[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Definitive chemoradiation (dCRT) is considered curative intent treatment for patients with inoperable or irresectable esophageal cancer. Acute toxicity data focussing on dCRT are lacking.
A retrospective analysis of patients treated with dCRT consisting of 6 cycles of paclitaxel 50 mg/m2 and carboplatin AUC2 concomitant with radiotherapy (50.4 Gy\1.8Gy) from 2006 through 2011 at a single tertiary center was performed. Toxicity, hospital admissions and survival were analysed.
127 patients were treated with definitive chemoradiation. 33 patients were medically inoperable, 94 patients were irresectable, Despite of a significantly smaller tumor length in inoperable patients grade >=3 toxicity was significantly recorded more often in the inoperable patients (44%) than in irresectable patients (20%) (p < 0.05) Hospital admission occurred more often in the inoperable patients (39%) than in the irresectable patients (22%) (p < 0.05) Median number of cycles of chemotherapy was five for inoperable patients (p = 0.01), while six cycles could be administered to patients with irresectable disease. Recurrence and survival were not significantly different. The odds ratio for developing toxicity >= grade 3 was 2.6 (95% CI 1.0-6.4 p < 0.05) for being an inoperable patient and 1.2 (95% CI 1.0-1.4 p = 0.02) per 10 extra micromol/l creatinine.
Our data show that acute toxicity of definitive chemoradiation is worse in patients with medically inoperable esophageal carcinoma compared to patients with irresectable esophageal cancer and mainly occurs in the 5th cycle of treatment. Improvement of supportive care should be undertaken in this more fragile group.
BMC Cancer 01/2014; 14(1):56. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evaluation of patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) by dye-based chromoendoscopy, optical chromoendoscopy, autofluorescence imaging, or confocal laser endomicroscopy does not significantly increase the number diagnosed with early neoplasia, compared to high-definition white light endoscopy (HD-WLE) with random biopsy analysis. These newer imaging techniques are not more effective in standard surveillance of patients with BE because the prevalence of early neoplasia is low and HD-WLE with random biopsy analysis detects most cases of neoplasia. Evaluation and treatment of patients with BE and early-stage neoplasia should be centralized in tertiary referral centers, where procedures are performed under optimal conditions, by expert endoscopists. Lesions that require resection are almost always detected by HD-WLE, although advanced imaging techniques can detect additional flat lesions. However, these are of limited clinical significance because they are effectively eradicated by ablation therapy. No endoscopic imaging technique can reliably assess submucosal or lymphangio invasion. Endoscopic resection of early-stage neoplasia in patients with BE is important for staging and management. Optical chromoendoscopy can also be used to evaluate lesions before endoscopic resection, and in follow up after successful ablation therapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and study aim: In our experience, biopsies from small residual islands of nonburied Barrett's mucosa after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) are occasionally reported by pathologists to contain "buried Barrett's" upon histological evaluation, despite the fact that these islands of columnar mucosa were visible endoscopically. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of buried Barrett's in biopsies obtained from small residual Barrett's islands ( < 5 mm) sampled post-RFA, compared with biopsies from normal neosquamous epithelium. Patients and methods: Biopsies obtained from normal-appearing neosquamous epithelium and from small Barrett's islands ( < 5 mm) in 69 consecutive Barrett's patients treated with RFA were evaluated for the presence of buried columnar mucosa. Results: A total of 2515 biopsies were obtained from neosquamous epithelium during follow-up post-RFA. Buried glands were found in 0.1 % of biopsies from endoscopically normal neosquamous epithelium. However, when small islands of columnar mucosa were biopsied, buried glands were detected in 21 % of biopsies. Conclusion: To avoid accidental sampling of small islands resulting in a false-positive histological diagnosis of buried Barrett's, thorough inspection should be performed before obtaining biopsies during post-RFA follow-up.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: & Aims: Studies have reported that autofluorescence imaging (AFI) increases targeted detection of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN) and intramucosal cancer (IMC) in patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE). We analyzed data from trials to assess the clinical relevance of AFI-detected lesions.
We collected information on 371 patients with BE, along with endoscopy and histology findings, from databases of 5 prospective studies of AFI (mean age 65 y, 305 male). We compared these data with outcomes of treatment and follow up. Study endpoints included the diagnostic value of AFI (proportion of surveillance patients with HGIN or IMC detected only by AFI-targeted biopsies), and value of AFI in selection of therapy (the proportion of patients for which detection of a HGIN or IMC lesion by AFI changed the treatment strategy based on white-light endoscopy or random biopsy analysis) RESULTS: Of study participants, 211 were referred for surveillance and 160 were referred for early-stage neoplasia; HGIN or IMC were diagnosed in 147 patients. In 211 patients undergoing surveillance, 39 had HGIN or IMC (23 detected by white-light endoscopy, 11 detected by random biopsies detected, 5 detected by AFI). So, the diagnostic value of AFI was 5/211 (2%). In 24 patients, HGIN or IMC was diagnosed using only AFI. In 33 patients, AFI detected additional HGINs or IMCs next to lesions detected by primary white-light endoscopy. Lesions detected by AFI were treated in 57 patients: 26 patients underwent radiofrequency ablation and showed full remission of neoplasia whereas 31 underwent endoscopic resection and 6 were found to have IMC. The value of AFI in selection of therapy was 6/371 (2%).
Based on an analysis of data from clinical trials of patients with BE, detection of lesions by AFI has little effect on the diagnosis of early-stage neoplasia or therapeutic decision making. AFI therefore has a limited role in routine surveillance or management of patients with BE.
Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 10/2013; · 5.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Numerous patients will develop recurrent disease after esophagectomy for esophageal carcinoma (EC). In literature, survival after recurrent EC is poor with 6-8 months. In these studies, diagnostic imaging during follow-up (FU) is routinely performed. In the Netherlands, routine imaging is not part of FU and only performed on indication. The aim of this study was to determine survival after diagnosis of recurrent disease in patients after esophagectomy without routine imaging during FU. METHODS: All EC patients who underwent esophagectomy between 1993 and 2010 were included and followed for clinical evidence of recurrent EC. Location, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of recurrent disease were registered. Pattern of recurrence was compared between patients who underwent neoadjuvant therapy and patients who underwent surgery alone. Survival after detection of recurrence was determined in all patients and related to the year of surgery. RESULTS: A total of 493 of 1,088 patients (45 %) who underwent esophagectomy between 1993 and 2010 developed recurrent disease. Median interval between esophagectomy and recurrence was 10.5 months. Within the first 2 years after surgery, 33 % of patients developed recurrent EC. The majority of patients (51 %) were diagnosed with distant metastases. Locoregional recurrence occurred significantly less often among patients who underwent neoadjuvant therapy (6 vs 16 %, p = .017). Median survival after diagnosis of recurrent disease was 3 months. No relation was observed between the year of surgery and survival after recurrent disease (p = .931). CONCLUSIONS: Survival after recurrent EC in patients who undergo FU without routine imaging after esophagectomy is approximately 3 months and has not improved over the past 18 years.
Annals of Surgical Oncology 04/2013; · 4.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: White light endoscopy with random biopsies is the standard for detection of intestinal metaplasia (IM) and neoplasia in patients with Barrett's oesophagus (BO). Narrow band imaging (NBI) highlights surface patterns that correlate with IM and neoplasia in BO. OBJECTIVE: To compare high-definition white light (HD-WLE) and NBI for detection of IM and neoplasia in BO. DESIGN: International, randomised, crossover trial comparing HD-WLE and NBI. Patients referred for BO screening/surveillance at three tertiary referral centres were prospectively enrolled and randomised to HD-WLE or NBI followed by other procedures in 3-8 weeks. During HD-WLE, four quadrant biopsies every 2 cm, together with targeted biopsies of visible lesions (Seattle protocol), were obtained. During NBI examination, mucosal and vascular patterns were noted and targeted biopsies were obtained. All biopsies were read by a single expert gastrointestinal pathologist in a blinded fashion. RESULTS: 123 patients with BO (mean age 61; 93% male; 97% Caucasian) with mean circumferential and maximal extents of 1.8 and 3.6 cm, respectively, were enrolled. Both HD-WLE and NBI detected 104/113 (92%) patients with IM, but NBI required fewer biopsies per patient (3.6 vs 7.6, p<0.0001). NBI detected a higher proportion of areas with dysplasia (30% vs 21%, p=0.01). During examination with NBI, all areas of high-grade dysplasia and cancer had an irregular mucosal or vascular pattern. CONCLUSIONS: NBI targeted biopsies can have the same IM detection rate as an HD-WLE examination with the Seattle protocol while requiring fewer biopsies. In addition, NBI targeted biopsies can detect more areas with dysplasia. Regular appearing NBI surface patterns did not harbour high-grade dysplasia/cancer, suggesting that biopsies could be avoided in these areas.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and study aims: The clinical utility of narrow-band imaging (NBI) for Barrett's esophagus is limited by the multiplicity of classification schemes. We evaluated the interobserver agreement and accuracy of a new consensus-driven simplified binary classification of NBI surface patterns.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with or without prior endoscopic resection safely and effectively removes early neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus. We speculated that this approach might also be suited for early squamous neoplasia of the esophagus. The aim of the study was to assess our initial experiences with RFA for high grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN) and esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) limited to the mucosa.
This was a prospective case series study in two tertiary centers. Patients with at least one unstained lesion (USL) of the esophagus using Lugol's chromoendoscopy and squamous HGIN/ESCC upon biopsy were included. In the case of nonflat USLs, endoscopic resection was performed for staging and to render the mucosa flat. After endoscopic resection and subsequent circumferential RFA, chromoendoscopy was repeated every 3 months with focal RFA of residual USLs. Follow-up chromoendoscopy was repeated at 6 months and annually thereafter. The main outcome measure was complete histological response for any squamous intraepithelial neoplasia or ESCC.
A total of 13 patients (10 HGIN, three ESCC) were included. Following endoscopic resection in nine patients, the median extent of USLs was 4 cm and 50 % of circumference. All 13 patients achieved a complete response after a median of 2 RFA sessions (IQR 1 - 3 sessions). RFA-related complications included two mucosal lacerations (at the endoscopic resection scar) and one intramural hematoma, none requiring therapy. Endoscopic resection-/RFA-related complications were three stenoses. Dilation resulted in perforation in one patient (managed with a covered stent). There were no recurrences (median follow-up 17 months [IQR 11 - 22 months]).
This study suggests that RFA with or without prior endoscopic resection for esophageal squamous HGIN and mucosal ESCC is feasible and effective.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoscopic trimodal imaging (ETMI) may improve detection of early neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus (BE). Studies with ETMI so far have been performed in tertiary referral settings only.
To compare ETMI with standard video endoscopy (SVE) for the detection of neoplasia in BE patients with an intermediate-risk profile.
Multicenter, randomized, crossover study.
BE patients with confirmed low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LGIN) underwent both ETMI and SVE in random order (interval 6-16 weeks). During ETMI, BE was inspected with high-resolution endoscopy followed by autofluorescence imaging (AFI). All visible lesions were then inspected with narrow-band imaging. During ETMI and SVE, visible lesions were sampled followed by 4-quadrant random biopsies every 2 cm.
Overall histological yield of ETMI and SVE and targeted histological yield of ETMI and SVE.
A total of 99 patients (79 men, 63±10 years) underwent both procedures. ETMI had a significantly higher targeted histological yield because of additional detection of 22 lesions with LGIN/high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN)/carcinoma (Ca) by AFI. There was no significant difference in the overall histological yield (targeted+random) between ETMI and SVE. HGIN/Ca was diagnosed only by random biopsies in 6 of 24 patients and 7 of 24 patients, with ETMI and SVE, respectively.
Inspection, with high-resolution endoscopy and AFI, was performed sequentially.
ETMI performed in a community-based setting did not improve the overall detection of dysplasia compared with SVE. The diagnosis of dysplasia is still being made in a significant number of patients by random biopsies. Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of LGIN have a significant risk of HGIN/Ca. (Clinical trial registration number: ISRCTN91816824; NTR867.).