Arnold M Falick

University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, MO, United States

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Publications (68)307.73 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Adhesive spider glues are required to perform a variety of tasks, including web construction, prey capture, and locomotion. To date, little is known regarding the molecular and structural features of spider glue proteins, in particular bioadhesives that interconnect dragline or scaffolding silks during three-dimensional web construction. Here we use biochemical and structural approaches to identify and characterize two aggregate gland specific gene products, AgSF1 and AgSF2, and demonstrate that these proteins co-localize to the connection joints of both webs and wrapping silks spun from the black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus. Protein architectures are markedly divergent between AgSF1 and AgSF2, as well as traditional spider silk fibroin family members, suggesting connection joints consist of a complex proteinaceous network. AgSF2 represents a nonglycosylated 40-kDa protein that has novel internal amino acid block repeats with the consensus sequence NVNVN embedded in a glycine-rich matrix. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of AgSF1 reveals pentameric QPGSG iterations that are similar to conserved modular elements within mammalian elastin, a rubber-like elastomeric protein that interfaces with collagen. Wet-spinning methodology using purified recombinant proteins show AgSF1 has the potential to self-assemble into fibers. X-ray fiber diffraction studies performed on these synthetic fibers reveal the presence of noncrystalline domains that resemble classical rubber networks. Collectively, these data support that the aggregate gland serves to extrude a protein mixture that contains substances that allow for the self-assembly of fiber-like structures that interface with dragline silks to mediate prey capture.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2012; 287(43):35986-99. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prokaryotic cell wall biosynthesis is coordinated with cell growth and division, but the mechanisms regulating this dynamic process remain obscure. Here, we describe a phosphorylation-dependent regulatory complex that controls peptidoglycan (PG) biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We found that PknB, a PG-responsive Ser-Thr protein kinase (STPK), initiates complex assembly by phosphorylating a kinase-like domain in the essential PG biosynthetic protein, MviN. This domain was structurally diverged from active kinases and did not mediate phosphotransfer. Threonine phosphorylation of the pseudokinase domain recruited the FhaA protein through its forkhead-associated (FHA) domain. The crystal structure of this phosphorylated pseudokinase-FHA domain complex revealed the basis of FHA domain recognition, which included unexpected contacts distal to the phosphorylated threonine. Conditional degradation of these proteins in mycobacteria demonstrated that MviN was essential for growth and PG biosynthesis and that FhaA regulated these processes at the cell poles and septum. Controlling this spatially localized PG regulatory complex is only one of several cellular roles ascribed to PknB, suggesting that the capacity to coordinate signaling across multiple processes is an important feature conserved between eukaryotic and prokaryotic STPK networks.
    Science Signaling 01/2012; 5(208):ra7. · 7.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A major challenge for core facilities is determining quantitative protein differences across complex biological samples. Although there are numerous techniques in the literature for relative and absolute protein quantification, the majority is nonroutine and can be challenging to carry out effectively. There are few studies comparing these technologies in terms of their reproducibility, accuracy, and precision, and no studies to date deal with performance across multiple laboratories with varied levels of expertise. Here, we describe an Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities (ABRF) Proteomics Research Group (PRG) study based on samples composed of a complex protein mixture into which 12 known proteins were added at varying but defined ratios. All of the proteins were present at the same concentration in each of three tubes that were provided. The primary goal of this study was to allow each laboratory to evaluate its capabilities and approaches with regard to: detection and identification of proteins spiked into samples that also contain complex mixtures of background proteins and determination of relative quantities of the spiked proteins. The results returned by 43 participants were compiled by the PRG, which also collected information about the strategies used to assess overall performance and as an aid to development of optimized protocols for the methodologies used. The most accurate results were generally reported by the most experienced laboratories. Among laboratories that used the same technique, values that were closer to the expected ratio were obtained by more experienced groups.
    Journal of biomolecular techniques: JBT 04/2011; 22(1):21-6.
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    ABSTRACT: The essential Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ser/Thr protein kinase (STPK), PknB, plays a key role in regulating growth and division, but the structural basis of activation has not been defined. Here, we provide biochemical and structural evidence that dimerization through the kinase-domain (KD) N-lobe activates PknB by an allosteric mechanism. Promoting KD pairing using a small-molecule dimerizer stimulates the unphosphorylated kinase, and substitutions that disrupt N-lobe pairing decrease phosphorylation activity in vitro and in vivo. Multiple crystal structures of two monomeric PknB KD mutants in complex with nucleotide reveal diverse inactive conformations that contain large active-site distortions that propagate > 30 Å from the mutation site. These results define flexible, inactive structures of a monomeric bacterial receptor KD and show how "back-to-back" N-lobe dimerization stabilizes the active KD conformation. This general mechanism of bacterial receptor STPK activation affords insights into the regulation of homologous eukaryotic kinases that form structurally similar dimers.
    Structure 12/2010; 18(12):1667-77. · 5.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: U-insertion/deletion RNA editing of mitochondrial mRNAs in trypanosome mitochondria is mediated by a core complex (RECC) containing around 16-20 proteins which is linked to several other multiprotein complexes by RNA. There are two known subcomplexes in the RECC: the REL1 subcomplex which contains the REL1 RNA ligase, the MP63 zinc finger-containing protein and the REX2 U-specific 3'-5' exonuclease; and the REL2 subcomplex which contains the REL2 RNA ligase, the RET2 3' TUTase and the MP81 zinc finger-containing protein. In this study we have affinity isolated recombinant TAP-tagged Leishmania major RET2 and Leishmania tarentolae MP63, REL1 and REL2 proteins after expression in baculovirus-infected insect cells. Recombinant MP63 protein was found to stimulate several in vitro activities of recombinant REL1; these activities include autoadenylation, bridged ligation and even pre-cleaved gRNA-mediated U-insertion editing with RET2 which is in the REL2 subcomplex. There was no effect of recombinant MP63 on similar REL2 ligation activities. The specificity for REL1 is consistent with MP63 being a component of the REL1 subcomplex. These results suggest that in vivo the interaction of MP63 with REL1 may play a role in regulating the overall activity of RNA editing.
    Protist 02/2010; 161(3):489-96. · 4.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Spiders spin high performance threads that have diverse mechanical properties for specific biological applications. To better understand the molecular mechanism by which spiders anchor their threads to a solid support, we solubilized the attachment discs from black widow spiders and performed in-solution tryptic digests followed by MS/MS analysis to identify novel peptides derived from glue silks. Combining matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry and cDNA library screening, we isolated a novel member of the silk gene family called pysp1 and demonstrate that its protein product is assembled into the attachment disc silks. Alignment of the PySp1 amino acid sequence to other fibroins revealed conservation in the non-repetitive C-terminal region of the silk family. MS/MS analysis also confirmed the presence of MaSp1 and MaSp2, two important components of dragline silks, anchored within the attachment disc materials. Characterization of the ultrastructure of attachment discs using scanning electron microscopy studies support the localization of PySp1 to small diameter fibers embedded in a glue-like cement, which network with large diameter dragline silk threads, producing a strong, adhesive material. Consistent with elevated PySp1 mRNA levels detected in the pyriform gland, MS analysis of the luminal contents extracted from the pyriform gland after tryptic digestion support the assertion that PySp1 represents one of the major constituents manufactured in the pyriform gland. Taken together, our data demonstrate that PySp1 is spun into attachment disc silks to help affix dragline fibers to substrates, a critical function during spider web construction for prey capture and locomotion.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2009; 284(42):29097-108. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Uridine insertion/deletion RNA editing is a unique form of posttranscriptional RNA processing that occurs in mitochondria of kinetoplastid protists. We have carried out 3D structural analyses of the core editing complex or "L (ligase)-complex" from Leishmania tarentolae mitochondria isolated by the tandem affinity purification procedure (TAP). The purified material, sedimented at 20-25S, migrated in a blue native gel at 1 MDa and exhibited both precleaved and full-cycle gRNA-mediated U-insertion and U-deletion in vitro activities. The purified L-complex was analyzed by electron tomography to determine the extent of heterogeneity. Three-dimensional structural comparisons of individual particles in the tomograms revealed that a majority of the complexes have a similar shape of a slender triangle. An independent single-particle reconstruction, using a featureless Gaussian ball as the initial model, converged to a similar triangular structure. Another single-particle reconstruction, using the averaged tomography structure as the initial model, yielded a similar structure. The REL1 ligase was localized on the model to the base of the apex by decoration with REL1-specific IgG. This structure should prove useful for a detailed analysis of the editing reaction.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2009; 106(30):12306-10. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the mitochondria of trypanosomatids, the majority of mRNAs undergo massive uracil-insertion/deletion editing. Throughout the processes of pre-mRNA polyadenylation, guide RNA (gRNA) uridylylation and annealing to mRNA, and editing reactions, several multiprotein complexes must engage in transient interactions to produce a template for protein synthesis. Here, we report the identification of a protein complex essential for gRNA stability. The gRNA-binding complex (GRBC) interacts with gRNA processing, editing, and polyadenylation machineries and with the mitochondrial edited mRNA stability (MERS1) factor. RNAi knockdown of the core subunits, GRBC1 and GRBC2, led to the elimination of gRNAs, thus inhibiting mRNA editing. Inhibition of MERS1 expression selectively abrogated edited mRNAs. Homologous proteins unique to the order of Kinetoplastida, GRBC1 and GRBC2, form a stable 200 kDa particle that directly binds gRNAs. Systematic analysis of RNA-mediated and RNA-independent interactions involving the GRBC and MERS1 suggests a unified model for RNA processing in the kinetoplast mitochondria.
    Molecular cell 11/2008; 32(2):198-209. · 14.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A common request of proteomics core facilities is protein identification. However, in some instances primary sequence information for the protein in question is not present in public databases. In other cases, the amino acid sequence of a protein may differ in some way from the sequence predicted from the gene sequence in a database as a result of gene mutation, gene splicing, and/or multiple posttranslational modifications. Thus, it may be necessary to determine the sequence of one or more peptides de novo in order to identify and/or adequately characterize the protein of interest. The primary goal of this study was to give participating laboratories an opportunity to evaluate their proficiency in sequencing unknown peptides that are not included in any published database. Samples containing 3-6 pmol each of five synthetic peptides with amino acid sequences that were not present in public databases were sent to 106 laboratories. One nonstandard amino acid was present in one of the peptides. From a comparison of the results obtained by different strategies, participating laboratories will be able to gauge their own capabilities and establish realistic expectations for the approaches that can be used for this determination.
    Journal of biomolecular techniques: JBT 10/2008; 19(4):251-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Malaria parasites utilize a short N-terminal amino acid motif termed the Plasmodium export element (PEXEL) to export an array of proteins to the host erythrocyte during blood stage infection. Using immunoaffinity chromatography and mass spectrometry, insight into this signal-mediated trafficking mechanism was gained by discovering that the PEXEL motif is cleaved and N-acetylated. PfHRPII and PfEMP2 are two soluble proteins exported by Plasmodium falciparum that were demonstrated to undergo PEXEL cleavage and N-acetylation, thus indicating that this N-terminal processing may be general to many exported soluble proteins. It was established that PEXEL processing occurs upstream of the brefeldin A-sensitive trafficking step in the P. falciparum secretory pathway, therefore cleavage and N-acetylation of the PEXEL motif occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the parasite. Furthermore, it was shown that the recognition of the processed N-terminus of exported proteins within the parasitophorous vacuole may be crucial for protein transport to the host erythrocyte. It appears that the PEXEL may be defined as a novel ER peptidase cleavage site and a classical N-acetyltransferase substrate sequence.
    Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 09/2008; 160(2):107-15. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Spiders spin high performance fibers with diverse biological functions and mechanical properties. Molecular and biochemical studies of spider prey wrapping silks have revealed the presence of the aciniform silk fibroin AcSp1-like. In our studies we demonstrate the presence of a second distinct polypeptide present within prey wrapping silk. Combining matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry and reverse genetics, we have isolated a novel gene called MiSp1-like and demonstrate that its protein product is a constituent of prey wrap silks from the black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus. BLAST searches of the NCBInr protein database using the amino acid sequence of MiSp1-like revealed similarity to the conserved C-terminal domain of silk family members. In particular, MiSp1-like showed the highest degree of sequence similarity to the nonrepetitive C-termini of published orb-weaver minor ampullate fibroin molecules. Analysis of the internal amino acid sequence of the black widow MiSp1-like revealed polyalanine stretches interrupted by glycine residues and glycine-alanine couplets within MiSp1-like as well as repeats of the heptameric sequence AGGYGQG. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis demonstrates that the MiSp1-like gene displays a minor ampullate gland-restricted pattern of expression. Furthermore, amino acid composition analysis, coupled with scanning electron microscopy of raw wrapping silk, supports the assertion that minor ampullate silks are important constituents of black widow spider prey wrap silk. Collectively, our findings provide direct molecular evidence for the involvement of minor ampullate fibroins in swathing silks and suggest composite materials play an important role in the wrap attack process for cob-weavers.
    Biochemistry 05/2008; 47(16):4692-700. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Spiders produce high performance fibers with diverse mechanical properties and biological functions. Molecular and biochemical studies of spider egg case silk have revealed that the main constituent of the large diameter fiber contains the fibroin TuSp1. Here we demonstrate by SDS-PAGE and protein silver staining the presence of a distinct approximately 300-kDa polypeptide that is found in solubilized egg case sacs. Combining matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry and reverse genetics, we have isolated a novel gene called AcSp1-like and demonstrate that its protein product is assembled into the small diameter fibers of egg case sacs and wrapping silks from the black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus. BLAST searches of the NCBInr protein data base using the amino acid sequence of AcSp1-like revealed similarity to AcSp1, an inferred protein proposed to be a component of wrapping silk. However, the AcSp1-like protein was found to display more nonuniformity in its internal iterated repeat modules than the putative AcSp1 fibroin. Real time quantitative PCR analysis demonstrates that the AcSp1-like gene displays an aciniform gland-restricted pattern of expression. The amino acid composition of the fibroins extracted from the luminal contents of the aciniform glands was remarkably similar to the predicted amino acid composition of the AcSp1-like protein, which supports the assertion that AcSp1-like protein represents the major constituent stored within the aciniform gland. Collectively, our findings provide the first direct molecular evidence for the involvement of the aciniform gland in the production of a common fibroin that is assembled into the small diameter threads of egg case and wrapping silk of cob weavers.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2007; 282(48):35088-97. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The determination of differences in relative protein abundance is a critical aspect of proteomics research that is increasingly used to answer diverse biological questions. The Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities Proteomics Research Group 2006 study was a quantitative proteomics project in which the aim was to determine the identity and the relative amounts of eight proteins in two mixtures. There are numerous methodologies available to study the relative abundance of proteins between samples, but to date, there are few examples of studies that have compared these different approaches. For the 2006 Proteomics Research Group study, there were 52 participants who used a wide variety of gel electrophoresis-, HPLC-, and mass spectrometry-based methods for relative quantitation. The quantitative data arising from this study were evaluated along with several other experimental details relevant to the methodologies used.
    Molecular &amp Cellular Proteomics 09/2007; 6(8):1291-8. · 7.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel type of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex has been described from the kinetoplast-mitochondria of Leishmania tarentolae. The complex, termed the 45S SSU*, contains the 9S small subunit rRNA but does not contain the 12S large subunit rRNA. This complex is the most stable and abundant mitochondrial RNP complex present in Leishmania. As shown by tandem mass spectrometry, the complex contains at least 39 polypeptides with a combined molecular mass of almost 2.1 MDa. These components include several homologs of small subunit ribosomal proteins (S5, S6, S8, S9, S11, S15, S16, S17, S18, MRPS29); however, most of the polypeptides present are unique. Only a few of them show recognizable motifs, such as protein-protein (coiled-coil, Rhodanese) or protein-RNA (pentatricopeptide repeat) interaction domains. A cryo-electron microscopy examination of the 45S SSU* fraction reveals that 27% of particles represent SSU homodimers arranged in a head-to-tail orientation, while the majority of particles are clearly different and show an asymmetric bilobed morphology. Multiple classes of two-dimensional averages were derived for the asymmetrical particles, probably reflecting random orientations of the particles and difficulties in correlating these views with the known projections of ribosomal complexes. One class of the two-dimensional averages shows a SSU moiety attached to a protein mass or masses in a monosome-like appearance. The combined mass spectrometry and electron microscopy data thus indicate that the majority 45S SSU* particles represents a heterodimeric complex in which the SSU of the Leishmania mitochondrial ribosome is associated with an additional protein mass. The biological role of these particles is not known.
    Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 05/2007; 152(2):203-12. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Receptor Ser/Thr protein kinases are candidates for sensors that govern developmental changes and disease processes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), but the functions of these kinases are not established. Here, we show that Mtb protein kinase (Pkn) D overexpression alters transcription of numerous bacterial genes, including Rv0516c, a putative anti-anti-sigma factor, and genes regulated by sigma factor F. The PknD kinase domain directly phosphorylated Rv0516c, but no other sigma factor regulator, in vitro. In contrast, the purified PknB and PknE kinase domains phosphorylated distinct sigma regulators. Rather than modifying a consensus site, PknD phosphorylated Rv0516c in vitro and in vivo on Thr2 in a unique N-terminal extension. This phosphorylation inhibited Rv0516c binding in vitro to a homologous anti-anti-sigma factor, Rv2638. These results support a model in which signals transmitted through PknD alter the transcriptional program of Mtb by stimulating phosphorylation of a sigma factor regulator at an unprecedented control site.
    PLoS Pathogens 05/2007; 3(4):e49. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elucidation of the molecular composition and physical properties of spider glue is necessary to understand its function in the mechanics of the web and prey capture. Previous reports have indicated that components of the adhesive coating contain inorganic molecules, phosphorylated glycoproteins, lipids, and organic low-molecular mass (LMM) compounds. Using a proteomic strategy, we have investigated the viscid, aqueous components that coat different silk fiber types from the black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus. After in-solution tryptic digestion of the aqueous protein material extracted from egg case sacs, gumfooted lines, and the web scaffolding connection joints, followed by peptide analysis using MALDI tandem TOF mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that these fibers are coated with common peptides. Utilizing a reverse genetics approach, we have isolated the cDNAs encoding two distinct fiber coating products, which we have named spider coating peptide 1 and 2 (SCP-1 and SCP-2). Secreted forms of SCP-1 and SCP-2 contain 36 and 19 amino acids, respectively, and their primary sequences display no significant similarities to ensemble repeat units from traditional fibroins. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR analyses show that these mRNAs are chiefly produced by the aggregate gland. Biochemical studies also demonstrate that the SCP-1 peptide has intrinsic metal binding properties, suggesting a role of peptide-metal ion interactions with the fiber constituents to enhance thread performance. Collectively, these investigations are the first to reveal a novel role for the aggregate gland in the production of peptides that coat spider silk threads.
    Biochemistry 04/2007; 46(11):3294-303. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Uridine (U)-insertion/deletion RNA editing in trypanosome mitochondria involves an initial cleavage of the preedited mRNA at specific sites determined by the annealing of partially complementary guide RNAs. An involvement of two RNase III-containing core editing complex (L-complex) proteins, MP90 (KREPB1) and MP61 (KREPB3) in, respectively, U-deletion and U-insertion editing, has been suggested, but these putative enzymes have not been characterized or expressed in active form. Recombinant MP90 proteins from Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania major were expressed in insect cells and cytosol of Leishmania tarentolae, respectively. These proteins were active in specifically cleaving a model U-deletion site and not a U-insertion site. Deletion or mutation of the RNase III motif abolished this activity. Full-round guide RNA (gRNA)-mediated in vitro U-deletion editing was reconstituted by a mixture of recombinant MP90 and recombinant RNA editing exonuclease I from L. major, and recombinant RNA editing RNA ligase 1 from L. tarentolae. MP90 is designated REN1, for RNA-editing nuclease 1.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2006; 103(38):13944-9. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have analyzed Leishmania tarentolae mitochondrial ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes using the 9S small subunit (SSU) rRNA and the 12S large subunit (LSU) rRNA as markers, and have identified a 50S RNP particle as the putative mitochondrial monosome, a 40S particle as the putative LSU and a 30S particle as the putative SSU. These assignments are supported by morphological analysis by cryo-electron microscopy and proteomics analyses by mass spectrometry. The presence of additional rRNA-containing particles complicated the analysis and most likely was the basis for previous difficulties in identification of these ribosomes; thus, in addition to the monosomes and their subunits, there are abundant stable 45S particles (SSU(*)) containing only 9S rRNA, which may represent homodimers of the SSU or SSU associated with additional proteins, and variable minor amounts of 65S and 70S particles, which represent homodimers of the LSU and SSU(*), respectively. These additional rRNA particles might be due to the lengthy mitochondrial isolation and ribosome isolation procedures or may be present in vivo and play yet undetermined roles.
    Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 08/2006; 148(1):69-78. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Spider silk proteins are well-known for their extraordinary mechanical properties, displaying remarkable strength and toughness. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) tandem time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and reverse genetics were used to isolate a new cDNA sequence that encodes for a protein assembled into egg case silk from the black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus. Analysis of the primary sequence of this protein reveals approximately 52% identity to the egg case protein 1 (ECP-1) fibroin-like family member. On the basis of the similarity in the primary sequence and expression pattern, we have named this factor egg case protein 2 (ECP-2). Alignments of ECP-1 and ECP-2 demonstrate highly conserved N termini, with 16 Cys residues found within the first 153 amino acids. Traditional ensemble repeats found within reported fibroins were poorly represented in the primary sequence of ECP-2, but scattered blocks of polyalanine were present, along with a C terminus rich in GA repeats. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR analysis showed that ECP-2 is predominantly expressed in the tubuliform gland. Relative to ECP-1, ECP-2 mRNA levels were determined to be >2-fold higher. MALDI MS/MS analysis of peptide fragments generated from the large-diameter core fiber after enzymatic digestion and acid hydrolysis demonstrated the presence of a fiber that is trimeric in nature, containing tubuliform spidroin 1 (TuSp1), ECP-1, and ECP-2. We also report an additional primary sequence for TuSp1, demonstrating that TuSp1 contains two Cys residues within a nonrepetitive N-terminal region. In combination with the distinctive protein architectures of ECP-1 and ECP-2, along with their co-localization with TuSp1 in the core fiber, our findings suggest that ECP-1 and ECP-2 play important structural roles in the egg case silk fiber.
    Biochemistry 04/2006; 45(11):3506-16. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Scaffold proteins organize signaling proteins into pathways and are often viewed as passive assembly platforms. We found that the Ste5 scaffold has a more active role in the yeast mating pathway: A fragment of Ste5 allosterically activated autophosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fus3. The resulting form of Fus3 is partially active-it is phosphorylated on only one of two key residues in the activation loop. Unexpectedly, at a systems level, autoactivated Fus3 appears to have a negative regulatory role, promoting Ste5 phosphorylation and a decrease in pathway transcriptional output. Thus, scaffolds not only direct basic pathway connectivity but can precisely tune quantitative pathway input-output properties.
    Science 03/2006; 311(5762):822-6. · 31.20 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
307.73 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2012
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Molecular and Cell Biology
      Berkeley, MO, United States
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Ashburn, Virginia, United States
    • The Ohio State University
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • 2005–2009
    • University of the Pacific (California - USA)
      • • Department of Biological Sciences
      • • Department of Chemistry
      Stockton, CA, United States
  • 2004–2009
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Molecular Genetics
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 2006–2007
    • University of California, Riverside
      • Department of Biology
      Riverside, CA, United States
  • 1989–2000
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
      San Francisco, CA, United States
  • 1986
    • CSU Mentor
      Long Beach, California, United States