol on the expression of C/EBP alpha, beta and delta was studied in HepG2 cells.
By week 5, ethanol treatment had significantly increased liver C/EBP delta and beta protein expression (by 2.3- and 1.4-fold, respectively), which then returned to the control level by week 10. In contrast, the expression of C/EBP alpha was evident only at week 10. The in vitro study shows that C/EBP delta expression was elevated significantly at 24 h but not at 48 or 72 h. C/EBP beta expression was highest at 48 h, whereas C/EBP alpha expression was highest at 72 h. We also found that a low concentration of ethanol plus oleic acid enhanced C/EBP delta expression in HepG2 cells.
C/EBP delta expression appears to play an important role in the early phase of ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis in mice and in ethanol-treated HepG2 cells. In addition, EtOH+HF enhances the expression of C/EBP delta in HepG2 cells. Thus, C/EBP delta might be a therapeutic target in alcoholic hepatosteatosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: S-Adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) has been implicated as a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. As SAH is a potent inhibitor of all cellular methyltransferases, we herein examined the hypothesis that SAH may increase the formation of amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) in BV-2 mouse microglial cells through hypomethylation of presenilin 1 protein (PS1) and beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), both of which cleave Abeta precursor protein (APP) to form Abeta. The results showed that SAH increased Abeta protein formation in a concentration-dependent manner (10-500 nM), and this effect of SAH was accompanied by significantly increased expression of APP and PS1 proteins, although SAH only significantly increased the expression of BACE1 at the highest concentration used (500 nM). SAH (500 nM) markedly induced hypomethylation of APP and PS1 gene promoters. Incubation of cells with 5'-azc (20 microM), also an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases enhanced Abeta protein expression and APP and PS1 gene promoters hypomethylation. By contrast, pre-incubation of cells with betaine (1.0 mM), 30 min followed by incubation with SAH (500 nM) or 5'-azc (20 microM) for 24h markedly prevented the expression of Abeta protein (by 50%, P<0.05) and the gene promoter hypomethylation of APP and PS1. Taken together, this study demonstrates that SAH increases the production of Abeta in BV-2 cells possibly by increased expression of APP and induction of hypomethylation of APP and PS1 gene promoters.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The deleterious effects of ethanol in senescence-accelerated prone 8 mice (SAMP8) and the protective role of nicotinamide (NAM) against ethanol-induced liver injury were examined. The mice were orally administered 2 g ethanol/kg BW and 200 mg or 500 mg NAM/kg BW three times/week for 10 weeks. Results showed that ethanol elevated activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) significantly. Ethanol also enhanced the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls in the liver, whereas ethanol treatment resulted in significantly lower activity of hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Hematoxylin and eosin staining indicated moderate to severe fatty infiltration but not fibrosis. Administration of high NAM (500 mg/kg BW) led to markedly decreased levels of hepatic MDA, protein carbonyls, fatty infiltration and the activity of ALT, and increased activity of GPx, catalase and SOD in the ethanol-fed group. Thus, using SAMP8 as animal model for ethanol-induced liver injury in the aged mice, this study demonstrates that NAM is effective in protecting such damage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress, which is defined as an imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants, has been demonstrated to mediate the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced injury. Senescence-accelerated mice prone P8 (SAMP8) is considered an excellent model for rodent aging. However, the deleterious effect of ethanol-induced liver injury of SAM P8 has not been established. In this study we investigated the antioxidant enzyme activities in the liver of SAMP8 during chronic ethanol exposure. The mice were orally administered 0, 0.5, 2 and 4g ethanol/kg BW three times/week for 10 weeks. Results showed that ethanol elevated activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) slightly and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were increased significantly in ethanol-fed 0.5 and 4 g/kg BW groups. Hematoxylin and eosin staining indicated moderate to severe fatty infiltration but not fibrosis. Ethanol also enhanced the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls in the liver, whereas ethanol treatment resulted in significantly lower activity of hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD). We conclude that ethanol damaged the liver of SAMP8 by increasing oxidative stress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effects of endurance training on the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), a rate-limiting enzyme of gluconeogenesis, were studied in the obese Zucker rats. We used a moderate exercise program consisting of treadmill running at 20 m/min and 0-degree gradient for 1 h/day, 7 days/week, for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, insulin action on glucose disposal rate was measured using the glucose-insulin index, the product of the areas under the curve of glucose and insulin during the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. Furthermore, changes of hepatic PEPCK gene expression were detected using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to assay the mRNA level and Western blot analysis to detect the protein level. Different to sedentary obese rats, an elevation in the value of glucose-insulin index from the exercised obese rats declined, indicating the marked effect of regular moderate exercise on the improvement of insulin sensitivity in this insulin resistant animal model. Moreover, the diabetes-related elevation in mRNA level and protein content of hepatic PEPCK were observed in non-exercise obese groups but they were markedly reduced by exercise training. In addition, chronic exercise training enhanced the insulin sensitivity of lean Zucker rats, since the value of glucose-insulin index was lower than that of untrained lean groups. Also, the hepatic PEPCK gene expressions both the mRNA and protein levels were reduced in exercised lean Zucker rats as compared with their sedentary littermates. These results suggest that modulation of hepatic PEPCK gene expression by chronic exercise training might be related to the enhancement of insulin sensitivity. Thus, endurance exercise training could aid in the prevention and/or treatment of individuals with insulin resistance.
Life Sciences 07/2006; 79(3):240-6. DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2005.12.044 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aerobic exercise, including treadmill running has been widely used to treat insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We studied the effects of endurance training on gene expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) in skeletal muscle of obese Zucker rats: the 8-week moderate exercise program consisted of treadmill running at 20 m/min and 0 degrees gradient for 1 h/day, 7 days/week. After 8 weeks, insulin action on glucose disposal rate was measured by glucose-insulin index, the product of the areas under the curve of glucose and insulin during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance testing. In contrast to results for sedentary obese rats, exercise training decreased plasma levels of insulin and glucose as well as the glucose-insulin index in obese rats, indicating the merit of regular moderate exercise for improvement of insulin sensitivity in this insulin-resistant animal model. Also, diabetes-related reductions in mRNA and protein content of AdipoR1 in soleus muscle were observed in obese rats at baseline; they were markedly reversed after the 8-week exercise program. However, such exercise training did not alter plasma levels of insulin and glucose in lean Zucker rats. Also, AdipoR1 gene expression in soleus muscle was not changed by exercise in lean Zucker rats compared with the sedentary, lean littermates. These results suggest that long-term exercise training may reverse reduced AdipoR1 gene expression in soleus muscle and improve insulin sensitivity in the obese Zucker rats. Thus, an endurance exercise training is probably helpful clinically for obese individuals with insulin resistance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. The effects of endurance training on the anti-oxidant status in diabetes were studied using obese Zucker rats. 2. We used a moderate exercise programme consisting of treadmill running at 20 m/min and 0% incline for 1 h/day, 7 days/week, for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, changes in hepatic anti-oxidant enzymes in terms of protein content and mRNA levels were detected using western blotting analysis and northern blotting analysis, respectively. In addition, anti-oxidant enzyme activity was determined. 2. A significant reduction in mRNA levels and the protein content of hepatic Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were observed in non-exercise obese groups, but the mRNA and protein levels of these enzymes were markedly increased after exercise training. In addition, exercise training reversed the decreased enzyme activities of Mn-SOD and GPx in obese Zucker rats. 3. The diabetes-related lowering of the glutathione (GSH) concentration was elevated in exercised obese Zucker rats, indicating a marked effect of regular moderate exercise on the endogenous anti-oxidant system. 4. There were no marked changes in hepatic Cu/Zn-SOD in terms of mRNA levels, protein content and activity in sedentary obese Zucker rats compared with their lean littermates. Endurance training did not modify the gene expression and activity of hepatic Cu/Zn-SOD. 5. The results of the present study suggest that regular moderate exercise could improve the anti-oxidant defence function of Mn-SOD, GPx and GSH in obese Zucker rats.
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 09/2004; 31(8):506-11. DOI:10.1111/j.1440-1681.2004.04035.x · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellular ATP is commonly determined as production of bioluminescence using a luciferin-luciferase reaction system. Before the measurement of bioluminescence, cellular ATP must first be extracted. Two commonly used extraction methods are: () Tris-borate buffer (pH 9.2) coupled with a heating process (to inactivate ATPase) and () perchloric acid followed by neutralization. However, we found that both Tris-borate buffer and perchloric acid interfered with the luciferin-luciferase system. Here, we report a convenient single-step boiling deionized water (DW) method for extracting cellular ATP to replace perchloric acid and Tris-borate buffer. We showed that the boiling DW method did not interfere with the bioluminescence and was effective in inhibiting ATPase. This improved method required no neutralization and dilution and thus was more convenient than the perchloric acid method. Unlike the Tris-borate/heating procedure, our method did not require a separate heating step because boiling DW effectively inhibited ATPase and thus accomplished the two missions in one step for both suspended and attached cells. The improved method was precise for both suspended cells and attached cells, when cell numbers were between 10(3) and 10(6). The method also was more sensitive than other methods because it required much fewer cells (10(4) to 10(5)) than other methods for ATP determination. Thus, this one-step method is suitable for routine assay of cellular ATP for both suspended and attached cells.