[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: WHO recommends ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in HIV-infected patients failing non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based first-line treatment. Here, we aimed to provide more evidence for the choice of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and boosted protease inhibitor.
ANRS 12169 is a 48-week, randomized, open-label, non-inferiority trial in three African cities, comparing efficacy and safety of three second-line regimens.
Patients failing non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy with confirmed plasma HIV-1 viral load above 1000 copies/ml were randomly assigned to tenofovir/emtricitabine + lopinavir/ritonavir (control group as per WHO recommendations), abacavir + didanosine + lopinavir/ritonavir (ABC/ddI group) or tenofovir/emtricitabine + darunavir/ritonavir (DRV group) regimens. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with plasma vral load below 50 copies/ml at week 48 in the modified intention-to-treat population. Non-inferiority was pre-specified with a 15% margin.
Of the 454 randomized patients, 451 were included in the analysis. Globally, 294 (65.2%) and 375 (83.2%) patients had viral load below 50 and 200 copies/ml, respectively, at week 48. The primary endpoint was achieved in 105 (69.1%) control group patients versus 92 (63.4%) in the ABC/ddI (difference 5.6%, 95% confidence interval -5.1 to 16.4) and 97 (63.0%) in the DRV (difference 6.1%, 95% confidence interval -4.5 to 16.7) groups (non-inferiority not shown). Overall, less number of patients with baseline viral load at least 100 000 copies/ml (n = 122) had a viral load below 50 copies/ml at week 48 (37.7 versus 75.4%; P < 0.001).
The three second-line regimens obtained similar and satisfactory virologic control and confirmed the WHO recommendation (TDF/FTC/LPVr) as a valid option. However, the suboptimal response for patients with high viral load warrants research for improved strategies.
AIDS (London, England) 07/2015; 29(12):1473-81. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000709 · 5.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence of gender differences in antiretroviral treatment (ART) outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa is conflicting. Our objective was to assess gender differences in (1) adherence to ART and (2) virologic failure, immune reconstitution, mortality, and disease progression adjusting for adherence.
Cohort study among 459 ART-naive patients followed up 24 months after initiation in 2006-2010 in 9 rural district hospitals. Adherence to ART was assessed using (1) a validated tool based on multiple patient self-reports and (2) antiretroviral plasma concentrations. The associations between gender and the outcomes were assessed using multivariate mixed models or accelerated time failure models.
One hundred thirty-five patients (29.4%) were men. At baseline, men were older, had higher body mass index and hemoglobin level, and received more frequently efavirenz than women. Gender was not associated with self-reported adherence (P = 0.872, 0.169, and 0.867 for moderate adherence, low adherence, and treatment interruption, respectively) or with antiretroviral plasma concentrations (P = 0.549 for nevirapine/efavirenz). In contrast, male gender was associated with virologic failure [odds ratio: 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31 to 3.62, P = 0.003], lower immunologic reconstitution (coefficient: -58.7 at month 24, 95% CI: -100.8 to -16.6, P = 0.006), and faster progression to death (time ratio: 0.30, 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.78, P = 0.014) and/or to World Health Organization stage 4 event (time ratio: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.09 to 0.79, P = 0.017).
Our study provides important evidence that African men are more vulnerable to ART failure than women and that the male vulnerability extends beyond adherence issues. Additional studies are needed to determine the causes for this vulnerability to optimize HIV care. However, personalized adherence support remains crucial.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A better understanding of why HIV-exposed/infected children fail to attend their scheduled follow-up medical appointments for HIV-related care would allow for interventions to enhance the delivery of care. The aim of this study was to determine characteristics of the caregiver-child dyad (CCD) associated with children's non-adherence to scheduled follow-up medical appointments in HIV programs in Cameroon.
We conducted a case-control analysis of the usual-care group of CCDs from the MORE CARE trial, in which the effect of mobile phone reminders for HIV-exposed/infected children in attending follow-up appointments was assessed from January to March 2013. For this study, the absence of a child at their appointment was considered a case and the presence of a child at their appointment was defined as a control. We used three multivariate binary logistic regression analyses. The best-fit model was the one which had the smallest chi-square value with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (HLχ²). Magnitudes of associations were expressed by odds ratio (OR), with a p-value <0.05 considered as statistically significant.
We included 30 cases and 31 controls. Our best-fit model which considered the sex of the adults and children separately (HL χ²=3.5) showed that missing scheduled medical appointments was associated with: lack of formal education of the caregiver (OR 29.1, 95% CI 1.1-777.0; p=0.044), prolonged time to the next appointment/follow-up (OR [1 week increase] 1.4, 95% CI 1.03-2.0; p=0.032), and being a female child (OR 5.2, 95% CI 1.2-23.1; p=0.032). One model (HLχ²=10.5) revealed that woman-boy pairs adhered less to medical appointments compared to woman-girl pairs (OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.05-22.9; p=0.044). Another model (HLχ²=11.1) revealed that man-boy pairs were more likely to attend appointments compared to woman-girl pairs (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.06-0.93; p=0.039). There were no statistical associations for the ages of the children or the caregivers, the study sites, or the HIV status (confirmed vs. suspected) of the children.
The profile of children who would not attend follow-up medical appointments in an HIV program was: a female, with a caregiver who has had no formal education, and with a longer follow-up appointment interval. There is a possibility that female children are favored by female caregivers and that male children are favored by male caregivers when they come to medical care.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Mobile health (mhealth) has emerged as a powerful resource in the medical armamentarium against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We sought to determine among adult caregivers of HIV-exposed/infected children; the extent of mobile phone ownership, the ability to communicate in Cameroon¿s national official languages (NOL), and the refusal to receive such reminders.Methods
We conducted a pre-trial analysis of potentials participants of the MORE CARE trial. MORE CARE took place from January through March 2013 in three geographic locations in Cameroon. We included caregivers aged 18 years or older. Written communication was assessed by the ability to read and understand information presented in the consent form. Verbal communication was assessed during a two-way conversation and in a discussion about HIV infection. A question about mobile phone ownership and another about refusal to receive reminders via mobile phone were phrased to allow ¿Yes¿ or ¿No¿ as the only possible reply. A p <0.05 was considered statistically significant.ResultsWe enrolled 301 caregivers of HIV-exposed/infected children from rural (n=119), semi-urban (n=142) and urban (n=40) areas of Cameroon. The mean caregiver age was 42.9 years (SD 13.4) and 85% were women. A fifth of our study population overall had at least one of the three obstacles to mobile phone reminders. By region, 39.5% in rural, 6.3% in semi-urban, and 7.5% in urban setting had at least one obstacle, with significant differences between the rural and urban settings (p<0.001) and the rural and semi-urban settings (p<0.001). The acceptability of SMS was 96.3% and of mobile phone calls 96% (p =0.054). The ability to communicate in NOL orally was 89.7% and 84.4% in writing (p=0.052). Mobile phone ownership (p<0.001; p=0.03) and the ability to communicate in an NOL orally (p<0.001; p=0.002) or in writing (both p<0.001), were significantly lower in rural compared to semi-urban and urban settings respectively.Conclusions
The use of mHealth was limited in about one fifth of our population. The greatest obstacle was the inability to use oral or written NOL, followed by non-ownership of a mobile phone. These impediments were higher in a rural setting as compared to urban or semi-urban areas.
BMC Health Services Research 10/2014; 14(1):523. DOI:10.1186/s12913-014-0523-3 · 1.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Minor species of the Candida albicans complex may cause overestimation of the epidemiology of C. albicans, and misidentifications could mask their implication in human pathology. Authors determined the occurrence of minor species of the C. albicans complex (C. africana, C. dubliniensis and C. stellatoidea) among Yaoundé HIV-infected patients, Cameroon. Stool, vaginal discharge, urine and oropharyngeal samples were analysed by mycological diagnosis. Isolates were identified by conventional methods and mass spectrometry (MS; carried out by the matrix-assisted laser desorption–ionisation time-of-flight MS protocol). Candida albicans isolates were thereafter submitted to the PCR amplification of the Hwp1 gene. The susceptibility of isolates to antifungal drugs was tested using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M27-A3 protocol. From 115 C. albicans obtained isolates, neither C. dubliniensis nor C. stellatoidea was observed; two strains of C. africana (422PV and 448PV) were identified by PCR electrophoretic profiles at 700 bp. These two C. africana strains were vaginal isolates. The isolate 448PV was resistant to ketoconazole at the minimal inhibitory concentration of 2 μg ml−1, and showed reduced susceptibility to amphotericin B at 1 μg ml−1. This first report on C. africana occurrence in Cameroon brings clues for the understanding of the global epidemiology of this yeast as well as that of minor species of the C. albicans complex.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mobile phone text messaging has been shown to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy and to improve communication between patients and health care workers. It is unclear which strategies are most appropriate for scaling up text messaging programmes. We sought to investigate acceptability and readiness for ownership (community members designing, sending and receiving text messages) of a text message programme among a community of clients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Yaoundé, Cameroon and to develop a framework for implementation.
We used the mixed-methods sequential exploratory design. In the qualitative strand we conducted 7 focus group discussions (57 participants) to elicit themes related to acceptability and readiness. In the quantitative strand we explored the generalizability of these themes in a survey of 420 clients. Qualitative and quantitative data were merged to generate meta-inferences.
Both qualitative and quantitative strands showed high levels of acceptability and readiness despite low rates of participation in other community-led projects. In the qualitative strand, compared to the quantitative strand, more potential service users were willing to pay for a text messaging service, preferred participation of health personnel in managing the project and preferred that the project be based in the hospital rather than in the community. Some of the limitations identified to implementing a community-owned project were lack of management skills in the community, financial, technical and literacy challenges. Participants who were willing to pay were more likely to find the project acceptable and expressed positive feelings about community readiness to own a text messaging project.
Community ownership of a text messaging programme is acceptable to the community of clients at the Yaoundé Central Hospital. Our framework for implementation includes components for community members who take on roles as services users (demonstrating clear benefits, allowing a trial period and ensuring high levels of confidentiality) or service providers (training in project management and securing sustainable funding). Such a project can be evaluated using participation rate, clinical outcomes, satisfaction with the service, cost and feedback from users.
BMC Health Services Research 09/2014; 14(1):441. DOI:10.1186/1472-6963-14-441 · 1.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Missed scheduled HIV appointments lead to increased mortality, resistance to antiretroviral therapy, and suboptimum virological response. We aimed to assess whether reminders sent to carers by text message, mobile phone call, or concomitant text message and mobile phone call increase attendance at medical appointments for HIV care in a population of children infected with or exposed to HIV in Cameroon. We also aimed to ascertain the most cost-effective method of mobile-phone-based reminder.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
The emergence of HIV drug resistance is a crucial issue in Africa, where second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) is limited, expensive and complex. We assessed the association between adherence patterns and resistance emergence over time, using an adherence measure that distinguishes low adherence from treatment interruptions, in rural Cameroon. Methods
We performed a cohort study among patients receiving nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART in nine district hospitals, using data from the Stratall trial (2006−2010). Genotypic mutations associated with antiretroviral drug resistance were assessed when 6-monthly HIV viral loads were > 5000 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL. ART adherence data were collected using face-to-face questionnaires. Combined indicators of early (1−3 months) and late (6 months to t − 1; t is the time point when the resistance had been detected) adherence were constructed. Multivariate logistic regression and Cox models were used to assess the association between adherence patterns and early (at 6 months) and late (after 6 months) resistance emergence, respectively. ResultsAmong 456 participants (71% women; median age 37 years), 45 developed HIV drug resistance (18 early and 27 late). Early low adherence (< 80%) and treatment interruptions (> 2 days) were associated with early resistance [adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 8.51 (1.30–55.61) and 5.25 (1.45–18.95), respectively]. Early treatment interruptions were also associated with late resistance [adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) 3.72 (1.27–10.92)]. Conclusions
The emergence of HIV drug resistance on first-line NNRTI-based regimens was associated with different patterns of adherence over time. Ensuring optimal early adherence through specific interventions, adequate management of drug stocks, and viral load monitoring is a clinical and public health priority in Africa.
HIV Medicine 04/2014; 15(8). DOI:10.1111/hiv.12140 · 3.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Efficacité de la téléphonie mobile sur la présence au rendezvous médical d'enfants exposés ou infectés au VIH au Cameroun : analyse per-protocole de l'essai contrôlé randomisé MORE CARE
7e Conférence Internationale Francophone VIH/Hépaties AFRAVIH 204, Montpellier, France; 03/2014
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obstacles à l'utilisation de la téléphonie mobile comme outil de rappel de rendezvous médical dans le suivi médical d'enfants exposés ou infectés au VIH en milieu rural, semi-urbain et urbain au Cameroun : analyse transversale dans l'essai MORE CARE
7e Conférence Internationale Francophone VIH/Hépatites - AFRAVIH, Montpellier, France; 03/2014
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Cameroon, only two-thirds of children with HIV exposure or infection receive appropriate HIV-directed medical care. Mortality, antiretroviral therapy resistance and suboptimal virological response are strongly related to missed opportunities for treatment, and, more specifically, to skipped scheduled medical appointments. The present trial, MORE CARE (Mobile Reminders for Cameroonian Children Requiring HIV Care) seeks to determine if reminders sent by text message (SMS), phone call, or concomitant SMS and phone calls most increase the presence at medical appointments of HIV-infected or -exposed children (efficacy), and which is the most efficient related to working time and financial cost (efficiency).
We will carry out a multicenter single-blind, randomized, factorial controlled trial. A randomization list will be electronically generated using random block sizes. Central allocation will be determined by sequentially numbered. A total of 224 subjects will be randomized into four groups (SMS, Call, SMS + Call, and Control) with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1:1. SMS and calls will be sent between 48 and 72 hours before the scheduled appointment. A medical assistant will send out text messages and will call participants. Our primary outcome is appointment measured by efficacy and efficiency of interventions. We hypothesize that two reminders (concomitant use of SMS and phone calls) as an appointment reminder is more effective to improve appointment compared to one reminder (only SMS or only call), and that the most efficient is use of only SMS. The analysis will be intention to treat.
This trial investigates the potential of SMS and phone calls as motivational reminders to improve children's adherence to medical appointments for HIV-related care in Cameroon. The intervention will act to end missed appointment due to forgetfulness.Trial registration: Pan African Clinical Trials Registry: PACTR201304000528276.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and its therapy are associated with increased aortic stiffness and metabolic syndrome (MetS) phenotype in Caucasian patients. We hypothesized that, independently of antiretroviral therapy, HIV infection in native black African patients is associated with increased burden of cardiometabolic risk factors that may accelerate arterial structural damage and translate into increased aortic stiffness.
Ninety-six apparently healthy Cameroonian subjects (controls) were compared to 108 untreated Cameroonian HIV+ patients (HIV-UT) of similar age. In each participant, pulse wave velocity (Complior), aortic augmentation index (SphygmoCor), brachial blood pressure (Omron 705 IT), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and lipids were recorded, as well as the prevalence and severity of MetS, based on the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute score ≥3/5.
Prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (FPG 100-125 mg · dL(-1)) and of diabetes (FPG > 125 mg · dL(-1)) was higher in HIV-UT than in controls (47% versus 27%, and 26% versus 1%, respectively; both P < 0.01). Fasting triglycerides and the atherogenic dyslipidemia ratio were significantly higher in HIV-UT than in controls. Hypertension prevalence was high and comparable in both groups (41% versus 44%, respectively; not significant). HIV-UT patients exhibited a twice-higher prevalence of MetS than controls (47% versus 21%; P = 0.02). Age- and sex-adjusted pulse wave velocity was higher in HIV-UT than in controls (7.5 ± 2.2 m/s versus 6.9 ± 1.7 m/s, respectively; P = 0.02), whereas aortic augmentation index was significantly lower (6% ± 4% versus 8% ± 7%, respectively; P = 0.01).
Similar to Caucasian populations, native Cameroonian HIV-UT patients showed a higher prevalence of MetS and its phenotype, associated with increased aortic stiffness, an early marker of atherosclerosis.
Vascular Health and Risk Management 09/2013; 9(1):509-16. DOI:10.2147/VHRM.S42350
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: n Cameroon, with regards to the national reprisal to human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune
deficiency syndromes (HIV/AIDS), the HIV status of a mother delivering a live baby, when declared
unknown is always determined in the delivery room. This protocol is not applicable to women, whose
pregnancies have been identified as unproductive. A descriptive study was conducted in three public
hospitals in Yaounde from January, 2009 to February, 2012. It aimed at contributing to the reduction of
maternal and foetal mortality. A total of 14174 pregnant women were part of this study. The prevalence
rates of unproductive pregnancies were 14.9, 14.5 and 15.4% in 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively.
Stillbirths were the most common type and elective abortions the least frequent. HIV prevalence rates
were 10.7% for women who delivered live babies and 10.5% for those who had unproductive
pregnancies. HIV was not an influential factor on the outcome of pregnancy, neither on the type of
unproductive pregnancy. Among the women with unproductive pregnancies and HIV positive status,
52.4% were unaware of their HIV status. They could have returned home in complete ignorance of their
HIV status despite their passage through a hospital. Therefore, it may be important to extend prevention
of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) to such cases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV infection increases cardiovascular risk and highly active antiretroviral therapy may further augment it. We hypothesized that an increase in large artery stiffness may be a mechanism of enhanced cardiovascular risk in treated HIV-infected (HIV-T) patients.
Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AI) were measured in 108 Cameroonian untreated HIV-infected (HIV-UT) patients and in 130 HIV-T patients.
Brachial and aortic systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, and pulse pressure were higher in HIV-T patients than in HIV-UT patients (all, P<0.01). PWV was comparable in HIV-T and HIV-UT patients (7.2±1.5 vs. 7.46±2.2 m/s, respectively, P=0.3), whereas AI was higher in HIV-T patients than in HIV-UT patients (7.9±5 vs. 5.76±4%, respectively, P=0.003). AI was associated independently with age, brachial systolic BP, brachial diastolic BP, and height in HIV patients (R=0.75, P<0.01).
This study shows that pulse pressure and AI were increased in HIV-T patients, compared with matched HIV-UT patients, suggesting that highly active antiretroviral therapy could increase cardiovascular risk. However, PWV was not accelerated in HIV-T patients.