M Nakaya

The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan

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Publications (32)72.65 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Shrimps belong to the class Crustacea, which forms a large, diverse group in the invertebrates. However, the physiology and biochemistry of their skeletal muscles have been poorly understood compared with those from vertebrates including mammals and fish. The present study focused on myosin, the major protein in skeletal muscle, from adult specimens of kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus. Two types of the gene encoding myosin heavy chain (MHC), a large subunit of the myosin molecule, were cloned from abdominal fast skeletal muscle and defined as MHCa and MHCb. Protein analysis revealed that the MHCa isoform was expressed at a higher level than the MHCb isoform. The full-length cDNA clones of MHCa and MHCb consisted of 5929 bp and 5955 bp, respectively, which encoded 1912 and 1910 amino acids, respectively. Both were classified into fast muscle type by comparison with the partially deduced amino acid sequences of fast-type and slow-type (S(1), slow twitch) MHCs reported previously for the American lobster Homarus americanus. The amino acid identities between MHCa and MHCb of kuruma shrimp were 78%, 60% and 72% in the regions of subfragment-1, subfragment-2 and light meromyosin, respectively, and 71% in total. In situ hybridisation using anti-sense RNA-specific probes, along with northern blot analysis using different tissues from abdominal muscle, revealed the different localisation of MHCa and MHCb transcripts in abdominal fast skeletal muscle, suggesting their distinct physiological functions.
    Journal of Experimental Biology 01/2012; 215(Pt 1):14-21. · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Comprehensive in silico studies, based on the total fugu genome database, which was the first to appear in fish, revealed that torafugu Takifugu rubripes contains 20 sarcomeric myosin heavy chain (MYH) genes (MYH genes) (Ikeda et al., 2007). The present study was undertaken to identify MYH genes that would be expressed in adult muscles. In total, seven MYH genes were found by screening cDNA clone libraries constructed from fast, slow and cardiac muscles. Three MYH genes, fast-type MYH(M86-1), slow-type MYH(M8248) and slow/cardiac-type MYH(M880), were cloned exclusively from fast, slow and cardiac muscles, respectively. Northern blot hybridization substantiated their specific expression, with the exception of MYH(M880). In contrast, transcripts of fast-type MYH(M2528-1) and MYH(M1034) were found in both fast and slow muscles as revealed by cDNA clone library and northern blot techniques. This result was supported by in situ hybridization analysis using specific RNA probes, where transcripts of fast-type MYH(M2528-1) were expressed in fast fibres with small diameters as well as in fibres of superficial slow muscle with large diameters adjacent to fast muscle. Transcripts of fast-type MYH(M86-1) were expressed in all fast fibres with different diameters, whereas transcripts of slow-type MYH(M8248) were restricted to fibres with small diameters located in a superficial part of slow muscle. Interestingly, histochemical analyses showed that fast fibres with small diameters and slow fibres with large diameters both contained acid-stable myofibrillar ATPase, suggesting that these fibres have similar functions, possibly in the generation of muscle fibres irrespective of their fibre types.
    Journal of Experimental Biology 01/2010; 213(1):137-45. · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enzymatic and structural properties of white croaker fast skeletal muscle myosin were determined and compared with those of walleye pollack counterpart. Ca2+-ATPase activity of white croaker myosin was decreased to approximately 70% of the original activity during 1 day of storage at 0°C and pH 7.0 in 0.5 M KCl and 0.1 mM dithiothreitol, whereas that of walleye pollack was decreased to approximately 20% under the same condition. The activation energy (Ea) for inactivation of white croaker myosin calculated by the Arrhenius plot for inactivation rate constant (KD) was 1.2-fold higher than that of walleye pollack. While Ca2+-ATPase showed a similar KCl-dependency for the two species, the maximal activity was observed at pH 6.2 and 6.3 for white croaker and walleye pollack, respectively. Actin-activated myosin Mg2+-ATPase activity of white croaker was approximately half that of walleye pollack at 0.05 M KCl and pH 7.0, although the two myosins showed a similar affinity to F-actin with Km of 1.7 and 1.4, respectively. Limited proteolysis with α-chymotrypsin cleaved heat-denatured white croaker myosin mainly at heavy meromyosin/light meromyosin (HMM/LMM) junction, whereas walleye pollack myosin was cleaved at several sites in LMM as well as at the HMM/LMM junction.
    Fisheries Science 06/2006; 72(3):646 - 655. · 0.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Standard molecular techniques, such as sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification are relatively complicated, and species identification can take a long time when using such techniques. We established a quick method, using PCR with species-specific TaqMan Minor Groove Binder (MGB) probes based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) to distinguish the two eel species Anguilla japonica and Anguilla anguilla. This method can be used in processed products. Partial sequences of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene were compared between A. japonica and A. anguilla to design a primer pair common to both A. japonica and A. anguilla and probes specific to A. japonica and A. anguilla. Different fluorescence intensities were produced in two PCR microtubes each containing A. japonica- and A. anguilla-specific probes for one target sample. We observed the fluorescence intensity of PCR products in microtubes under ultraviolet transillumination, with similar results to those obtained by real-time PCR. Therefore, SNP-based PCR is a powerful tool for identifying materials of processed foods from either A. japonica or A. anguilla.
    Fisheries Science 12/2005; 71(6):1356 - 1364. · 0.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myosin rod and light meromyosin (LMM) of walleye pollack and white croaker were examined for their rheological properties by measuring dynamic viscoelastic parameters. Rods from walleye pollack and white croaker increased their storage moduli (G') in the ranges of 29-43 degrees C and 31-38 degrees C, respectively, in temperature sweep analysis. Walleye pollack LMM showed no peak of G' upon heating, whereas the white croaker counterpart exhibited a single sharp peak of G' at 35 degrees C. Loss modulus (G") showed similar temperature-dependent changes for the two fish species as the case of G', irrespective of rod and LMM, although G" values were lower than those of G'. Thus, rheological properties of rod and LMM were different between walleye pollack and white croaker. Taken together with data previously reported for myosin, it was considered that both myosin rods from walleye pollack and white croaker are attributed to thermal gel formation of myosin in a low-temperature range, though in a species-specific manner.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 12/2005; 53(23):9193-8. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have characterized the apolipoprotein multigene family of the pufferfish Takifugu rubripes. The pufferfish mainly contains 28-kDa, 27-kDa, and 14-kDa apolipoproteins in its plasma and was designated apo-28 kDa, apo-27 kDa, and apo-14 kDa, respectively. N-terminal amino acid sequencing revealed that pufferfish apo-28 kDa and apo-27 kDa have an identical amino acid sequence except an additional propeptide in the former; and both are homologues of apoA-I from other animals. The sequence of pufferfish apo-14 kDa is homologous to that of eel apo-14 kDa previously reported, both being apparently specific to fish. In silico screening, using the publicly available Fugu genome database confirmed the pufferfish apoA-I and apo-14 kDa genes. The database further contained the genes encoding four types of apoA-IV, one apoC-II and two types of apoE. Thus, pufferfish contains nine genes encoding apolipoprotein multigene family. Two apoA-IV and one apoE genes were tandemly arrayed and located on one scaffold. Thus two sets of these genes formed two gene clusters. The apoC-II and apo-14 kDa genes are also located on a single scaffold. apoA-I and apo-14 kDa gene transcripts were mainly expressed in liver and less abundantly in brain. The transcripts of the former gene were also observed in intestine. In contrast, the transcripts encoding four apoA-IVs, one apoC-II, and two apoEs were mainly expressed in intestine. These structural details of pufferfish apolipoproteins and tissue distribution of their gene transcripts provide a novel evidence for better understanding of evolutionary relationships of apolipoprotein multigene family.
    Gene 03/2005; 346:257-66. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Temperature-dependent changes of growth rate and protein components were investigated for primary cultured cells derived from goldfish caudal fin. When the culture temperature was shifted from 20 degrees C to 35 degrees C and 40 degrees C, the growth rate was increased at 35 degrees C as compared with that at 20 degrees C, but no cell growth was observed at 40 degrees C. The differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated the onset of the endothermic reaction for goldfish cellular components at 40 degrees C. Therefore, the temperature shift to 40 degrees C was found to be of severe heat shock for goldfish cultured cells. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that, although expression of 70-kDa components was slightly induced at 35 degrees C, the temperature shift to 40 degrees C markedly induced the expression of the 30-kDa component in addition to that of 70-kDa component. The N-terminal amino acid sequencing identified the 30- and 70-kDa components to be heat shock protein (Hsp)-30 and Hsp70, respectively. Northern blot analysis revealed that the enhanced Hsp30 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels were only observed at 40 degrees C, whereas Hsp70 mRNA was slightly accumulated at 35 degrees C. These results indicated that Hsp30 might have important functions under severe heat stress condition.
    Cell Stress and Chaperones 02/2004; 9(4):350-8. · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • Cell Stress and Chaperones 01/2004; 9(4). · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thermodynamic properties in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and changes in viscoelasticity upon heating of myosins from white croaker, Alaska pollock, and rabbit fast muscles were investigated in relation to their thermal gel formation abilities. Alaska pollock myosin unfolded in a wide temperature range of 19 to 69°C as revealed by DSC, whereas rabbit myosin unfolded in very narrow range of 32 to 56°C. Thermal unfolding of white croaker myosin occurred in an intermediate temperature range of 30 to 60°C. Viscoelastic properties determined as storage modulus, G′, and loss modulus, G″, reflected differences observed in DSC for the 3 myosins.
    Journal of Food Science 05/2003; 68(5):1573 - 1577. · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The thermodynamic properties of myosin and its C-terminal fragment, light meromyosin (LMM), from walleye pollack, a typical cold-water fish efficiently utilized on an industrial scale, were analyzed by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and circular dichroism (CD) spectrometry. Recombinant walleye pollack LMM expressed in Escherichia coli was also subjected to DSC and CD measurements for reference. The two proteins prepared from frozen surimi showed three endothermic peaks, the transition temperatures (T(m)) of which were quite similar, although overall DSC patterns differed considerably from one another. Their alpha-helical contents determined by CD were low compared to values reported before for other species. On the other hand, recombinant LMM gave four endothermic peaks at 27.4, 30.8, 36.5, and 43.4 degrees C in DSC and showed an alpha-helical content of approximately 80%. The peak at 27.4 degrees C could not be observed in walleye pollack LMM prepared from frozen surimi and thus was possibly attributed to its C terminus, because this extreme C-terminal region is supposedly truncated during preparation of LMM by tryptic digestion.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 09/2002; 50(17):4803-11. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were acclimated to 30°C from 20°C over 24 h and maintained at that temperature for 35 days. Changes in the expression of mRNA transcripts for fast myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms, E12 of the E protein, and myogenic regulatory factors belonging to the MyoD (MyoD, myogenin, myf-5) and myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2A, MEF2C) gene families were investigated in the fast myotomal muscle using northern blot analysis. Myofibrillar Mg2+-ATPase activity gradually declined over 21 days and was significantly different from the starting level after only 3–5 days. Over the same time period there was a dramatic decrease in the mRNA transcripts of the MyHC isoform predominantly expressed in cold-acclimated carp (10°C-type MyHC) and a significant increase in the transcripts of the MyHC isoform predominantly expressed in warm-acclimated carp (30°C-type MyHC). The levels of myogenin mRNA transcripts almost doubled over 3–7 days before declining to 30% of the starting levels for the remainder of the experiment. While the levels of E12 mRNA gradually decreased, MEF2A and MEF2C mRNA transcripts showed a significant decrease over 24 h and then stabilized at the lower levels. In contrast, the levels of MyoD mRNA were not affected by temperature acclimation. The possible role of myogenic regulatory factors in the expression of temperature-specific isoforms of MyHC in common carp is briefly discussed.
    Fisheries Science 12/2001; 66(4):761 - 767. · 0.90 Impact Factor
  • Daisuke Funabara, Misako Nakaya, Shugo Watabe
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    ABSTRACT: A calponin-like protein of 45 kDa was isolated from mussel anterior byssus retractor muscle (ABRM) and its inhibitory effects on actomyosin Mg2+-ATPase was demonstrated. The 2-D electrophoresis for ABRM myofibrils gave a spot of 45 kDa protein in addition to myofibrillar proteins such as myosin and actin. The 45 kDa protein, which was more basic and showed a slightly higher molecular weight than actin, was isolated by ion-exchange chromatography and subjected to chymotryptic digestion. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of polypeptide fragments produced gave two sequences, ASQKGMTSFGAVRHH and GMDRALISKMGSKYDSGL, both of which showed a high homology to those of vertebrate calponins and invertebrate calponin-related proteins. Furthermore, the 45 kDa protein strongly reacted with commercially available antibody raised against chicken smooth muscle calponin, demonstrating that the mussel ABRM 45 kDa protein is a new member of the calponin family. Then, actomyosin Mg2+-ATPase activity of ABRM was measured in the presence and absence of the 45 kDa protein. The 45 kDa protein clearly inhibited actomyosin Mg2+-ATPase activity in a dose-dependent manner as in the case of other vertebrate calponins. These results indicate that the 45 kDa calponin-like protein is involved in the thin filament-associated regulation of molluscan smooth muscle contraction, possibly of a unique contraction called catch.
    Fisheries Science 12/2001; 67(3):511 - 517. · 0.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: cDNAs encoding major plasma apolipoproteins (apo) were cloned from the eel Anguilla japonica liver and their nucleotide sequences determined. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that eel lipoproteins contain apolipoproteins of 28 kDa and 14 kDa as major components. Each of the two apolipoproteins showed two isoforms having different isoelectric points as demonstrated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The two 28 kDa components had different N-terminal amino acid sequences, whereas the two 14 kDa components had an identical one. Then cDNA clones encoding these apolipoproteins were isolated from a cDNA library constructed from the eel liver. An acidic 28 kDa component (28 kDa-1) consisted of 259 amino acids including a putative signal peptide of 27 residues, whereas a basic 28 kDa component (28 kDa-2) was composed of 260 amino acids containing a putative signal peptide of 23 residues. The tandem repeating units, which are characteristic of apolipoproteins, for 28 kDa-1 showed 27.8% identity to that of porcine apoA-IV, although mammalian apoA-IV is about 40 kDa and much larger than 28 kDa-1. However, the repeating units of 28 kDa-2 showed 52.5% identity to that of Atlantic salmon apoA-I. The 14 kDa apolipoprotein consisted of 142 amino acids containing a putative signal peptide of 20 residues. It has a novel sequence differing from apolipoproteins of other vertebrates. The transcriptional expressions of 28 kDa-1, 28 kDa-2, and 14 kDa components were all restricted to the liver, except for the transcripts of 28 kDa-2 which were also slightly expressed in the intestine.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 04/2001; 1531(1-2):132-42. · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • Fisheries Science 02/2001; · 0.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: cDNAs encoding major plasma apolipoproteins (apo) were cloned from the eel Anguilla japonica liver and their nucleotide sequences determined. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that eel lipoproteins contain apolipoproteins of 28 kDa and 14 kDa as major components. Each of the two apolipoproteins showed two isoforms having different isoelectric points as demonstrated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The two 28 kDa components had different N-terminal amino acid sequences, whereas the two 14 kDa components had an identical one. Then cDNA clones encoding these apolipoproteins were isolated from a cDNA library constructed from the eel liver. An acidic 28 kDa component (28 kDa-1) consisted of 259 amino acids including a putative signal peptide of 27 residues, whereas a basic 28 kDa component (28 kDa-2) was composed of 260 amino acids containing a putative signal peptide of 23 residues. The tandem repeating units, which are characteristic of apolipoproteins, for 28 kDa-1 showed 27.8% identity to that of porcine apoA-IV, although mammalian apoA-IV is about 40 kDa and much larger than 28 kDa-1. However, the repeating units of 28 kDa-2 showed 52.5% identity to that of Atlantic salmon apoA-I. The 14 kDa apolipoprotein consisted of 142 amino acids containing a putative signal peptide of 20 residues. It has a novel sequence differing from apolipoproteins of other vertebrates. The transcriptional expressions of 28 kDa-1, 28 kDa-2, and 14 kDa components were all restricted to the liver, except for the transcripts of 28 kDa-2 which were also slightly expressed in the intestine.
    Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids - BBA-MOL CELL BIOL LIPIDS. 01/2001; 1531(1):132-142.
  • Fisheries Science. 01/2001; 67(3):556-558.
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    ABSTRACT: Various recombinant light meromyosin (LMM) fragments were prepared from cDNAs encoding the 10 degrees C and 30 degrees C types of myosin heavy chain isoforms predominantly expressed in fast skeletal muscles of the 10 degrees C- and 30 degrees C-acclimated carp, respectively. These included three kinds of quarter fragments, 1/4-, 2/4-, and 4/4-quarter, composed of residues 1-130, 131-270, and 401-563 from the N-terminus, respectively, as well as three halves, N-, M-, and C-half fragments, containing residues 1-301, 131-400, and 302-563, respectively, and 69K fragments of residues 1-525. Unfortunately, in spite of extensive efforts, the 3/4-quarter fragment was not expressed for both 10 degrees C and 30 degrees C types in our expression system using Escherichia coli. All the LMM fragments except for the 10- and 30-2/4 quarters for the 10 degrees C and 30 degrees C types, respectively, exhibited a typical pattern of a-helix in CD spectrometry. When these were subjected to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), 30 degrees C-type LMM fragments were all found to be more thermostable than the 10 degrees C-type counterparts. To identify amino acid substitutions responsible for different thermostabilities between the 10 degrees C- and 30 degrees C-type LMMs, six mutant proteins were prepared, mainly focusing on substitutions in the C-terminal half of LMM, and subjected to DSC and CD analyses. For three mutants in which two residues of the 10 degrees C type were replaced by those of the 30 degrees C type, 10-S355T/T361A, 10-M415L/L417V, and 10-S535A/H536Q, the endothermic peaks in DSC increased by 1.4-2.0 degrees C from that of the original 10 degrees C type. The T(m) values for two single-residue substitutions, 10-H449R and 10-T491I, shifted 0.8 and 1.3 degrees C higher than that for the 10 degrees C-type LMM, respectively, whereas the last mutant, 10-G61V, showed no change in thermostability. The finding that the difference in T(m) values for major endothermic peaks from the 10-69K and 30-69K fragments was 4.6 degrees C, which roughly corresponds to that between the original 10 degrees C and 30 degrees C types, suggested that the eight substitutions located in the C-terminal region of the 69K fragments (residues 302-525) are major candidates for the residues responsible for the difference in thermostability between the 10 degrees C- and 30 degrees C-type LMMs.
    Journal of Biochemistry 08/2000; 128(1):11-20. · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The antisera were raised against pepsin-solubilized abalone collagen and its corresponding gelatin. The reactivity against abalone collagen was higher with the anti-collagen than anti-gelatin antiserum. The two antisera recognized all type I collagens from various vertebrates, whereas these had no reactivity against vertebrate type III and type V collagens. Furthermore, both antisera reacted with only alpha 2(I) chains from chicken, rat, and calf. The strong reactivity was observed against the two antisera in the case of invertebrate and protochordate collagens, especially for turban shell collagen. The seasonal changes of collagen mRNA levels were examined in relation to those of collagen content. Haliotis discus collagens (Hdcols) 1 alpha and 2 alpha coding for abalone collagen pro alpha-chains showed quite similar patterns. The highest mRNA levels in adductor and foot muscles for the two collagens were observed in December and January, in good agreement with the increase of collagen content. The mRNA levels decreased in July and August when collagen content decreased. These results indicate that collagen transcription levels are closely related to collagen contents.
    Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 06/2000; 126(1):59-68. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A cDNA encoding the full-length paramyosin molecule was cloned from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a species closely related to Mytilus edulis. It contained 3,497 nucleotides (nt), with 79 and 826 nt for the 5' and 3' non-coding regions, respectively. The coding region was composed of 2,592 nt for 864 amino acid residues, a size typical of paramyosin. While genomic DNA digests with either HindIII or PstI exhibited a single band when hybridized with a SacI fragment of paramyosin cDNA, the digests with either EcoRV or EcoRI showed two bands, suggesting that the mussel has at least two genes encoding paramyosin. The mRNAs encoding paramyosin were most abundant in muscle tissues from byssus retractor and adductor muscles. Only traces of paramyosin transcripts were found in the tissue of foot, gill, inner mantle, and outer mantle. The same phosphorylatable peptide previously reported for paramyosin from the bivalve Mercenaria mercenaria, Ser-Arg-Ser-Met-Ser(P)-Val-Ser-Arg (Watabe et al. 1989. Comp Biochem Physiol 94B:813-821) was found in the C-terminal non-helical part of this Mytilus paramyosin. We predict that this particular paramyosin has a coiled-coil structure composed of two alpha-helices that show the heptad repeats (a-b-c-d-e-f-g) with further 28-amino acid repeat zones, where a and d tend to be occupied by nonpolar residues.
    Journal of Experimental Zoology 01/2000; 286(1):24-35.
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    ABSTRACT: Acid-soluble collagens were prepared from connective tissues in the abalone Haliotis discus foot and adductor muscles with limited proteolysis using pepsin. Collagen preparation solubilized with 1% pepsin contained two types of alpha-chains which were different in their N-terminal amino acid sequences. Accordingly, two types of full-length cDNAs coding for collagen proalpha-chains were isolated from the foot muscle of the same animal and these proteins were named Hdcols (Haliotis discus collagens) 1alpha and 2alpha. The two N-terminal amino acid sequences of the abalone pepsin-solubilized collagen preparation corresponded to either of the two sequences deduced from the cDNA clones. In addition, several tryptic peptides prepared from the pepsin-solubilized collagen and fractionated by HPLC showed N-terminal amino acid sequences identical to those deduced from the two cDNA clones. Hdcols 1alpha and 2alpha consisted of 1378 and 1439 amino acids, respectively, showing the primary structure typical to those of fibril-forming collagens. The N-terminal propeptides of the two collagen proalpha-chains contained cysteine-rich globular domains. It is of note that Hdcol 1alpha completely lacked a short Gly-X-Y triplet repeat sequence in its propeptide. An unusual structure such as this has never before been reported for any fibril-forming collagen. The main triple-helical domains for both chains consisted of 1014 amino acids, where a supposed glycine residue in the triplet at the 598th position from the N-terminus was replaced by alanine in Hdcol 1alpha and by serine in Hdcol 2alpha. Both proalpha-chains of abalone collagens contained six cysteine residues in the carboxyl-terminal propeptide, lacking two cysteine residues usually found in vertebrate collagens. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that the mRNA levels of Hdcols 1alpha and 2alpha in various tissues including muscles were similar to each other.
    European Journal of Biochemistry 06/1999; 261(3):714-21. · 3.58 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

345 Citations
72.65 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994–2012
    • The University of Tokyo
      • • Faculty and Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sceince
      • • Department of Aquatic Bioscience
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 1996
    • Teikyo University
      • Department of Medicine
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan