[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The endocannabinoid system has been demonstrated to be active in the pancreatic β-cell. However the effects of the endocannabinoids (ECs) on insulin secretion are not well defined and may vary depending on the metabolic state of the β-cell. Specifically it is not known whether the effects of the ECs occur by activation of the cannabinoid receptors or via their direct interaction with the ion channels of the β-cell. To begin to delineate the effects of ECs on β-cell function, we examined how the EC, 2-AG influences β-cell ion channels in the absence of glucose stimulation. The mouse insulinoma cell line R7T1 was used to survey the effects of 2-AG on the high voltage activated (HVA) calcium, the delayed rectifier (K(v)), and the ATP-sensitive K (K(ATP)) channels by whole cell patch clamp recording. At 2mM glucose, 2-AG inhibited the HVA calcium (the majority of which are L-type channels), K(v), and K(ATP) channels. The channel exhibiting the most sensitivity to 2-AG blockade was the K(ATP) channel, where the IC(50) for 2-AG was 1 μM. Pharmacological agents revealed that the blockade of all these channels was independent of cannabinoid receptors. Our results provide a mechanism for the previous observations that CB1R agonists increase insulin secretion at low glucose concentrations through CB1R independent blockade of the K(ATP) channel.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/2012; 423(1):13-8. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stromal-Derived Inducing Activity (SDIA) is one of the most efficient methods of generating dopaminergic (DA) neurons from embryonic stem cells (ESC). DA neuron induction can be achieved by co-culturing ESC with the mouse stromal cell lines PA6 or MS5. The molecular nature of this effect, which has been termed "SDIA" is so far unknown. Recently, we found that factors secreted by PA6 cells provided lineage-specific instructions to induce DA differentiation of human ESC (hESC).
In the present study, we compared PA6 cells to various cell lines lacking the SDIA effect, and employed genome expression analysis to identify differentially-expressed signaling molecules. Among the factors highly expressed by PA6 cells, and known to be associated with CNS development, were stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1/CXCL12), pleiotrophin (PTN), insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), and ephrin B1 (EFNB1). When these four factors, the combination of which was termed SPIE, were applied to hESC, they induced differentiation to TH-positive neurons in vitro. RT-PCR and western blot analysis confirmed the expression of midbrain specific markers, including engrailed 1, Nurr1, Pitx3, and dopamine transporter (DAT) in cultures influenced by these four molecules. Electrophysiological recordings showed that treatment of hESC with SPIE induced differentiation of neurons that were capable of generating action potentials and forming functional synaptic connections.
The combination of SDF-1, PTN, IGF2, and EFNB1 mimics the DA phenotype-inducing property of SDIA and was sufficient to promote differentiation of hESC to functional midbrain DA neurons. These findings provide a method for differentiating hESC to form DA neurons, without a requirement for the use of animal-derived cell lines or products.
PLoS ONE 02/2009; 4(8):e6606. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We initiated differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into dopamine neurons, obtained a purified population of neuronal precursor cells by cell sorting, and determined patterns of gene transcription.
Dopaminergic differentiation of hESCs was initiated by culturing hESCs with a feeder layer of PA6 cells. Differentiating cells were then sorted to obtain a pure population of PSA-NCAM-expressing neuronal precursors, which were then analyzed for gene expression using Massive Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS). Individual genes as well as regions of the genome which were activated were determined.
A number of genes known to be involved in the specification of dopaminergic neurons, including MSX1, CDKN1C, Pitx1 and Pitx2, as well as several novel genes not previously associated with dopaminergic differentiation, were expressed. Notably, we found that a specific region of the genome located on chromosome 11p15.5 was highly activated. This region contains several genes which have previously been associated with the function of dopaminergic neurons, including the gene for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, IGF2, and CDKN1C, which cooperates with Nurr1 in directing the differentiation of dopaminergic neurons. Other genes in this region not previously recognized as being involved in the functions of dopaminergic neurons were also activated, including H19, TSSC4, and HBG2. IGF2 and CDKN1C were also found to be highly expressed in mature human TH-positive dopamine neurons isolated from human brain samples by laser capture.
The present data suggest that the H19-IGF2 imprinting region on chromosome 11p15.5 is involved in the process through which undifferentiated cells are specified to become neuronal precursors and/or dopaminergic neurons.
PLoS ONE 02/2008; 3(1):e1422. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are considered a renewable source of dopamine producing neurons, and are of particular interest for their potential clinical use in Parkinson's disease. In this study, we characterized human dopaminergic neurons generated by stromal-derived inducing activity (SDIA) from BG01V2, a strain of human embryonic stem cell line, BG01, characterized by a chromosome 17 trisomy. Similar chromosomal changes have been repeatedly observed in hESC cultures in different laboratories, indicating the importance of chromosome 17 for growth and adaptation of hESC to culture.
We investigated in vitro proliferation of differentiating cells using a BrDU incorporation assay, and monitored the cell population in long term cultures. Despite the cytogenetic abnormality, TH+ neurons were postmitotic at all stages of differentiation. After 30 days of differentiation, cell division ceased in 91% of the overall population of cells in the culture, indicating intact cell cycle regulation.
Expression of midbrain specific marker genes (Otx2, Pax5, Msx-1) showed differentiation of hESC-derived neural progenitor cells into midbrain specific dopamine neurons. These neurons expressed the dopamine transporter (DAT), and displayed functional DAT activity and electrical excitability.
TH+ cells derived from the BG01V2 hESC line using SDIA are postmitotic and have functional characteristics of normal dopaminergic neurons.
Restorative neurology and neuroscience 02/2008; 26(6):447-58. · 2.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of the endocannabinoid anandamide (arachidonylethanolamide, AEA) on the function of alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) stably expressed in SH-EP1 cells were investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. In the concentration range of 200 nM to 2 microM, AEA significantly reduced the maximal amplitudes and increased the desensitization of acetylcholine (ACh)-induced currents. The effects of AEA could be neither replicated by the exogenous cannabinoid Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (1 microM) nor reversed by the selective CB1 receptor antagonist 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-N-(piperidin-1-yl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (SR-141716A) (1 microM). The actions of AEA were apparent when applied extracellularly but not during intracellular dialysis. Furthermore, the effects of AEA ACh currents were not altered by the calcium chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid. The onset and washout of the AEA effects required several minutes (10-30 min), but the latter was significantly decreased in the presence of lipid-free bovine serum albumin (BSA). Moreover, BSA alone increased peak ACh current amplitudes and diminished desensitization rates in naive cells, suggesting a tonic modulation of alpha4beta2 nAChR function by an endogenous AEA-like lipid. Further analysis of AEA effects on alpha4beta2 nAChR-mediated currents, using a two-stage desensitization model, indicated that the first forward rate constant leading to desensitization, k(1), increased nearly 30-fold as a linear function of the AEA concentration. In contrast, the observation that the other three rate constants were unaltered by AEA suggested that AEA raised the energy of the activated state. These results indicate that AEA directly inhibits the function of alpha4beta2 nAChRs in a CB1 receptor-independent manner.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cells grown in monolayer culture offer a convenient system for binding and other experiments under conditions that preserve the complexity of the living state. Kinetics experiments, however, may be distorted by the time course of drug penetration into even so simple a "tissue" as the monolayer. The impediments include unstirred layers both above and between the cells, the congregation of receptors within the confined space between cells, and nonspecific binding to membrane components. The contributions of these factors were investigated in cultures of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells either nontransfected or stably transfected with mu opioid receptors. The dissociation of [3H]naloxone was four times faster under displacement than under infinite dilution conditions, clearly demonstrating the "retention effect" of receptors confined in space. Even the penetration of this ligand between nontransfected cells showed salient delays with respect to diffusion into a slab, indicating that nonspecific, low-affinity binding to membrane components was arresting its progress. The optical sectioning capabilities of confocal microscopy demonstrated that the kinetics of two fluorescent antagonists depended on the vertical plane, providing direct evidence for slowed diffusion down a single cell depth. Modeling shows that kinetic errors increase with receptor density, forward rate constant, and the thickness of the unstirred layer.
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics 02/2006; 45(1):43-58. · 1.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NTera2, a human embryonal carcinoma (EC) stem cell line, shares many characteristics with human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). To determine whether NTera2 can serve as a useful surrogate for hESCs, we compared global gene expression between undifferentiated NTera2, multiple undifferentiated hESC cell lines, and their differentiated derivatives, and we showed that NTera2 cells share multiple markers with hESCs. Similar to hESCs, NTera2 cells differentiated into TH-positive cells that express dopaminergic markers including AADC, DAT, Nurr1, TrkB, TrkC, and GFRA1 when co-cultured with PA6 cells. Flow cytometry analysis showed that tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) expression increased, whereas SSEA4 expression decreased as cells differentiated. Medium conditioned by PA6 cells stimulated differentiation of NTera2 cells to generate TH-positive cells that expressed dopaminergic markers. Flow cytometry selected polysialylated (PSA-NCAM) cells responded to medium conditioned by PA6 cells by differentiating into TH-positive cells and expressed dopaminergic markers. Sorted cells differentiated for 4 weeks in PA6 cell conditioned media included functional neurons that responded to neurotransmitters and exhibited electronic excitability. Therefore, NTera2 cell dopaminergic neuronal differentiation and PSA-NCAM enrichment provides a useful system for the future study of hESCs.
Stem Cells and Development 11/2005; 14(5):517-34. · 4.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because many studies rely upon detergents to solubilize lipophilic agents such as cannabinoid drugs, we examined the effect of commonly employed detergents on the function of the cloned alpha(7) subunit of the nicotinic ACh receptor. Homomeric alpha(7) receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and the two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique was used to assess their electrophysiological properties. The detergents Tween 80 and Triton X-100 reversibly inhibited ACh (100 microM)-induced inward currents in a concentration-dependent manner, with IC(50) values of 610 nM and 1.4 microM, respectively. The effects of these detergents were independent of membrane potential, and they were not mediated by endogenous Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) channels, since they were unaffected by intracellularly injected BAPTA, and recorded in Ca(2+)-free bathing solution containing 2 mM Ba(2+). Both detergents also decreased the maximal effect of ACh, without significantly affecting its EC(50), indicating a non-competitive interaction with the nACh alpha(7) receptors. In contrast to the effects of these detergents, we found that cholic acid (10 microM), DMSO (10 microM) and Tocrisol (0.01% v/v) did not cause a significant effect on nicotinic responses. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the detergents Tween 80 and Triton X-100 are potent inhibitors of neuronal nACh alpha(7) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and we suggest that studies utilizing these detergents to solubilize lipophilic drugs should be scrutinized for such effects.
Journal of Neuroscience Methods 09/2004; 137(2):167-73. · 2.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The two-stage reaction whereby the antagonist beta-funaltrexamine (beta-FNA) binds covalently to micro opioid receptors makes it a highly discriminating probe into the tertiary structure of the receptor's recognition pocket. To obtain a quantitative measure of how well this pocket is preserved in a mutated form of the receptor, in which His-297 is substituted with glutamine, we employed [3H]-beta-FNA to evaluate the kinetic rate constants for both the reversible as well as the irreversible stages of its binding to wild-type and mutant H297Q micro receptors stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The expression levels of the wild-type and mutant H297Q receptors were matched by exploiting the variation in receptor density as a function of plating day and by raising the expression level by pretreatment with naloxone. We found that all of the kinetic rate constants for [3H]-beta-FNA were diminished by about one-half at the mutant H297Q micro receptors with respect to wild-type receptors. By comparison, the association rate constant of [3H]-naloxone likewise decreased by one-half; however, the dissociation rate constant increased 5-fold at the mutant H297Q receptor. We conclude that the mutation has had only minor influence on the recognition site and that the function of position 297 is more likely as a link in the transduction chain.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wild-type or mutant H297N or H297Q of the mu-opioid receptor were co-expressed with the inwardly rectifying potassium channel GIRK1 in oocytes from Xenopus laevis. Under voltage clamp, pairs of concentration response curves were generated using the agonist normorphine in a bathing medium containing 38.5 mM sodium or an identical medium in which the sodium was replaced by an equimolar concentration of choline. The maximum currents were greater in the presence of sodium by about 30% at wild-type receptors and by about 100% at the mutant receptors. The EC(50) values tended to increase somewhat as well, though these differences reached statistical significance only for the mutant H297Q. Flame photometry detected no change in the intracellular sodium or potassium concentrations of oocytes, suggesting that the effect of sodium was solely extracellular. Thus sodium, long known for its effects on in vitro ligand binding at mu-opioid receptors, also affects overall transduction as revealed in the Xenopus oocyte model of a complete, living cell system.
Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 04/2003; 445(6):716-20. · 4.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antagonist beta-funaltrexamine (beta-FNA), known to bind covalently to mu-opioid receptors by a two-step, doubly discriminating sequence, was used as a sensitive gauge to compare wildtype to mutant H297Q mu-opioid receptors. We addressed whether this mutation, which enhances the intrinsic activities of alkaloid mu-receptor agents, affects both the reversible and covalent phases of beta-FNA binding. Such altered binding serves as a reporter for the dimensions and topography of the receptor's recognition site. Using the voltage-clamped Xenopus oocyte expression system with coexpressed GIRK potassium channels, we found that beta-FNA blocked the wildtype and mutant H297Q receptors both reversibly and irreversibly, indicating overall conserved tertiary structure in the mutant. The mutant H297Q receptor, however, was more resistant to both phases of blockade, indicating some disturbance of the mutant H297Q receptor recognition site. beta-FNA acted as a partial agonist at the mutant H297Q receptor expressed in both oocytes, as measured by the activation of GIRK channels, and in COS-7 cells assayed by GTPgamma(35)S binding. beta-FNA showed no activity at the wildtype receptor expressed in oocytes, but surprisingly induced binding of GTPgamma(35)S in transfected COS-7 cells. Thus, the topography of the mutant H297Q receptor recognition site is sufficiently conserved to allow the selective binding of beta-FNA, but the decrease in binding affinity and increase in efficacy in oocytes demonstrates clear differences from the wildtype receptor.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 5-HT(3) receptors cloned from NCB-20 cells were expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and the effects of forskolin and steroids on the function of the receptors were investigated using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Forskolin, 17-beta-estradiol, and progesterone inhibited the currents activated by 1 microM 5-HT in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner, with IC(50) values of 12, 33, and 89 microM, respectively. The inhibitory effects of forskolin and 17-beta-estradiol were independent of the membrane potential. Forskolin and 17-beta-estradiol significantly reduced the maximal amplitude of the 5-HT concentration-response curve (E(max)) without significantly affecting the EC(50), indicating that these compounds act as noncompetitive inhibitors of the 5-HT(3) receptor. The cAMP analogue, 8-Br-cAMP (0.2 mM), and the protein kinase A activator, Sp-cAMP (0.1 mM), did not affect the amplitude of 5-HT(3) receptor-mediated currents. The membrane-permeable protein kinase A inhibitor Rp-cAMP (0.1 mM) and the estrogen-receptor antagonist tamoxifen (1 microM) did not affect the inhibition of 5-HT-activated current. In addition, 5-HT(3) receptor-mediated currents were inhibited by both 1,9-dideoxy forskolin (30 microM), which does not activate adenylyl cyclase, and wForskolin (30 microM), a charged hydrophilic analogue of forskolin that is membrane impermeable. These results indicate that both forskolin and 17-beta-estradiol inhibit the function of the 5-HT(3) receptor in a noncompetitive manner and that this inhibition is independent of cAMP levels.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 09/2002; 404(2):293-301. · 3.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate a previous observation that classical antagonists behave as agonists at mutant H297N and H297Q mu opioid receptors, we compared the kinetics of recovery from opioids at wild-type and mutant mu receptors expressed in voltage-clamped Xenopus oocytes. The cDNA for the potassium channel GIRK1 was coinjected into the oocytes with that of the mu receptors to transduce agonist binding into a coupled electrophysiological response. The kinetics of recovery were estimated by brief test pulses of the agonist normorphine given at a frequency of 0.67 or 1 per min. After treatment with a variety of agonists, the receptors recovered from desensitization at rates that depended on the agonist, but there was little difference between mutant and wild-type receptors. Antagonists, however, induced agonist-like currents and demonstrated faster recovery at the mutant receptors. These results suggest that His-297 may comprise part of an antagonist subsite. This conclusion, when coupled with the steric theory that intrinsic activity depends on independent binary equilibration of a drug between agonist and antagonist subsites, could unify the paired observations that antagonists become agonists and recover faster at the mutant than at the wild-type receptors. Synapse 38:254-260, 2000. Published 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A general method of confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to demonstrate specific binding of fluorescein-labeled naloxone (FNAL, 10-50 nM) to stably transfected mu opioid receptors on live Chinese hamster ovary cells. Nonspecific binding was visually indistinguishable from autofluorescence in cells with intact cell membranes. Fluorescent labeling of cell perimeters, not present in control nontransfected cells, reversed in transfected cells upon washout of FNAL or following the addition of either unlabeled naloxone (25 microM) or the mu specific antagonist CTOP (1 microM). The addition of the delta and kappa specific agonists DPDPE (1 microM) and U50488 (1 microM), respectively, failed to reverse the labeling. Further evidence of specific binding was obtained from kinetic experiments, where it was observed that only transfected cells showed a time-dependent exponential change in fluorescence that permitted estimation of association and dissociation binding rate constants of (5.8+/-0.5, mean+/-S.E.M.)x10(5) M(-1) s(-1) and (3.3+/-0.6)x10(-3) s(-1), respectively and a kinetically derived dissociation constant of 5.7+/-1.4 nM. These estimates were comparable to those obtained under similar conditions in radioligand binding experiments using [3H]-naloxone.
Journal of Neuroscience Methods 05/2000; 97(2):123-31. · 2.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mu-opioid receptor is the principal site of action in the brain by which morphine, other opiate drugs of abuse, and endogenous opioid peptides effect analgesia and alter mood. A member of the seven-transmembrane domain (TM) G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, the mu-opioid receptor modulates ion channels and second messenger effectors in an opioid agonist-dependent fashion that is reversible by the classic opiate antagonist naloxone. Mutation of a histidine residue (His297) in TM 6 afforded agonist-like G protein-coupled signal transduction mediated by naloxone and other alkaloid antagonists and enhanced the intrinsic activity of documented alkaloid partial agonists, including buprenorphine. The intrinsic activities of all opioid peptide agonists and antagonists tested were not altered at the His297 mutant receptors. Consistent with a role for the TM 6 histidine in maintaining high affinity binding sites for opioid agonists and antagonists, opioid ligand-dependent protection of this residue from a histidine-specific alkylating agent indicated that the His297 side chain is positioned in or very near the binding cavity. The TM 6 His297 mutants identify a discrete region of the receptor critical for determining whether a specific drug pharmacophore triggers receptor activation. Because many GPCRs possess a similarly positioned TM histidine residue, our findings with the mu-opioid receptor may extend to these receptors and potentially serve as a model for rational design of therapeutic GPCR partial agonists and antagonists.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular biology has contributed a concept, novel in pharmacology, in which the receptor is an independent variable. Site-directed mutagenesis of ligand-gated ion channels is now commonplace. The mutant receptor is usually characterized by the Hill parameters that describe concentration-response curves from transfected, voltage-clamped cells. In this article, Charles Spivak describes how to convert parameters for realistic models of channel activation into Hill parameters. Correlations among the Hill parameters that the models enforce can be useful in tentatively assigning a physiological function to the mutation site.
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 03/1995; 16(2):39-42. · 9.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seventeen site-directed mutations were constructed in the GABA rho 1 receptor with the aim of finding agonist binding domains common to rho 1 and rho 2 receptors but distinct from those identified in members of the family of homologous, ligand gated ion channels. Mutated cDNAs were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and tested by voltage clamp experiments. Five of the mutations abolished responsiveness to GABA. Mutation Q189H, in the conserved cysteine loop, diminished apparent GABA affinity to about 1/10 of wild type values in a manner consistent with decreased allosteric cooperativity among agonist recognition sites. Mutation R316A, located in the extracellular loop between transmembrane domains II and III, increased the Hill coefficient to 3.9 in a fashion consistent with enhanced open probability of a receptor multimer.