[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromosomal integration of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) genomes is believed to represent a significant event in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer associated with progression from preneoplastic lesions to invasive carcinomas. This hypothesis is based on experimental data suggesting that integration-dependent disruption of HR-HPV E2 gene functions is important to achieve neoplastic transformation and on clinical data gathered by analyzing lesions induced by human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 that revealed integrated viral genome copies in the vast majority of cervical cancer cells. However, a substantial fraction of cervical cancers is associated with other HR-HPV types for which virtually no data concerning their integration status have been reported so far. Here, we compared integration frequencies of the five most common oncogenic HPV types (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, and 45) in a series of 835 cervical samples using a specific mRNA-based PCR assay (Amplification of Papillomavirus Oncogene Transcripts). Most precancerous lesions displayed exclusively episomal viral genomes, whereas 62% of the carcinomas had integrated viral genomes. However, the frequency of integrated HR-HPV genomes showed marked differences for individual HR-HPV types. HPV16, 18, and 45 were found substantially more often in the integrated state compared with HPV types 31 and 33. The analysis of the median age of patients with high-grade precancerous lesions and invasive cancers suggests that precancers induced by HPV types 18, 16, and 45 progress to invasive cervical cancer in substantially less time compared with precancers induced by HPV types 31 and 33. These findings suggest that integration of oncogenic HPV genomes in cervical lesions is a consequence rather than the cause of chromosomal instability induced by deregulated HR-HPV E6-E7 oncogene expression. Distinct HR-HPV types apparently provoke chromosomal instability in their host cells to a different extent than is reflected by their integration frequencies in advanced lesions and the time required for CIN 3 lesions to progress to invasive cancer.
Cancer Research 02/2008; 68(1):307-13. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of NBS1 in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma of the skin. To exclude the common 657del5 founder mutation, a total of 376 melanoma patients from Southern Germany were analyzed for sequence alterations in exon 6 of NBS1 by direct sequencing. Analyses revealed one 657del5 mutation and three nonsynonymous sequence variations in exon 6 of NBS1 (V210F, R215W, and F222L). Analysis of an additional sample of 629 melanoma patients and 604 controls revealed no F222L mutation, indicating that this newly identified sequence alteration is not a common polymorphism. In a case-control association study including 632 melanoma patients and 615 cancer-free control participants from Southern Germany, three publicly known single nucleotide polymorphisms located in the NBS1 gene region were analyzed. No significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs9995, rs867185 and rs1063045) or referring calculated haplotypes and melanoma risk were identified. These results suggest that NBS1 does not play a major role in predisposition to melanoma in the Southern German population but that alterations of this gene might contribute to the risk of this cancer.
Melanoma Research 05/2007; 17(2):109-16. · 2.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The regulation of growth hormone 1 (GH1) and insulin-like-growth factor-1 (IGF-1) release is under the influence of three pituitary hormones [growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), ghrelin (GHRL) and somatostatin (SST)], which act in an autocrine/paracrine fashion in the breast. By binding to their respective receptors, they control cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in a GH1/IGF-1-dependent manner. We investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the GHRH, GHRHR, GHRL, GHSR, SST and SSTR2 gene regions in a Polish and a German cohort of 798 breast cancer cases and 1011 controls. Our study revealed an association of a novel TC repeat polymorphism in the SST promoter with a decreased breast cancer risk in the Polish study population [odds ratio (OR), 0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.44-0.96]. The closely linked SNP IVS1 A+46G showed the same trend. For both polymorphisms the association was stronger in women above the age of 50 (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.14-0.76 and OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.18-0.87, respectively). The protective effect of these polymorphisms was confirmed in a haplotype analysis among women above 50 years of age and carrying the two variant alleles (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.17-0.80). In the independent German population, we observed slightly decreased ORs among women above the age of 50 years. In the SSTR2 gene, carriers of the promoter 21/21 TG repeat genotype were at a decreased breast cancer risk (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.41-0.94) compared to carriers of the other genotypes in the Polish population. Furthermore, we identified a protective effect of the GHRHR C-261T SNP in both populations (joint analysis CT+TT versus CC: OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.65-0.99). This effect was carried by a haplotype containing the protective allele. Thus, our study concludes a possible protective influence of distinct polymorphisms in genes involved in GH1 release on breast cancer risk.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Partial trisomies are chromosome abnormalities resulting in a broad range of malformations depending on the size and location of the chromosomal rearrangement. Whereas diagnosis of these syndromes is usually made in early childhood, few descriptions exist about the clinical picture in adulthood. We report on a patient diagnosed at the age of 43 years with a 47,XY,+der(22)t(8;22)(q24.13;q11.21) karyotype and predominant clinical features of trisomy 8q. To our knowledge, this is the oldest patient described with a partial trisomy 8. The patient presented with moderate intellectual disability, a past history of epilepsy and facial anomalies. In addition, a large cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma was diagnosed in adulthood. Detailed breakpoint mapping by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays showed that the derivative chromosome contains a full-length copy of the C-MYC oncogene. Given that trisomy 8q is the most frequent secondary chromosomal abnormality in hematological diseases, the possibility of a genetic predisposition for these disorders in patients with 8q duplication is raised.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 09/2006; 140(15):1658-62. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations of the human RecQ helicase genes WRN and BLM lead to rare autosomal recessive disorders, Werner and Bloom syndromes, which are associated with premature ageing and cancer predisposition. We tested the hypothesis whether three polymorphic, non-conservative amino acid exchanges in WRN and BLM act as low-penetrance familial breast cancer risk factors. Moreover, we examined the putative impact of p53 MspI 1798G>A, which is completely linked to p53PIN3, a 16 bp insertion/duplication that has been associated with reduced p53 expression, on familial breast cancer risk. Genotyping analyses, performed on 816 BRCA1/2 mutation-negative German familial breast cancer patients and 1012 German controls, revealed a significant association of the WRN Cys1367Arg polymorphism with familial breast cancer (OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.06-1.54) and high-risk familial breast cancer (OR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.06-1.65). The analysis of p53 MspI 1798G>A, which is completely linked to p53PIN3, showed a significantly increased familial breast cancer risk for carriers of the 16 bp insertion/duplication, following a recessive mode (OR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.12-4.11). WRN Cys1367Arg, located in the C-terminus, the binding site of p53, is predicted to be damaging. The joint effect of WRN Cys1367Arg and p53 MspI resulted in an increased breast cancer risk compared to the single polymorphisms (OR = 3.39, 95% CI 1.19-9.71). In conclusion, our study indicates the importance of inherited variants in the WRN and p53 genes for familial breast cancer susceptibility.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, ARLTS1 (ADP-ribosylation factor-like tumor suppressor gene 1) has been identified as a tumor suppressor gene, playing a major role in apoptotic signaling. The ARLTS1 Trp149Stop mutation has been shown to predispose to general familial cancer and high-risk familial breast cancer (BC), provoking the attenuation of apoptotic function. We studied the impact of the ARLTS1 Pro131Leu and Cys148Arg variants on high-risk familial and familial BC risk, investigating 482 familial BC cases (including 305 high-risk cases) and 530 control individuals. Unlike ARLTS1 Pro131Leu, Cys148Arg revealed a significant association with an increased risk of high-risk familial BC (odds ratio (OR)=1.47, 95% confidence interval (95% CI)=1.04-2.06, p=0.03) in a dose-dependent manner (ptrend=0.007). The genotype distribution of Cys148Arg in familial cases was similar, indicating significance as well (OR=1.48, 95% CI=1.10-1.99, p=0.009; ptrend=0.003). On the basis of the small number of 46 cases, we additionally showed an association between the Trp149Stop mutation and an increased risk of bilateral BC (OR=4.11, 95% CI=1.27-13.31, p=0.011).
International Journal of Cancer 06/2006; 118(10):2505-8. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The contribution of prolactin (PRL) through its receptor (PRLR) to the pathogenesis and progression of human mammary tumors has received recent attention.
We investigated whether genetic variation in the PRL and PRLR genes is associated with the risk of breast cancer (BC).
We conducted a case-control study with a total of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).
The study was conducted at an academic research laboratory and university clinics.
A total of 441 German familial, unrelated BC cases and 552 controls matched by age, ethnicity, and geographical region participated in the study.
There were no interventions.
SNP genotype and haplotype distributions and haplotype interactions were correlated with the risk of BC.
Two SNPs (rs1341239 and rs12210179) within the PRL promoter regions were significantly associated with increased risk in homozygotes for the variant alleles [odds ratio (OR), 1.67 and 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-2.50; and OR, 2.09 and 95% CI, 1.23-3.52, respectively]. The PRL haplotype containing the variant alleles of the promoter SNPs increased significantly the risk of BC (OR 1.42, 95%CI 1.07-1.90). A PRLR haplotype was associated with a significant decrease in BC risk (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.54-0.89). An increasing number of PRL and PRLR risk haplotypes led to a significant trend of increasing risk for BC (chi(2) = 12.15; P = 0.007).
Genetic variation in the PRL and PRLR genes was shown to influence BC risk. Additional studies are needed to further clarify the role of the PRL and PRLR genes in the risk of BC.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The A-kinase anchor protein 13 (AKAP13, alias BRX and lbc) tethers cAMP-dependent protein kinase to its subcellular environment and catalyses Rho GTPases activity as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor. The crucial role of members of the Rho family of GTPases in carcinogenesis is well established and targeting Rho proteins with antineoplastic compounds has become a major effort in the fight against cancer. Thus, genetic alterations within the candidate cancer susceptibility gene AKAP13 would be expected to provoke a constitutive Rho signalling, thereby facilitating the development of cancer. Here, we analysed the potential impact of four polymorphic non-conservative amino acid exchanges (Arg494Trp, Lys526Gln, Asn1086Asp and Gly2461Ser) in AKAP13 on familial breast cancer. We performed a case-control study using genomic DNA of BRCA1/2 mutation-negative German female index patients from 601 unrelated families, among a subset of 356 high-risk families, and 1053 German female unrelated controls. The newfound Lys526Gln polymorphism revealed a significant association with familial breast cancer (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.07-2.35) and an even stronger association with high-risk familial breast cancer (OR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.19-2.88). Haplotype analyses were in line with genotype results displaying a similar significance as analyses of individual polymorphisms. Due to the pivotal role of AKAP13 in the Rho GTPases signalling network, this variant might affect the susceptibility to other cancers as well.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysregulation of apoptosis plays a crucial role in carcinogenesis. As part of death receptor- and mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis, the homologues caspases 10 and 8 may act as low-penetrance breast cancer (BC) susceptibility genes. In death receptor-mediated apoptosis, engagement of death receptors by their ligands involves the assembly of the death-inducing signalling complex (DISC). In mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis, the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol results in apoptosome formation. Recruitment of both caspases 10 and 8 (CASP10 and CASP8, respectively) to DISC and apoptosome leads to their activation by dimerization. We investigated the influence of the coding CASP10 variant V410I (G1228A) by performing a case-control study - using 511 familial BC cases and 547 control subjects - on BC risk and revealed a significant association of V410I with a reduced risk (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.43-0.88, P = 0.0076) related to the number of variant alleles (P(trend) = 0.0039). As CASP10 and CASP8 functionally co-operate during apoptosis, we analysed the mutual effect of both CASP10 V410I and CASP8 D302H, resulting in a significant association between the number of the variant alleles I410 and H302 and a highly decreased familial BC risk (OR = 0.35, P(trend) = 0.007), pointing to the interaction between the CASP10 and CASP8 polymorphisms in breast carcinogenesis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) oncoprotein promotes cell survival and cell cycle progression by inhibiting the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Further, MDM2 overexpression can inhibit DNA double-strand break repair in a p53-independent manner. Recently, it was shown that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MDM2 promoter was associated with an accelerated tumor formation in individuals with a p53 mutation. The present case-control study investigated the association of this SNP (IVS1+309) with the risk and the age of onset of familial breast cancer in patients with unknown p53 mutation status. Data from 549 women affected by familial breast cancer and 1,065 healthy controls were analyzed. The cases did not carry BRCA1/2 mutations. Cases and controls showed a similar genotype distribution and the SNP did not seem to modify the age of onset of familial breast cancer. The data were also examined taking into account the presence of any additional cancer after breast cancer and the family history of cases; however, no association was found. These results suggest that the SNP IVS1+309 alone affects neither the risk nor the age of onset of heritable breast cancer.
Cancer Research 02/2006; 66(2):646-8. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysplastic lesions of the vagina or the vulva often occur in women who have a previous history of cervical dysplasia. Most lesions in the female lower genital tract are induced by infections with high-risk oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs), including HPV16 and HPV18. HR-HPV genomes frequently integrate into host cell chromosomes at random sites. We analyzed viral integration sites in multiple metachronous lesions of the lower genital tract from women previously treated for HR-HPV-positive cervical dysplasia or cancer to determine whether the metachronous lesions emerged from a single common preexisting dysplastic cell clone or as consequence of independent HR-HPV infection events in the female lower genital tract.
From among 1500 patients with anogenital lesions, seven patients with high-grade vaginal or vulvar lesions and with a previous history of cervical disease (five with prior high-grade cervical dysplasia and two with a history of cervical cancer) were included in this study. Integration sites of HPV16 or HPV18 in vaginal or vulvar lesions were mapped by an adaptor ligation polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The sequence information was used to design an integrate-specific PCR assay that was applied to DNA extracted from archival paraffin-embedded material derived from biopsy samples of cervical lesions.
Identical HPV DNA integration loci were found in vaginal or vulvar and cervical samples of all lesions available for four of the five patients with a prior history of high-grade cervical dysplasia and for both patients with a history of cervical cancer.
These data indicate that high-grade dysplastic lesions in the female lower genital tract may emerge primarily as monoclonal lesions from a transformed cell population derived from the uterine cervix.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The growth hormone 1 (GH1)/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis plays an important role in the development of breast cancer. By binding to its receptor, GH1 stimulates the production of IGF-I and its binding protein IGFBP3, resulting in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The GH1 gene expression is regulated by a highly polymorphic proximal promoter and a distal locus control region (LCR) 14.5 kb upstream of the gene. We investigated the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the LCR and in the promoter region and an intron 4 SNP (IVS4+90 T/A) on breast cancer risk in a large cohort of Polish and German familial breast cancer cases and controls. SNPs in the LCR did not show an influence on breast cancer risk, either alone or in haplotypes. Three SNPs in the promoter region (G-340T, A-68G/C and A-63T/C) showed an increased and four SNPs (A-137G, G-119T, G-93delG and T-4G) a decreased allele frequency in the cases compared with the controls. Two of the SNPs (A-137G and G-93delG) lead to a decreased breast cancer risk among the minor allele carriers in the joint analysis of the two populations (odds ratio (OR) 0.62, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.44-0.89, P = 0.01 and OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.47-0.90, P = 0.01, respectively). Haplotype analysis with these seven promoter SNPs revealed a protective association (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.37-1.00, P = 0.04) for the haplotype GAGdAAT, containing the G-93delG variant allele, which in the single analysis already showed a protective effect. The effect was marginally stronger in combination with the LCR GC haplotype (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.23-1.01, P = 0.04).
Endocrine Related Cancer 01/2006; 12(4):917-28. · 5.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: c-MYC is a multifaceted protein that regulates cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Its crucial role in diverse cancers has been demonstrated in several studies. Here, we analysed the influence of the rare c-MYC Asn11Ser polymorphism on familial breast cancer risk by performing a case-control study with a Polish (cases n = 349; controls n = 441) and a German (cases n = 356; controls n = 655) study population. All cases have been tested negative for mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. A joint analysis of the Polish and the German study population revealed a 54% increased risk for breast cancer associated with the heterozygous Asn11Ser variant (OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.05-2.26, p = 0.028). The breast cancer risk associated with this genotype increases above the age of 50 years (OR = 2.24, 95% CI 1.20-4.21, p = 0.012). The wild-type amino acid Asn of this polymorphism is located in the N-terminal MYC transactivation domain and is highly conserved not only among most diverse species but also in the N-MYC homologue. Due to the pivotal role of c-MYC in diverse tumours, this variant might affect the genetic susceptibility of other cancers as well.
International Journal of Cancer 12/2005; 117(4):638-42. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysregulation of apoptosis plays a crucial role in carcinogenesis. Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand stimulates the extrinsic apoptotic pathway by binding to death receptor 4 (DR4). Thus, genetic alterations within the candidate tumour suppressor gene DR4 would be expected to provoke a deficient apoptotic signalling thereby facilitating the development of cancer. The DR4 variants Thr209Arg and Glu228Ala were genotyped in a series of 521 breast cancer cases and 1100 control subjects from Germany, determining their impact on breast cancer risk. Neither Thr209Arg (626C>G) nor Glu228Ala (683A>C) alone were significantly associated with breast cancer risk [odds ratio (OR) = 0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.65-1.08, P = 0.18 and OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.72-1.12, P = 0.30]. However, haplotype analysis revealed a 3.5-fold risk for carriers of the 626C-683C haplotype (OR = 3.52, 95% CI = 1.45-8.52, P = 0.003).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is a necessary step in tumor growth and metastasis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major mediator of breast cancer angiogenesis. Therefore, we investigated the association of polymorphisms in the VEGF gene with breast cancer risk and prognostic characteristics of the tumors in a large case-control study.
We examined three polymorphisms in the VEGF gene (-2578C/A, -1154G/A, and +936C/T) in 571 familial breast cancer cases from Poland and Germany and -2578C/A, -634G/C, and +936C/T polymorphisms in 974 unselected breast cancer cases from Sweden together with ethnically and geographically selected controls.
None of the polymorphisms or any haplotype was significantly associated with either familial or unselected breast cancers. Our study suggests that the +936C/T polymorphism is unlikely to be associated with breast cancer. We also analyzed the unselected cases for genotypes or haplotypes that associated with tumor characteristics. The -634CC genotype and the -2578/-634 CC haplotype were significantly associated with high tumor aggressiveness (large tumor size and high histologic grade, P < 0.01) and the -2578AA genotype and the -2578/-634 AG haplotype with low histologic grade tumors (P = 0.04). The genotypes and haplotypes were not related with other tumor characteristics such as regional or distant metastasis, stage at diagnosis, or estrogen or progesterone receptor status.
Although none of the polymorphisms studied in the VEGF gene was found to influence susceptibility to breast cancer significantly, some of the VEGF genotypes and haplotypes may influence tumor growth through an altered expression of VEGF and tumor angiogenesis.
Clinical Cancer Research 05/2005; 11(10):3647-53. · 7.84 Impact Factor